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WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



EVERY SATURDAY 



VOLUME XXXVIII. 



Numbers i — 26 



January 3— June 30, 1906 



ELECTRICIAN PUBLISHING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



INDEX. 



I |n lllis llM,rx subjects, titles and authors' names are all included, for convenience, in one alphabetically arranged list Where necessary articles are 
lexed under two or more headings. Often the Me* is consulted bj persons who hav. onlj a vague 01 general idea of th, 



soughl 
this purpo 



In such a case a search under every heading that might relate to the subject should bi made A number of i 
ose. The asterisk (*) is equivalent to "illustrated."] 



Accumulators." By Sir David Saloi is. (Booh 

Review; 

eeumulutorw. iSir also Slor:iy»! Ballcry.j 

.dams, B. C 

.dams 1 "Electric Transmission of Water Power." 



sing, Central- station. (See Central Sta- 
sing, Modern Methods of. By Frank B. 



Agriculture, Electr 
Air Brakes for Eh 
Air, Regeneration 
Ships and &i 



Horticulture.) 



.sou, ::sn 



Alcohol, Benzol 
Motor Cars in Europe M89 

Alcohol (Free) in Hie Arts, Elihu Thomson on.. 220 

Alcohol, Free, Bill Becomes a Law 34J, -1!':; 

Alcohol, Free, ami Its Relation to Electric Light- 
ing. (Editorial) 310, 446 

Alexander's "Electrical Engineering." (Book Re- 



Alexundersou, 10. F. (A Self-exci tin^ Alternator). *221 
Allen, John S. (Proper Handling of the New- 

business Department) 1G0 

Allis-Chalmers Club, The 142 

Allis- Chalmers Company, West All is Works of 

the 131, *279 

Allis-Chalmers Electrical Works in Cincinnati. .*529 

Allis-Chalmers Engines, Some Barge *140 

Allis-Chalmers 1,800-horsepower Gas Engine Di- 



sconnected to Alternator *1 

Allis-Chalmers Railway Motor * 

Allis-Chalmers Shops at West Allis, Stationary 
Engi: 



Allis-Chnlui.-rs So :on Turbine Hm. ::.M. :,n; 

Almert, Harold *79 

Aimer t, Harold, on Central-station Efficiency. 
(Editorial) 9S 

Almert, Harold. (Organization and Development 
of the New-business Department) 1G0 

Alps, Buergenstock Electric Elevator in the. By 
Dr. Alfred Gradeiiwitz -. *154 

Alternating Current versus Direct Current for 
Railways. (Editorial) 36 

Alternating-current Elevators. By W. N. Dickin- 
son, Jr 501 

Alternating- current Generators. Compounding, 
Steinmetz's Arrangement for *352 

Alternating-current Generators, Protection of, 
Against Reversal of Energy. (Leonard Wil- 
son's Patent) *13G 

Alternating- current Meter, Ferranti-Hamilton. , . . *54 

Alternating-current Motor, Damme *116 

Alternating-current Motors. Self-starters for *383 

Alternating-current Overload and Reverse-cur- 
rent Relay *553 

Alternating-current Services, Grounding Second- 
ary. By Sidney Hosmer 525 

Alternating-current Signal Circuits in the New 
York Subway. By J. M. Waldron *395 

Alternating-current Traction in Heavv Railroad- 
ing' 23S, *29S 

Alternating-current Wave Forms, Oscillographs for 
the Study of *97, *21S 

"Alternating Currents." By Alfred Hay. (Book 
Review) 241 

Alternating Currents of Low Frequency, Stan- 
ley's System of Transmitting and Utilizing. .. ,*396 

Alternating Currents. (See also Central Station, 
Generators, High Potential, Polyphase. Power 
Development, Rotary, Single Phase, Two-phase, 
Three-phase. Surging. Transformer, etc.) 

Alternator, A Self-exciting. By E. F. Alexander- 



♦221 



Alternators and Gas Engines, Large, for Johan- 
nesburg, South Africa z<3 

Alternators, Self -synchronizing of. By Morgan 
Brooks and M. K. Akers 474, 47G 

Alternators. (See also Generator, Rotary, Turbo- 
alternator, etc.) 

Aluminum Works at Niagara Falls, Bar^e New.. 49 

Amateur's First Dynamo, An. By T. H. Reardon. 52S 

American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. (Annual meeting in New Orleans). IS, 34 

American Electrical Business, Competition in 
the. (Editorial) 236 

American Electrochemical Society, Ithaca Con- 
vention of 379 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, The. 
(Editorial) 420 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, An- 
nual Meeting of 422 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Chi- 
cago Meetings of the 52, 177. 243 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Cin- 

139 



Elec- 
tion of Officers of 147, 159, 257, *27S. 399. 422 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers Invited 
to Visit Great Britain and Italy. 



American insiiiut.- oi |.;i..i,j. ,,i i;, ,-.,,,. . . 
Vork Meetings oi the uu, 1 77. lt.t 

American Instituti ol Electrical Engineers, Pitts- 
burg Meetings of 

American Pacific Cabli I- Completed 

America n Rallv i , rfneerlng and S/La Intel 

"I Way A.--.M I,, i ,,,., ('},,.. r _;,, ( , .iri\ .-ni i-.ii of. ,. 257 

American Spi I< tj oi m- i h mica] Englneei , i !hat 

American Si reel and Inti-rurhan llallwa} 

elation a nd Affiliated < trganlzat ions 

American Telephone am 

Annual Report of 

Anns, W. \v.. Death of 220 

Anaconda, Barge Induction Motors for Ul 

Anderson. S. C, Single-phase Railway Equip- 
ment for (50 

Andrews, Be. maid. (The Bong-flame .\ir Lamp), lis 

Appleton Wis.. Electrical Conditions in ::_'m 

Appleyard Properties Sold ITS, 206 

Arc-lamp Post Designs. Art Institute *213 

Arc Damps, Flame. (See Flame and Flaming.) 

Arc Light. Submarine. M26 

Arc Light on Candlemas Day. (McCutcheon's 

Cartoon) »122 

Arc Dighting. By R. H. Henderson M02 

Arc Welding Apparatus, Improved *4ii!t 

Arctic Regions, Electric Lighting in the 419 

Argentine Republic as a Market for Electrical 

Goods 302. 328 

Armstrong's, A. H., Method for the Control of 

Induction Motors for Railway Purposes *152 

Arnold. B. J., Elected President of the West- 
ern Society 19 

A mold -Carroll Report on Electric- light Rates In 

Chicago 23S 

Arnold Company, The, New Offices of *360 

Art Institute. Arc-lamp Post Designs at *213 

Art and Utility Combined in Italian Hydro- 
electric Plant *331 

Artillery, Electricity an Important Adjunct of. 

(Editorial) 470 

Ashcroft, E. A. (A New Process for the Manu- 
facture of Sodium) 3S0 

Ashtabula < O. ') Municipal-ownership Situation... 260 

Atlantic Cable, All-British, Proposed 523 

Atlantic City in June • *445 

Atmosphere, The Production of Nitrogen from 



Bchr Mono-rail Project In Borland Abandon 
Beglum, Publl Electricity in.... 45* 

Be Ao.OOK.f,. Tel,,,; 

Bell, i. Physiological Factor 

Illumination and Phol •tni 

Bel Telephone Company ol C Cana- 

Bell Telephone Contract Agent* Annual Meet- 
ing of 

Bell Telephone KInaiif:«!fl 

M, 1M, MS, I 

Be|| I ,-|, i 

and T-lemaph Company.) 
1:11 Loul , r Transmission." 
1 1 look R< ■. lew i 

'" l*w- l-art B.trnp Guard 



i .■ 



.1 



the 



Auditorium Ekvtrie-li^ht Plant in Chicago. 

(Editorial) 

Aurora, El^in and Chicago Electric Railway to 

Extend Express Business 

Aurora, Elgin and Chicago Railway Company, 

Electric-light Rates of 

Austin (Texas) Dam, Rebuilding of the 

Australian Railroads to be Electrified 

Automatic Telephone Exchange for SkibO Castle.* 
Automatic Telephone System, Bell; in Colorado.. 
Automatic Telephone System, Chicago, Exten- 



197 



to. 



Automobile. Electric, Grace and Distinction of. 

(Editorial) 138, 

Automobile Omnibuses, Electric, Proposed, In 

Bondon 3S6, 406, 

Automobile Shows. (See Boston, Chicago, New 

York, etc.) 

Automobile Truck, Stud'-baker Electric * 

Automobiles (Notes) Ill, 1SS, 22S, 24S, 

Automobiles in Chicago, Number of 

Automobiles, Electric. Are Safe. (Editorial) .... 
Automobiles. Electric. Shown at Chicago Show..* 
Automobiles, Special- Roads for. 



Auxiliary Telephone Circuits. By Charles H. Coar *62 



Backus. Edward, Death of 

Badt, F. B., Recovery of I 

Baker Street and Waterloo Underground Railway 

. of London 205, 265, * 

Bakery, The Central Station and the 260, I 

Ballistic Work, D'Arsonval Galvanometer for. 

Adjustment of the ! 

Baltimore, New Bell Telephone Exchange in 

Baltimore, New Consolidated Company's Power 

Plant at : 

Baltimore-Washington Electric Railway 347, ' 

Bannister, Bemuel, Death of ', 

Barrett, George A. (The Proper Handling of 

Consumers' Meters) : 

Barrows" "Pattern Making." (Book Review) : 

Barstow, W. S.'- (Mercury-arc Rectifier System 
with Magnetic Lamps for Street Illumination") 

471. • 

Bartholomew, W. S., on Air Brakes for Electric 

Cars ■ 

Battery, Dry. Recharging 3 

Battery, Storage. (See Storage Battery.) 

Batteries, Primary A 

Baxter's "Electricity." (Book Review) 1 

Beaumont's "Steam-engine Indicator." (Book 

Review) I 

Beauty. Lamp Posts May be Things of. (Edi- 
torial) I 

Beck Flaming Lamp Company, Incorporation of. ; 



l.eii;:ol, Alcohol :m<| Caroline vn-aj.-; Steam for 
M'.ioi- i.; ; ,rn in Europe 

Berlin, Moabll Station In 

Berlin Street-railway Affairs ' ' " im 

Berthoud-Thoune Electric Railway in Switzerland *ii 

Bingnamton Idea, a m 

Bisseii, professor, on Depreciation of Electrical 
Properties 3 .| 

Bhicl; River power Transmission ".".".".". I .".*." Ml 

Blast-furnace Gas-engine Development In Pitts- 

burg District 4->c 

Blindness, Apparent. Due to Alleged Electricai 

Shock 410 

Bl |, William H.. j r 7.7.7. '.".'. '.*'.". M43 

Blood. William !).. Jr.. Address of. as President 

of National Electric Light Association. ... 471 

Boat. Trolley. to Disperse Floating Ice at 

Niagara Falls Power House "i*. 

Boats. German Method of Electrically Towfi - 
Bohemia. Three-conductor Direct-current Rail- 
way in. By C. Smith »ij 

Boiler Economy. Sallberg on 472 "473 

Boiler Economy. Stott on *lnl 

Book Reviews 142. 222. 241. 386 



Boston Automobile Show ' * 246 

Boston Edison Company. The New Building of the •-H5 
Boston Harbor, Low Tide in. Affects Power-house 

Condensers 36S 

Boston. Municipal Ownership of Electric-light 

Plant Proposed in 109, 145, 167, 306. 53S 

Boston Section of Illuminating Engineering So- 
ciety 366 

Bower. L. F 117, «*27 

Bradley, George L.. Death of 279 

Bradley Syndicate Gets Federal Telephone Prop- 
erties J 455. 479 

1 "rak.s. Air. for Electric Cars 322 

Brakes Discussed by Central Electric Railwav As- 
sociation 255 

Brazil, Electrical Opportunities in 4on 

Breen. Joseph L.. Death of 279 

Brembo River Power Develpoment in Italy *331 

Bremen. Steamship. Space Telegraphv on.". *3S3 

Brewery. Pabst, Power Plant 124. 401 

Bridge. Transporter. "Widnes-Runcorn Electrically 

Operated '. »i 2 

Brill. G. M.. Death of 279 

Bristol Portable Recording Gauges »363 

British. All. Atlantic Cable Proposed 523 

British Pacific Cable 12 

Brockway's "Electric-railway Accounting." (Book 



Rev 



241 



Brooklyn, Large Steam Turbines for 7. "3S1 

Brooklyn Polytechnic Students Make Train Test..*397 

Brooks. Franklin. Death of . ,*. 220 

Brooks, Morgan, and M. K. Akers. (Self -syn- 
chronizing of Alternators) 474, 47* 

Brown-Boveri Steam Turbines »537 

Brownell. E. E. (Electrolysis"! 2S0 

Buck. H. "W., on the Economic Value of Niagara 

Falls 453 

Buergenstock Electric Elevator in the Alps. Bv 

Dr. Alfred Gradenwitz >154 

Buffalo. Lockport and Rochester Electric Railway. 541 
Buffalo. Municipal Lighting Proposed in.. 233. 365. 396 
Building Construction. Motors Should Replace En- 
gines in. (Editorial) 470 

Bullock (Allis-Chalmers) Works in Cincinnati *529 

Bunsen's Photometer 321 

Burdett, E. W., on Municipal Ownership 491 

Burford, "W. D. (Underground Construction in La 

Crosse. "Wis.) ISO 

Eurgess. C. F., on Magnetic Properties of Elec- 
trolytic Iron 474 

Burglar Protection and Advertising. Combining... 54S 

Burglars Don"t Like Electric Light 261 

Burke Smokeless Furnace - 374 

Burlingame's "Wireless Printing Telegraph 3S 

Burnett. Douglass. (Some Important Considera- 
tions in Elecfric Illuminating Engineering"* 320 

Burns. John, on an Incognito "Visit 139 

Bushnell. S. Morgan. (The Sale of Electric Light 

and Power) S4 

Business Notes 2S. 49. 

6S. 91. 111. 131. 149. 169. 1S9. 209. 229, 24?, 26S, 2S9. 
309. 329. 349, 371. 390. 411. 433. 460. 1S4, 513, 535, 559 
1 of the Tear 1905 in Review 20 



6980 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



Cable, Atlantic. (See Atlantic Cable.) 
Cable Cars to Be Abandoned in Chicag 

Cable Clamps Used in Turning a Corner 

Cable Construction for Long: Island Railroad. 



.493, 521, 53S Ch 



Chicago Edison Compai 

Other Statistics of 

Chicago Edison Compa 



Annual Report 



•104, 



(.Editorial). 



Cable Laying in Simplon Tunnel 

Cable, Pacific. (See Pacific Cable.) 

Cable, Panama Canal. (See Panama Canal.) 

Cable Practice, Underground, Present, Comn 
on. By Wallace S. Clark 

Cable Roller, Callahan 

Cable-testing Wagon, German 

Cable and Wire Standardization. 

Cables, Submarine, of the World. 

Cables. Testing, Portable X-ray Apparatus for * 

Cables, Underground. Maximum Voltage for 

Cables and Wires. Rubber-covered, Standardizing. 
By John Langan i 

Cahill Electrical Music System, < lOditorial) 

California Electric Power Consolidation Completed 

California Electrical Works, Effect of San Fran- 
cisco Earthquake on * 

California Gas and Electric Corporation, 9,700- 
horsepower Hydraulic Turbine for : 

California Power Development. Notes of 

Calumet Electric Street Railway of Chicago Sold 

Canada, Dominion of. (Correspondence) 

26. 46, 65, 89, L09, 145-, 166, 1S5, 

205, 245, 265, 305, 367, 386, 406, 129, 456, 4S0, 511. ! 

Canada, Exportation of Electric Current from. 406, 

Canadian Bell Telephone Company, Improvements 



Canadian Electrical Association, Niagara Falls 
Convention of 519, : 

Canadian Government Telephone Inquiry 323, '■ 

Canadian Niagara Power Company, Power Plant 
of the *: 

Canadian Pacific, Electric Locomotives on . 

Canadian Telephone News. (Correspondent: 



.143, 
Canadian Views of the Niag; 



.152. 191, 277 



Canal Boats, Electrical Towing of 

Canal Transportation in Ohio. Electric. Finar 
cially Attacked 



Gasoline-electric, An Experimental * 

Car, - Gasoline-electric, Strang, on Transcontinental 

Trip * 

Car, Gasoline, Lake Shore Railroad's : 

Car Headlights, Searchlights as 

Car, Test, Electric, Educational Value of the. 

(Institute Discussion) 

Car and Truck Builders, Combination of 159, 

Cars for City Service, Types of * 

Cars, Electric. Air Brakes for : 

Cars, Motor, in Europe, Alcohol, Benzol and Gaso- 
line Versus Steam for * 

Cars, Steel, for New York Subway 

Carbons, French, in the United States * 

Carhart, Henry S. (The Charlottenburg, Confer- 
ence on Electrical Units of Measurement) * 

Carnegie Estate in Scotland, Automatic Tele- 
phones for * 

Carrol], William. (Possible Municipal Uses of 

Drainage Canal Power) 

Carroll's, William, Reports on Electric-light Costs 

and Rates in Chicago 19S, 

Carter's "Motive Power and Gearing for Elec- 
trical Machinery." (Book Review) 

Carty, J. J. (Telephone Engineering) 182, 202, 

Catawba River Power Development 47, 127, 145, 

Catalogue, W. N. Matthews & Bro.'s * 

Catenary Overhead Construction of Warren- 
Jamestown Single-phase Railway * 

Caustic Soda. Electrolysis of ■ 

Cement Plant, Large Pacific Coast, Hydro-elec- 
tric Power for 

Census Statistics of Electrical Industries. (Edi- 
torial) 176, 

Census Statistics of Electrical Manufactures for 

1904 

Census Statistics of Telephones and Telegraphs in 

19C2 

Centenary of the Electric Light. (Editorial) : 

Central America, Telegraph Extension in 

Central Electric Company. New Building of the... : 
Central Electric Railwav Association, Meetings of 

57, 100, 139, 255, < 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Company, New 

Power Station of *i 

Central-station Advertising 

*S5, 161, *343, 424, *47S. 504, I 

Central-station Advertising Exhibit at Atlantic 

City Convention ! 

Central Station, The, and the Bakery 260, I 

Central Station, The Bille, at Hamburg, Ger- 
many. By Frank C. Perkins *\ 

Central-station Company and Consumer - 

Central-station Design. Modern, as Exemplified 

in La Crosse, Wis. By C. H. Williams *] 

Central-station Economics, Stott on *101, *: 

Central-station Efficiency, Almert on. (Editorial) 
Central Station Electrically Decorated Attracts 



Smith 



Hanover, Germany. By C. 

Central-station Industry in Massachusetts 

Central- station Losses, Swinburne on 

Central-station Policy in Illuminating Engineer- 
ing, Douglass Burnett on 

Central-station Policy in Relation to Lamp Effi- 
ciency. (Editorial) 



Central-station Practice. Chicago *1, 31, *< 

Central-station Practice. English. (Editorial) t 

Central-station Service in the United States, Sta- 
tistical Table of 1 

Central Station, The Small, Forthcoming Articles 
on 520, ! 

Central Station. Small, How to Make a, Pay. By 
D. F. McGee ! 

Central Stations and Electrochemical Processes. . ', 

Central Stations. Experience of. with Lightning 
Trouble i 

Central Stations. Power Output of. Suggestions 
for Increasing the. By P. H. Korst 

Central Stations. (See also Lighting, Power, 
Rates, Selling Electricity. Sub- stations, etc.) 

Central Union Telephone Company. Annual Report 

of : 

Century Electric Company's Single-phase Motors.*' 

Champaign, 111.. Const met inn Work in : 

Chariot tenburg Conference, The, on Electrical 
Units of Measurement. By Henry S. Carhart.*! 

Cheney. W. W., Jr ' 

Chicago Automatic Telephone System, Extensions 

tn : 

Chicago Automobile Show *136, '. 

Chicago Central-station Practice *1, 31, *• 

Chicago City Council, Municipal-ownership Meas- 
ures of Mayor Dunne Passed by 82. : 

Chicago City Railway Company, New Officers and 
Annual Report of : 

Chicago Department Store Plant Fifty Feet Below 
Street Level *: 

Chicago Drainage Canal. (See Drainage Canal.) 



B'la 



Due 



Men Enb 



ed at Hawthi 



361 



Chicago, Electric-light Rates in 139, 156, 

157, 177, 19S, 217, 238, 257, 38:3, 425, 403. 518, 541 

Chicago Eleelric- light Rales Mild .Methods of 

Charging. (Editorial) 156, 316, 520 

Chicago the Electrical City. (Editorial) 9S 

Chicago Electrical Show 

28, *33, *51, *72, SO, 99, 126, 141, *157 

Chicago Eh-clricai Show, The. i Editorial) SO, 98 

Chicago Elevated-railway Traffic 

.15, 48, 20S, 2S7, 3S9, 4S3 



Chicago, Engine 



Club of. 



124 



Jhieago Federal Building, Artistic Lighting Fix- 

Chi.ano Freight Tunnels. .'. .V.VaY,' +'lY»," 24*',' 25]', 48! 

Chicago Gas Inquiry 19, 34, 101, 137, 163 

Chicago, Illinois Central Railroad in, Proposed 
Electrification of 19, 36 

Chicago Lighting Statistics 448 

Chicago, Mayor Dunne of. Gives His Views on 
Municipal Problems 24 

Chicago Municipal Election, Result of 277 

Chicago Municipal Election, Significance of the. 
(Editorial) ■ 276 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, Annual Re- 
port of 149 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company's Compressed- 
air Tools for Submarine Working *426 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company's Portable 
Electric Drills *552 

Chicago South Side Elevated Railroad. Exten- 
sions to 10S, 327, 432 

Chicago St reet -railwav Municipal -owners-hip Is- 
sue. (Editorial) SO, 138, 196. 216,276 

Chicago Street-railway Service, Betterment of. 
(Editorial) 492 

Chicago Street-railway Situation 

-.21, 39. SO. 82. 104, 138, 141, 17!), 196, 216, 21S, » 
242, 276, 277, 322, 362, 404, 422, 450, 493, 521, 53S 

Chicago Telephone Company. Affairs and Rates 

of the 44, SS, 106, 144, 1G5, 

184, 204, 244,. 263, 284, 305, 323, 405, 42S, 506, 545 

Chicago Telephone Company's Annual Report. ... S3 

Chicago, Telephone Exchange in, The Newest 



Chicago and Vicinity Suffer from Sleet Storm. 82, 126 
Chicopee, Mass., Municipal Ownership Not a 

Success in 1 67 

Chieti Electric Railway in Italy *231 

Chile, Electrical Opportunities in 400 

Christensen, Niels A *507 

Chromium, Electric 380 

Churches, Notes on the Lighting of. By E. R. 

Weeks *453 

Cincinnati Gas- and Electric Company's Exten- 
sions 325, 327, 55G 

Cincinnati Light, Heat and Power Company In- 
corporated 226 

Cincinnati Society of Telephc 
Cincinnati Telephone Situation. 

.264, 283, 324, 366, 3S5, 506 



Research , 



Cinder Trap, An Efficient. 

Ciphers, Telegraph, by the Billion 243 

Circuit-breaker, New, of Switchboard Equip- 
ment Company *3C2 

Circuit-breaker, Weslinghouse High-voltage *60 

Circuit-breaking Apparatus, High-potential *304 

Clark, Wallace S. (Comments on Present Under- 
ground Cable Practice) 359 

Clermont-Ferrand (France) Hydro-electric Plant 



.13, 



Cleveland, Block Lighting Proposed ir 

Cleveland. Niagara Power for 124 

Cleveland Telephone Interests. .143. 224. 366, 455, 179 

Clifford, Prof. H E., on New Illuminants 491 

Climax Tube for Soldering Flux *101 

Clyde Valley Powder Plant near Glasg 



Frank C. Perkins ; *71 

Coal, Exports of, from the United States in 1905. 235 
Coal- handling Plant of Long Island City Power 

Station *273, 274 

Coaling Warships. Floating Fuel Depot for, Elec- 
trically Operated. By D. A. Willey *93 

Coar, ( Tiarles' 1 1. (Auxiliary Teh-phone Circuits I !:: i>U 
Coar, Charles H. (The Prevention of Pole Rot). 317 

Coast Defenses, Electricity and. (Editorial) 470 

Cobalt in North Carolina 512 

Cold-storage Plant. Large, Features of Engineer- 
ing Interest in a *413 

Colleges and Educational Institutions at Electri- 
cal Show. < Editorial) !K 

Collins. A. F.. Wireless Telephony of *292 

Colloids, Migration and Plocculation of 379 

Colombia, Electrical Concessions in 506 

Col unit liana, Ohio, Peculiar Light ing Controversy 

in 23S 

Commercial Telegraphers' Union of America, An- 
nual Meeting of 404 

Commonwealth Electric Company of Chicago, An- 
nual Report and Other Statistics of 31,545 

Commonwealth Electric Company, Chicago, Fisk 

Street Station of the. (With supplement) . .*1, *554 
Commonwealth Electric Company of Chicago, 

Sub-stations of *439 

Commutation, Motor Field, Improvement in *272 

Compound and Shunt- wound Synchronous Con- 
verters for Railway Work. By W. L. Waters. 

474, 477 

Compounding Alternating-current Generators, 

Steinmetz's Arrangement for *352 

Compressed Air and Arc Light, Submarine Work- 
ing by *426 

Concrete Power House for the Seattle Electric 

Company 493 

Condenser. Electric, Damping Effect of. (Edi- 
torial) 492 

Condensers, Steam, in Long Island City Power 

Station '. *294 

Condensers, Steam, Power-house, Low Tide in 

Boston Harbor Affects 3CS 

Condensing Plants. Steam, for Small Stations. . 335 

Connectome, Dale Company's *60 

Consolidated Gas, Electric night and Power Com- 
pany of Baltimore. New- Power Plant of 363 

Construction, Line, in Small Cities 201 

Construction, Line, Telephone. By S. P. Grace.. *351 
Construction, Overhead Line. By Paul Spencer 

472. *521 

for 
►464. *540 



Construction, Underground, in La Crosse, Wis. 

By W. D. Burford 180. 2<;2 

Construction Work in the East and in the West. 

(Editorial) 36 

Construction Work. Some Things to Avoid in.. 140 

Construction Work, Telephone. (Editorial) 356 

Construction. (See also Catenary, Overhead, Un- 
derground. Wiring, etc.) 
Controller. Two-speed, for Electric Light and 

Power Circuits *312 

Cooking, Electric, Cost of - ( >1 

Cooking. Electric in the Household 541 

Cooking by Electricity, Lectures on 240 

Cooiev. Lyman E. (The Ownership of Public 
Utilities) 200 



Coolidge, Marshall H 

Cooper, Leon H., Death of 

Co-operation, Electrical. Endorsed by National 
Electric Light Association 

Co-operation in Stimulating the Use of Current- 
consuming Devices. By J. Robert Grouse 

Co-operative Development 161, 

Copper, Export Duty on, Suggested. (Editorial) 

Copper Market 179 

Copper Production in the United States in 1905.. : 
Copper Wire, Hard-drawn. By T. B. Doolittle.. 
Cornell University. Electrical Engineers at, New 

Quarters for * 

Corrosion of Iron by Acids : 

Cotton-mill Work, New Electrical Equipment for. ! 
Council Bluffs. Iowa, Construction Work in. 

Standard of ■ 

Council Bluffs, Iowa, New Telephone Exchange 

Crane, Electric, at Southampton Docks- 5 

Crocker- Wheeler Electric Hoists *• 

Crocker-Wheeler Officials, Convention of *: 

Crouse, J. 'Robert. (Co-operation in ' Stimulating ' 
the Use of Current- consuming Devices) 84, ' 

Curie, Mrs., Succeeds Her Deceased Husband in 
Professorship < 

Curie, Professor, Death of 336, *'. 

Curtis Steam Turbine, Tests of 365. *i 

Cutler-Hammer Self Starters for Alternating-cur- 
rent Motors *' 



.141, 216. 21S 



Electric 






Dale Company's Connectome ... 

Dalrymple Report. The 

Damage Suit. Alleged Bl indues 

Figures in a 

Daniel, Frank, on Electrical Co 

spection. (Editorial) 36 

Danville, 111., Construction Work in 139 

D'Arsonval Galvanometer for Ballistic Work, Ad- 
justment of the 215 

Davenport, Rock Island and Moline, Electrical 

Properties in. Merger of 302 

David, C. (Oscillographic Researches on Surging 

in High-tension Lines) *43 

Davis, Albert G., Resonant-circuit Telephony In- 
vention of *165 

Death Roll of 1905 IS 

December, 1905. Electrical Exports for 121 

De Cew Falls Power Plant, Additions to. By Or- 

rin E. Dunlap *115 

Decorative Lighting in Denver *54S 

De Courcy, A. (Electrical Progress of 1905 on the 

Continent) .- *13 

De Courcy, A. (Hydro-electric Station of Plan du 

Var) 13, *14, *192 

De Forest, Lee, Marriage of 16S 

Delaware and Hudson Railroad's Gasoline-electric 

Car *117 

Denver Central-entrance Car *107 

Denver, the City of Lights 261, *54S 

Denver, Electric "Welcome" Arch' to Greet the 

Elks at *54S 

Denver, Municipal Ownership Defeated in 443 

Depreciation of Electrical Properties 340 

Detroit Edison Company's Delray Power House.. *S 
Detroit, Electrical Conditions in. Underwriters' 

Report on 300 

Detroit, Electrolysis in, Precautions Against 353 

Detroit River Tunnel, Proposed 164, 484 

Detroit, Telephone Matters in 126, 323, 42S 

Devonport, England, Dockyard, Electricity for 507 

Dickinson, W. N., Jr. (Alternating-current Ele- 
vators) 501 

Dielectric Capacities, Substances of Different, 

Electrical Separation of *192 

Direct Current Versus Alternating Current for 

Railways. (Editorial) 36 

Direct-current Motor Design as Influenced by the 

Inter-pole. (Institute Discussion) 447 

Direct-current Power Transmission 13, 34S 

Direct-current Versus Single-phase Traction in 

England 139, 197 

Direct-current, Three-conductor Railway in Bo- 
hemia. By C. Smith *31 

Distribution, Economical, J. A. Innes on 339 

Distribution Scheme of Great Northern Power 

Company in Duluth, Minn 463 

Distribution, Secondary, Spencer on 522 

Distribution, Steinmetz's Long-distance System of *95 

Dockyard, British, Electricity for a 507 

D'Olier Air Deflector for Electric Fan *425 

Donohoe, F. E., Removal of 1S7 

Doolittle, T. B. (Hard-drawn Copper Wire) 61 

Doremus, R. O., Death of 267 

Dow, Alex, on Lightning Protection 527 

Drafting Rooms, New Wrinkles in 395 

Drainage Canal, Chicago, Power Development, 

Progress of the *211 

Drainage Canal, Chicago, Power Offered at Lower 

Rates 506 

Drainage Canal, Chicago. Power, Possible Munici- 
pal Uses of ...37, 156, 157, 256, 506 

Drainage Canal. Chicago, Power, to Be Readv in 

a Year 157 

Drainage Canal, Chicago, Utilization of the Power 

of the. (Editorial) ' 156, 256 

Drainage Canal. Chicago. Water Diversion of 

296, 313, 39S. 450 

Dra i nage Canal, Chicago, Water Diversion of. 

(Editorial) 296, 398 

Drawings, Signs and Symbols in Preparing 477 

Drills, Electric, Duntley Air-cooled Portable, Lat- 
est Types of the *552 

Duluth-Edison Electric Company 129 

Duluth. Minn., Great Northern Power Company in, 

Distribution Scheme of 463 

(Additions to De Cew Falls 



Dunlap, Or 
Power PI; 
Dunlap, 



it) 



*115 



(An 800 -horsepower Motor for 
the Operation of a Pulp Mill) *463 

Dunlap, Orrin E. (Generators of 10,000 Horse- 
power on Vertical and Horizontal Shafts) -271 

Dunlap, Orrin E. (How May Niagara Falls Best 
Serve the Interests of Mankind?) *134 

Dunlap. Orrin E. (Transmission Dine from Ni- 
agara Falls to Syracuse) *151 

limine. Mayor, Municipal -ownership Measures of, 
Passed by Chicago City Council 82, 104 

Dunne's. Mayor, Views on Pending Municipal 
Problems 24 

Duntley Air-Cooled Portable Electric Drills, Lat- 
est Types of the *552 

Dutch East Indies. Space Telegraphy in the. By 
Dr. Alfred Gradenwitz *137 

Dvnamo, An Amateur's First. By T. H. Reardon 52S 

Dynamos, Direct-current, Operation of, in Series 
and Parallel 262 

Dvnamos. Shunt, Operation of. in Parallel 197 

Dynamos. (See also Alternator, Generator, Ro- 
tary, etc.) 

Dynelectron, The *59 



ELEI rRIi 



Idin pparatu 

N ■ Up 01 I 



■:'. I :.\ .1 "i Swlliliilfii 

iihiK Hen, Bleetrlcitj for the. , 

letor, Tho 

W. C, i 

, The Telephone In 

in Returns, Searchlight "Mor* 

ciii 



for \n 



i 'i 



Drive. (See Factors I irh ■■ 
Elevator. (See El ova Lor. | 
Pans, (See Pans.) 
Furnace, (Soe Furnace. I 
Heating-. (See Cooking and 
Hoists. (See i lolBtlngO 

Light, Tho Contonarj of the. i Ei lal) 23C 

-light Fraud In England )?s 

UkIm and P.. wit Rates. (See Rates.) 
Llghl and Powi r, The Sa By s. 



ting.) 



M 



rical Effluvia, Character of, Apparatus for In- 
[trlcal Engineering."' "By ' J." ' H." ' Alexander. 



Ele 



Al.t 



Electrical Munnfai 

Statistics of, for 
Electrical Producliu 
Electrical Progress 

A. De Courcy 
Electrical Progress 

Henry H. Norris. 
Electrical Property 
Electrical Sale 



of. 



Chi. 



nial Meet- 



Electrical Separation. (See Separation.) 
Electrical Shock. (See Shock.) 

Electrical Shows. (Editorial) 316 

Electrical Trades Association of Chicago, Annual 

Meeting of 101 

Electrical Units. (See Units.) 

Electric in lis, IU,'iss;ii'lnisr I Is Al.iv Lirensi'- 2tI2 

"Electricity." By William Baxter. Jr. (Book Re- 
Electricity-' Cannot Be Adulterated! < EdiVuruiii ..'. lis 

Electricity, Selling. (See Selling Eleetricity.) 
Electrochemical Convention, The. (Editorial) . . . .37$ 
Electrochemical Processes as Station Load Equal- 
izers 380 

"Electrochemistry." By P. G. Wiechmann. (Book 

Review) 450 

Electrochemistry. (See also American Electro- 
chemical Society.) 
Electro- dynamic Company's Inter-pole Variable- 
speed Motor *41 

Electroliers Suggested for St. Louis? Street Light- 
ing 1S1 

Electrolysis. Bv E. E. Brownell 2S0 

Electrolysis of Buried Pipe 48, 2S0. 3"^ 

Electrolysis in Detroit. Precautions Against 353 

Electrolysis, Possibility of Lead Poisoning from. .",::." 

Electrolytic-tube Furnace. Solid. i Editorial) 156 

Electrolytic Copper Plant, Electrically Operated.. 140 

Electrolytic Corrosiua <<( Copp.-r-i j M Alb.vs :;vu 

Electrolytic Corrosion of Structural Steel 3S0 

Electrolytic Deposits of Metals :;so 

Electrolytic Iron, Magnetic Properties of, Burgess 

on. (Institute discussion) 474 

Electrolytic Precipitation of Lead from Acetate 

Solutions 3S0 

Elevator Combination, Alleged, Soil Ago ins I .... _J_".i 
Elevator, Electric, Buergenstock, in the Alps. 

By Dr. Alfred (.Iradenwitz *154 

Elevator, .Hydro -electric, in Tudor Apartment 

Building, Chicago *155 

Elevators, Alternating- current. By "W. N. Dick- 
inson, Jr 501 

Elevators, Automatic. Electric 261 

Elevators. Electric, and Power Plant in Majestic 

Theater Building, Chicago *373 

Elk River Power Development near Minneapolis. °0" 

Elliott, Robert L.. Marriage of 147 

Emmet's Steam-turbine Improvements 493 

Emmet's System for Regulat ing Turbo-generators '272 
Empty Houses Lighted by Electricity to Attract 

Purchasers 342 

Engine Economy, Stott on *10"' > 

Engine, Gas. (See Gas Engine.) 

Engine Indicator and Overload Alarm, Shreffier. .*103 

Engine, steam. Horizontal-vertical, How the Idea 

of the, Was Evolved 2S1 

Engines, Some Large Allis-Chalmer-s *140 

Engines. Subway, Intcrborough Companv's Test 

of 123 

Engines Under Test Supplying Power for Fac- 
tory Purposes *50S 

Engineers' Club of Chicago 124 

■■Engineer's Handbook." Bv. Norman H. 

Schneider. (Book Review) 142 

England, Electric-light Fraud in 47S 

England, Third Rail versus Single Phase in.. 139, 197 



■■ 
1 













I 



I 






1 






1 I II 

I) 

1 ■ ' ill f Electric ( 

Kxpri i 

i i, . i, |, Rallv ...i 

' ■■" ■ i roll. 

Bxpri :' . i 



F 



[nsl Jlnllon l 

".'. •::n. :im. t.i. •!•;:. 

"I ' !• I'l U . , |,.« |. 

■ ■""! 'i ■ li nl onlc i loi I BUI 

' " I ■■ ......'...'......' 

Western Electrli • 

, Gei Iloi ... 190 . v 

rlc rgi Fiji 

i " H ■ : In 'i Typ 

rlc, u i or. (Editorial) 

l>., Central-station Decoration In 

lea in hni,. i/,: men ased by 



il Building, C so. ("See Chicago.) 

il Teli phone Prop, rtles, Bi lIIi 



I. i Electricity In .1 Large Pap. 



York 

Fire, E 
Fires, 



Handling .,1 New-bus!-, 



1 Editorial) 

mission in Scotland, 

Mi ' 

. Support for • 

il house Interests 

otor Passes.'.'.'.!; '.'.'.'.'.'.'! 

uii-wi'ssiirc. for New 



Shop, 

1.1,. 



Finn if 
Flame 
Flam 

Flam 



ling 

es. Lighting, 1 

Arc Lamp, The, 
Arc Lamps. (E 
Arc Lamps .11 C 
Arcs Discussed 1 
ng Carbon Arc La 



L. B. Harks 



Flat, Not How. but How Steep 

Flies, Electric Fans Discourage. . . . 
Flywheel Accident. Mansfield (O.). 
Flywheel Accident in Pontine. 111... 
Flywheel Accidents. (Editorial).... 
Fond du Lac, Wis., Electrical Con 
Fond du Lac. Wis.. Electrical Shov. 



■il.-d 



Franklin's Historic Electric Generator 

Fraud, Electric-light, in England 

Free Alcohol. (See Alcohol.) 

Freight Handled by Indianapolis Electric Rail- 
Freight Tunnels. Chicago.' ' '(See Chicago' Freight 
Tunnels.) 

French Battery Company • 

Frueauff. Frank W. (Business-getting Methods) '. 
Fuel Economy. By .1 II. Hallberg 472 * 

Furnace. Burke Smokeless 

Electric. Design Collens on 



Fu 



Ele 



En 



I 'ii 



for John 



Alternator 

Gas-engine Economy, Stott on 

Gas-engine Plant, Electric t Pro.luccr i 
Colo 

Gas-engine Power. (New Year's Revi 

Gas Engine. The. as a Prime Mover... 

Gas Engines and Alternate 
nesburg. South Africa .. 

Gas Engines Operating Warren-Jamestown Single- 
Station '.....".'. 7..Y. 77.7 . a .' 

Gas Mantles Discussed by Illuminating Engineers 217 
Gas Power Plant, Producer, in Worcester ... "- 

Gas. Price of. in Chicago 19. 34. 101. 137. 163 

Gas, Price of, in New York 4i* 









AH 




















• 



Mctli 

T.-irirr. The N, . 

ind the United 
ports of 

I II l-i, for IIIkIi Pun. 

Teli pho 



I 

rdl, B., 

John t'.. Promotli 

opmcnl from the 

Glasgow's Municipal Debt. (Editorial).. .. 

Gongs, Alarm, for Patrol B 

d l.lKhti 

Grace, S. P. 

z, I 'r. Alfred 
... 
Gradenwltz, Dr. Alfred. (Electrl, i:.,ii,.. ..ling L'n- 



'■i ■ Hi ultii SI 

■ tz, Dr. Alfred. 

Silk i-'. les) -311 

Gradi nwitz. Dr. Alfred. (High-tension - 
phase Traction Expi rim. ms on .■ - 

ten Line) 

Gradenwltz, Dr. Alfred. ■ .- phy in tlie 

Dutch East In, Ins i 

Gradenwltz, Dr. Alfred. 

Seagoing Si'- unships i 
' ir.'iul l: l'i.ls. Mi, i, . , : . | . 1: Gurri 

Grand Rapids, M i 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Municipal Arc-light! 

;j; Grand Rapids, Wis. Overhead 'wiring' Conditions 



,; Operation In 



'Space X 



eat Britain. Free I 

n. 'Editorial. 

eat Britain. Street Railways i 

eat Britain, Telephony in. (S 

irthei.. _ 

Systen 

lie "ley. Colo.. Produe, I- nt in {Is 

Green Bay. Wis.. Electrical Conditions In 320 

Grounded Secondaries, i Iowa Convention! 

Grounding Secondary Alternating-current Services. 

By Sidney Hosmer 

Ground-wire Clamp for Telephone and Teh-graph 

Work .".. •$03 

Guns. Electrical Mechanism for Firing 

Guy Anchor. New Stombaugh 



Hair-drying Machine. Electric 371 

Hallberg. J. Henry. 1 Fuel Eeonomvi 472 "473 

Hamburg. Germany. The Bille Central Station at. 

P.v Finnic C. Perkins t --"">i 

Hammer. Electric 332 

Hanover. Germany, Central Station in. Bv C. 

Smith ". »55 

It inislmrg. Pa.. New Traction Facilities for «360 

Harrison's "Wiring Diagrams and Switchboards." 

1B.0e.fc Review! :42 

Hawaiian Hydro-electric Irrigating Plant S2 

Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company. 

Chicago Edison Men Entertained at 361 

Hawthorne Shops of the Western Electric Com- 
pany. Bv H. R. King '417 

Hay's •'Alternating Currents." .Book Review! 241 

Hazing, Electrical, Should Be Discountenanced. 

1 Editorial! 276 

! r. C. K. Sealing Press 

IT, at. Electric, for the Laboratory 424 

Grating. Electric. Aver and Loewenthal on 472 

Heating and Lighting Plant at Parkville. Mo... »23 

Heating Pad, Electric 260 

Hen. Egg-eating. Electricity for the S22 

-■n. K. H. (Arc Lighting! 

1 1, rrioli's "Practical Electric'-'r'aiiwav' 'iTYiidbook'" 

(Book Review) 222 

Cooper, Mercury Vapor Lamp 42^ 

Hewlett. E. M. (Modern Switchboard Practice 
with Particular Reference to Automata 



•546 



Hewlett's High-potential Circuit-breaking Appa- 
ratus *304 

High-potential Circuit-breaking Apparatus *304 



High-potential Generators for Los Angeles. . . . . . . . 4 

High-tension Line Maintenance, Practical Points 

High Unsicn Linus Surging in Cs-:llogr£,r.hi3 Es 
searches on. By C. David. .. .... • ■'•'• ■••• 'A'l' 

High-tension Wires Crossing Other Wiies, Pos- 
sible Danger from , 

Highways. Telephone Lines on 

Hine, William S ■ ■ • ■ ■ : 

Hoirj.'B^AlSSs^^ris^esiaenV of theN,: , 
tional-Interstate Tolepl Association ......... ; 

Hoiienfuertli llydro-elceirio Plant in Bohemia.. 13, ( 

Hotting' £*" '''>»'■'> ■'■ 'Crocke^Wheeler)..';} 

Soiophano New Pagoda ■'Reflecting Arc *; 

Holophane Beflector, New iVo < 

Horticulture. Electricity in . •• • ■ ■ • v.y " "",.^ ' 

Hostner. Sidney. (Grounding Secondary Alternat- ; 

ing-eurrent Services I ■■■••■:••■■.■■.;■' V„ 'iltrnet 
Houses. Empty. Lighted by Electricity to Attract ; 

Purchasers • ■ • • ■ • ■ ■ ■ 

TTovev William A., Death of • ■■- 'A'"' 

Humboldt Exchange of Chicago Telephone Corny 

Hydro-electric ' Development in France ! 

lydro-e ectric Devel, ,p„,e,„. Milan-Paderno •■ 

PTvdro-eloetrio Development in Switzerland........ 

Hydro-Seotric Installations, Influence of : Load. 

Hylr^Uctri- Installation. :r Jhe.-r; Fivsr India 
Hy^I^^P^^^M^e^^tU, 
nfSc^Uztjlz Flant Italian Art an! Utility CJoir. f 
Hyirc\lVitri 3 Fcwar for L?.rgo Paoific Coast 03 
Hyto™:= St,tion * Flan S= -.fe. f , 
Hy§ro A el?c e trfc OUr %ee ' also ' Power ' 'Development. 
Power Generation or Power Transmission, 
Waterpower, etc.) . 

Hygiene of Rural Electric Railways , 

Hylo Incandescent Lamp Poster 



Ice Cream Freezing, Electric Power in. ....... ■■ 

Ice Floating, at Niagara Falls Power House, 
Trolley Boat to Disperse. 

Ic» on Third Rail, Prevention ot 

Illinois. (Correspondence^. . . . .. ...^ . • • - ; • ■ ■ -- ■ ■& 

Illinois "Central Railroad Electrification May be 
Hastened 



144 



ois Central R-ihroad Telephones. 
minis JnUpenimt T:.l 5 phcn3 As^ci^i-.n ;; M33t ^ 

IIP- "is . ■ 1 Mrnufc3t--:-3:-s' Assccif.ticn and Chicag: ^ 
IlrPff'r^rrA'certral Flant for ' " 488 

Illinois Traction Systgo ^ ^ .^ ... _ gg; ^ 

Illuminants, Artificial, Swinburne 



Illuminants; New, H. E. Clifford un ..... 
Illuniinatins Engineering, Electric, Som 

tant Considerat: 
Illuminating Engineerin 



Impor- 
. _._,lass Burnett . . 
The Problems of. 



By Do 



491 
320 



111 



„ ng Engineering ^ociety, growth of .^ 

217, 315, 320, 



Illuminating Engineering Society.^Meetin 
Illumination', ' Novel," by ' Nernst Lamps 



429, 4SS 
Pitts- 

'burg .Railroad Station • • • • ... ■ - ■■■■■ 20s 

Illumination and Photometry. Some Physiological 

Factors in. Ey Dr. Louis Bell. ■ ■• ■J" 1 

Incandescent limp, Is the Carbon-filament, 
Doomed? (Editorial) ■ ■ ■ ■ • • J™ 



452 
494 



Ini- 



.23, 57, 100 



(Dine Losses and Economical Dis.- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 

35, 1C9, 248 

Int'ernatiniial Congress of Inventors 422 

International Electric Meter Company— Its Per- 

' sonnel and Products .■ • -4 

Inlernatiimal Electrical Congress. Final Financial 

Report of 464. "-■' 

International Electrical Units 257, 297 

International Waterways Commission^ Report of 

Inter-pole; " Direct-current Motor Design as In- 
fluenced by the. (Institute discussion) 447 

Inter-pole Variable-speed Motor for Machine-tool 
Work • •■■■'. 

Interstate Electric Railway Association, Joliet 
Meeting of iYL 

Interurban Competition in Iowa. ..._.............. ■ ■»» 

Interurban Railway Development m Central 11- 

Intorurban' Railway iierger in Massachusetts.... 127 
Int.rurban Railway in Switzerland, St. Gallen- 

Trogen. By Franz Koester ■••■■ -J" 

Inlerurban Railway. Winona. Ind., Equipment for. 477 
Interurban Roads Benefit Farming Communities 

Interurban ' Roads' Make Towns Crow .... 139 

Inventing. The Art of. (Institute discussion) 475 

Inventors-. Of Interest to *-« 

Iowa Central-station Stalistics 334 

Iowa Cities Oppose Municipal ownership t&i 

Iowa Electrical Association. Des Moines Conven- 
tion of ..j--, ... l 

Iowa Street and Interurban Railway Association, 

Des Moines Convention of • 340 

Iowa Telephone Association, Des Moines Conven- 
tion of ViVI •"• 

Ipswich, England, Municipal Electrical Enterprise 

Iron,' 'Electrolytic',' Magnetic Properties of. (In- 
stitute discussion) .••"-;■, ,' 

Iron Wires Substituted for Copper in Telegraph 

Work 454 

Irrigating Large Sugar Plantation. Electricity for 62 

Isolated Plant. Large, in Pittsburg...... *528 

isolated Plant, The Largest . i Editorial) 6b 

Italian Hydro-electric Plant, Art and Utility 

Combined in 331 

Italy, Chieti Electric Railway in "231 



Jackson, Julian S ;„'■"■; "4-; I" ■ 

Jackson's Electrically Operated Tunnel Excavator 

Jacksonville, 111., Construction Work in 

Jamestown (Va.) Exposition .309, 

Jamestown (N. Y.) and Warren Single-phase^ 

Railway -■ - 

January, 1906, Electrical Exports for 

Japan, Largest Power Station in 

Jewett, Frank N 

Jhelum River Power Installat 
Johannesburg, Large Gas-dri'- 



Incandeseent Lamp. Swinburne on the 
Incandescent Lamps, Willeox on. ■■■•••■ •■•■■■ 

Indepe nl Telephone Exchange. 1 he Fust 

Independent Telephone Interests Win in 

portant Patent Litigation..... ■■■• ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

Independent Telephone Situation, The. <Edi- ^ 

Independent Telephony in Western Massachusetts. 225 
India. Electrical Industry in .. ....«, 36i> 

In ?ir a i 2 8 ( ?4°r S l?7° n lTo? e) 2-06,'226; Mfc VSg 

307 326 1 347, '369, 388, 407, 431, 457, 4S1, 510, 532, 556 
Indiana Engineering Association, Indianapolis ^ 

Ir C af" 3nti Inde C P endent' Tdsphsn- Associaticn ■ 
\ ."■ ngs of. 45, liui, 126, 204, 303, 3S5, 386, 427, 506 

Indiana and Ohio Interurban Railway Associa- 
tions, Merger of ■■ ',"„> 

Indiana Railways, Changes in Personnel of...... -... 

Indiana Telephone Items. (Gorresp^riclericeO 

1-6 Vi 144. 1S4 184, Ki V-A : M "\ "3£ 
304 324 366! 3S5! 401. 127. 455, 170. 506. 526, 54a 
Indiana fraction Men, New Tears Dinner in ^ 

Infflan^Xfrower' Center 'ior'Smail Users ta! \ 404 
indian.pclis Telgh.p^airs , . . . ..^ ^ ^ 

Induction Coil, Invention of the 32b 

Iicluclina Meter Explained 6LL 

Induotion Motor Operating Hydraulic Passenger ^_ 

Ir3acti*:n'M:tcr Pclyphass A Npw Type z,t *Sfl 

Induction Motor, Repulsion. (Institute discus- ^ 

Induction Motor's 'Driving' Pumps of Schnectady^ 
Waterworks • • " x 

Induction Motors, Large, for Anaconda 1-4 

Induction Motors for Railway Purposes. Arm- 
strong's Method of Control of... - lt>2 

Induction Motors, Small Riveted-frame (General^ 
Electric) ■ ■ ■ • .■■■•■•■ • ■ ■ ■ ■. §»» 

Induction Motors, Variable-speed Operation of..."j.« 

Industrial Buildings. (Editorial) u .^.. : ■ 11» 

Innes. J. A. 

tribution) 

Inspection. Electrical. 

Instruments. Electric, 

Westinghouse • • ■;• • ■ • *. ■ ' "*"' 

Instruments, Measuring, of International Electric 
Meter Company ■ -* 

Instruments, Switchboard, New Permanent-mag- 



Insulated Wire and Storage Batteries Discussed 
bv Railway Signal Association 

Insulated Wiring and Underground Cables Dis- 
cussed by the Institute < 

Insulation, Protective, of Workmen, Rubber Shoes 
and Gloves for - 

Insulation, Thin '■ 

Insulator Pin, All-steel *: 

Insulator Pin, W. N. Smith's *! 

Insurance. Co-operative, for Electric Railway and 
Lighting Properties 

Insurance Requirements for a Standard Electric 
Light and Power Station 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company's Test of 
Subway Engines 



l in India 43 

Alternators for . 
'.ioii'ns-Maitvi'Tl'e Pure Copper Trolley Wheel 



Kafer, John C, Death of • ■• ■ ■ ' 

Kakaheka Falls Power Development near Port _ 

William, Ont : ; 

Kaukauna, Wis., Electrical Conditions in ; 

Kennedy, A. E., on Cable Testing... j 

Kennellv, A. E„ on Self-exciting Alternators.... . 
King H. R. (The Hawthorne Shops of the 

Western Electric Company) • ' 

King. Terry T. (The "Preservation" of Niagara 

Kingston, "6nt., Municipal Light Plant in. . . .145, j 

Kingsway Subway in London i. 1 '^ 64 ' ' 

Kinraide's Ultra-violet Lamp with Heat-radiating^ 

Qualities ; 

Kirk, E. B ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ • • ■ • •. 

Kitsee's Sectionalized Inductive Conductor for^ 

Telephone Lines 

Knife Switch, A Curious Home-made ..." 

Koester, Franz. (St. Gallen-Trogen Interurban 

Railway in Switzerland) : ■■■■ 

Korst P. H. (Suggestions for Increasing the 

Power Output ot Central Stations) 

Kuzel Metallic-filament Lamp 179, 352, ■ 



Laboratory of Electricity. Public, in Belgium 4o4 

Laboratories. Electrical Engineering and Railway, 

at Worcester Polytechnic Institute..... •4« 

Laboratories. New York Electrical I esting. ...... Ill 

Lackawanna Steel Mills near Buffalo, Electrical 

Equipment of • ■• • ■ • ■• ■ ■ ■•■.|J| 

La Crosse. Wis., Central-station Advertising in. ,»343 

La Crosse, Wis., Hogan Engineering Club of 157 

La Crosse, Wis., Modern Central-station Design.. 

as Exemplified in. By C. H. Williams .*171 

La Crosse, Wis., Underground Construction m. 

By W. D. Burford ISO, 262 

La Crosse Wis.. Waterpower Company 3S1 

Lake Shore Railroad's Gasoline Car 6V> 

Lamine Alternating-current Motor... lit; 

Lamnie on Alternating-currenl Traction. ......... 23S 

Lamme, Scott and Conrad's Automatic Control of 

Rotary Converters 53 

I.ainine's Variable-speed Operation of Induction 

Motors . .. -34 

Lamp Efficiency. Central-station Policy in Rela- 

tion to. (Editorial) 542 

Lamp Guard, Benjamin Two-part 163 

[.amp Guard. Hold-fast "40 

Lamp Posts. (See Arc-lamp Posts.) 

Lamp Suspension, Spencer on .. 52d 

Lamps (See Are. Illuminants. Incandescent. Me- 

(allie-filam.-iit, .Magnetite, Mercury- vapor, Nernst. 

Osmium, Tantalum, Ultra-violet, Wolfram, Zir- 
conium, etc.) 

Landau. Alfred ■ • - 16j 

I angan. John. (Standardizing Rubber-covered 

Wires 1 and Cables) 35S 

Langley, Prof. S. P.. Death of 07 

Lansing. Mich.. Electric Railways (entered in... 41 
Laundry. Electrically Operated, in San Francisco. 6b 

Lawn Party. The Electric. (Editorial) 176 

Layman W. A., on the Single-phase Motor in 

Central-station Work. (Institute discussion).. 177 

Lea. John M ■•■- y ■ V l 

Lead. Electrolytic Precipitation of, from Acetate 

Solutions * 

Lead Poisoning Possibility of, from Electrolysis. 535 

Lexicon, An Electrical ■■;••••■,:.■ 

Lighting Controversy, Peculiar, in Columbiana, 

Ohio ■■ ■ ■ ■■■ lis 

Lighting, Electric, of Churches. By E. R- 

Weeks *45j 

Lighting, 'Electric, in the Far North • 419 

Lighting. Electric, and Heating Plant at Park- 

ville, Mo ."'■■„■•«■ ?? 

Lighting, Electric. (New Tear's Review)... 9, 11, 15 

Lighting, Electric, in New Tork State 237 

Lighting (Electric) Outfit, Richardson . *21 



Lighting, Electric, and Power Station, Standard, 

Underwriters' Requirements for a 365 

Lighting, Electric, and Railway Plants, Combined, 

The Economy of. By Ernest Gonzenbach .. *96 

Lighting, Electric, Train. (See Train Lighting.) 
Lighting, Electric. (See also Arc, Central Sta- 
tion, Decorative Lighting, Fixture, Illuminants, 
Incandescent. Illuminating, etc.. Isolated Plant, 
Lamps, Reflector, Signs, Street Lighting. Tube 
Lighting, etc.) 
Lightning Arresters, High-tension, for Long Isl- 
and Railroad ?40 

Lightning Flash, Duration of a 478 

Lightning, Protection from. (Editorial) 256 

Lightning, Protection from. (Institute discussion) 447 
Lightning. Protection from. (N. E. L. A. report). 527 
Lincoln, Neb., Telephone Company, Annual Re- 
port of 527 

Lincoln's Variable-speed Motor *141 

Line Construction. (See Construction, Wiring, 

Line Maintenance, High-tension, Practical Points 

Lineman," Trials and Dangers of the. By R. <S. 

Grayne :•■■•• Hi 

Lloyd E. W., Promotion of 6 1 

Load Factor, Influence of, on Hydro-electric In- 
stallations ii"V 

Load Factor and Investment m Power Plants, 

Stott on -. .• J20 

I.o.kwood, T. D.. on Telephone Engineering 222 

locomotive. Electric, New Tork Central 

»6, 7, 144, *52S 

Locomotive, Electric, One Advantage of the. 

(Editorial) • 29b 

Locomotive, Electric, for Simplon Tunnel *153 

Locomotive Engine. A New Definition of 377 

Locomotive, Oerlikon Single-phase 49, «51o 

Locomotive, Single-phase, 20.000-volt, for the 

Swedish Railways. By C. Smith "191 

Locomotives, A. C.-D. C. for New Tork, New 

Haven and Hartford Railroad *29S 

Locomotives. Electric, on Canadian Pacific 145 

I oiiiotives. Single-phase, for Sainia Tunnel.. 32. 59 

Locomotives, Steam and Electric, Comparison of 

Logue, William S.. Death of 388 

London. Brighton and South Coast Railroad m 

England. Single Phase for 26. 46. 225. 22S. 3S0, 

London Electric Power Stations and Plant Life 

in 399 

London Electric Power Supply Projects 26. 46 

126 245 303. 305, 324, 316. .ISO. 406. 420. -ISO. "oil 

London "Electrobus" 3S6, 406, 480 

London, Kingsway Subway in *11, 64. 22o 

London, Olvmpia Electrical Exhibition of, Re- 
sults of 309 

London Outer Circle Railway 456 

London, Telephone Conditions in. (Editorial)... 56 
London Underground (Tube) Electric Railways 

10, 19, 41, 64, 205, 265, *312 

Long-flame Arc. (See Flame Arc.) 

Long Island Railroad, Eli-clrieal Equil nt of the 

*7 "104. '-'273, 2711. ! '293. *313, *464, *51G. 'T.29 
Los Angeles Large- High-voltage Generators for. 467 
Louisville Lighting Company's Affairs and Rates. 300 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad Shops. Electri- 
cal Equipment of. By A. G. Wessling *175 

Low-frequency Currents. Stanley's System of 

Transmitting and Utilizing *396 

Luminous Arc. (See Flame Are.) 

Lyons Domestic Electricity Exposition 278 



IV/1 

McCormick, Bradley. (Comparison of Two-phase 

and Three-phase Motors) *523 

McCutcheon's Candlemas Day Cartoon *122 

McGee, D. F. (How to Make a Small Electric 

Plant Pay) 500 

Mackav Companies Prosperous 202 

MaoMillan, George D.. Death of 147 

Mae.Mullan, R. H., Illness and Death of 307, 343 

McQuarrie, J. L. (Telephone Engineering as a 

Profession) 243 

"Machine Shop." By O. E. Perrigo. (Book Re- 

.Machine Tools, Electrical Equipment of, in a 

Large Projectile Shop *451 

Machine Tools, Horsepower Required by 454 

Machine Tools. Small Electric, Some New *361 

.Magnesium, New Method of Obtaining. (Edi- 
torial) 398 

Magnesium Oxide. Fused. Goodwin and Matley on. 379 
Magnetic Properties of Electrolytic Iron, Burgess 

on. (Institute discussion) ....'. 474 

Magnetic Wells ■•■- 57 

Magnetite Lamps with Mercury-arc Rcctiner Sys- 
tem for Street Illumination. By W. S. 

B'arstow ■ ■■ •• -471, 472 

Mail-conveying System, Underground, in Chicago. 

Test of • • -179 

Maine Independent Telephone Association, Or- 
ganization of 544 

Maintenance, Line, High-tension, Practical Points 

Majestic' 'Theater ' 'Building, Chicago, Electric 

Light and Power Plant in 49. «373 

Mall W. A., on Condensers in Small Stations.. 335 
Manchester, England, Street Railways, Carriage 

of Packages by : 166 

Mandel Bros.' Private Electric Light and Power 

Plant 251 

Manila. Electric Railways in 129 

Manila, Modern Telephone Exchange for 45 

Mansfield (O.) Flywheel Accident *393 

March. 1906. Electrical Exports for 35S 

Marconi Company's Report .- 300 

Marconi. William. (Controlling the Direction of 

Space-telegraph Signals) 295, 3S1, - v.0 ! 

Marinette. Wis., Electrical Conditions m 320 

Marks, L. B. (The Flaming Carbon Arc Lamp)^ 

Mark's. ' L. ' B. ' ' (The Problems of Illuminating 

Engineering) J62 

Maryland, Motive Power Statistics of 14- 

Massachusetts. Central-station Industry of 449 

Massachusetts. Interurban Railway Merger in... 127 

.Massachusetts May License Electricians -<■- 

Massachusetts Steam and Electric Railway Mer- 

ger Bill s31 

Massachusetts, Western, Independent Telephony 

Massena Power Plant on St. Lawrence River Re- 
ported Sold ;0S 

Massie Space-telegraph System 35 

Matthews, W. N., & Bro.'s Cable Clamps 

(Kearney) .361 

Matthews, W. N., & Bro.'s Catalogue *222 

Matthews, W. N., & Bro.'s Hold-fast Lamp 

Guard ..." i- • •" • ■ •• * 40 

Matthews. W. N., & Bro.'s New Stombaugh 

Guy Anchor - - - 201 

Matthews W. N.. & Bro.'s New Style of Cable 

Roller *531 

Maunsell, C. R., Resignation of 305> 

Maximum Demand Systems in England and the 

United States. By J. S. C 363 

Mechanical Refrigeration. Meyer on 47- 

Menasha, Wis., Electrical Conditions In 320 



v\ !•; 



Morcoln, Thomas n ■ 

Mercury arc Rootlfloi I ntlng In Multipiu wiih 

M'.l'.i r.' n'l ,i I'M 

Mi r< m ■ ■ Rectlfloi Bj " m n II h il ■ 

I,,,,,,,: I'm- Hlr.'.-I llliinilniill.iii. I ;y VV. H. 

i: .1 tow *1l. ■ 

Mercury arc i;<.iih.i i"i Telephone Work • 

Mercun vapoi Apparal u i, r H, Thomii i oil 

,i, ,l '17:., 

Mi " urj apoi Lamp, 1 ho i i I, i 10, 

Mei i"" i - trnp. The Bohotl Im] i 

Meridian, Ml* , Homi Tolophom Company, Mu.l- 



Mc 



rick, J. v., i 

rill. W. II.. -Il 

Bhon, R. i'.. ' 

lie I M 'Ill I 



ie 



Mi-liilll,. III. il, i. ni I :., .'nil.. 

Ah i. iln Lamp l ' ii'i. Hy J. Swinburne iU'l 

Mili I I-". i i .nil I I liimllloli Allei n. I lull eui i . ul . . . . *6i 

iMii, i '|. ting l lie. In New York 425 

"Meters." By H, G. Holomon. (Book Review).. 38ri 
Metera, Coneumi'is', The I'roinr Hi.miIIImk or. 

In i liiiic... \. Hun-ell Ill 

Meiers, I'lli'.l ill-, Tin- I'lire mill Mnliiliiiiiiii'i' or. 

I:. \. W. Zuhm 

,\ . S. I. . i Ivlil'.i loll 1711 

Met. i '. Si r\ lee -Illl 

Mi 1. 1 (See also tnstrumi ni I 

Me B] torn, Tim a-is, 3S1 

Metric Weights and Measures. (Editorial). .266, S96 
,\ii.i,i,|...iii..n i:i.v.ne.l U.....I. Affairs of.. 164, 188,287 

Mexican Mines, ECteotrlo Power n Boon to 641 

Mexico. (Correspondence) 66, 128, 1st;, 320, nil 

Mexico, Spi Telegraphy In 308 

Michigan. (Corrosponde 1 

66, 89, II". I Hi. 167, 187, 206, 227. 

217. 266, 286, 326, 369, 387, 407, 180, 181, 610, >57 

Michigan Independent Telephone Ass lull. m, Ann 

\ r Convention of 2.;:: 

Mlohlgat] State Telephone Company, Earnings of. 105 

MIclllKOII Tel.). I ■ Mo I I el'.s. 1 1 *oi'i'.'S|.noil('IU'.'l . 

X7. 112. 2 11, 2X2, 366 

Milan Kxi'nsii noil Hi.' I'lii'.'iiii.ii I'o.ti'i'iiiklngs 



187 

-llll 



Mllltan Methods, Importai 1' Electricity In. 

(Editorial) 

Milne, James A * 

Milwaukee. Kleetri.' Uollwnv noil Lighting Com- 

pany, Public Service Building or • 

Milwaukee Kleelric [tallwoy unci UkIiIIiir Com- 
lioov. SIokIi'-I'Iios.' lO.ioii ot Tor • 

Milwaukee, Municipal 1 



Mines, lli'xi.'.'in. 101. -eui.- I'mvcr n Boon to 541 

Mines, Us ■ I'il.'.'liieilv in. I i:.l i.il I lis 

Minneapolis I'lli'i'lri.'-liKliI K.'ilns r,r,s 

Miimeopolls, I'ilk River Power Development neor. 202 

Minneapolis Merchants Believe in Light 343 

.Minneapolis, Proposed [Olec-ll-ii-al Treatment of 

Water in. I Editorial) 176 

Minneapolis, Telephone Aoiatgaoia I ion in -10fi 

Minneapolis. Wire Ordinance in, Proposed. . .11)3. 2S7 

M Iscellaneous Notes 2S, 

4S. 6S, 91, 130. 14S, 1C9, 1S9, 20S, 22S, 24S. 26S, 
2SS, 30S, 32S. 3'1S. 371, 410. 432, 460. 484. 512. 53f, 
Mississippi River Power Utilized at Saulc Rap- 
ids. Minn S6 

Mississippi Wire Cllass Company's Product 484 

Mitchell. C. E., Resignation of. from Western 

Electric Company 47 

Mobile Electric Light Company Reported Sold... 347 

Molybdenum, A New Silicidc of 379 

Monroe. Harriet. (Sonnet on a Power Plant).... t, 
Monroe. Mich.. Municipal Plant at, Shut "Down. 52 

Montreal, Electrical Extensions in 205, 370, ssn 

Montreal Electrical Show 473 

Moore System or Electric Tube Lighting *210. 401 

Mortuary Record or 1005 18 

"Motive Power and Gearing for Electrical Ma- 
chinery." By E. T. Carter. (Book Review) 241 

Motor Control. Eck's Method of »253 

Motor Control, Gilpin's Method of «253 

Motor Design. (Institute discussion) 447 

Motor. An SOO-hnrsepower. for the Operation of a 

Pulp Mill. By Orrin E. Dunlap *463 

Motor. The Electric. (New Year's Review) 8 

Motor. Electric, Passes Ordeal of Fire *509 

Motor Field Commutation, Improvement in *272 

Motor, Induction. (See Induction.) 

Motor. Inter-pole Variable Speed, (or Machine-tool 

' Work *41 

Motor, Lamme Alternating-current *116 

Motor, Lincoln Variable-speed *141 

Motor, Railway. Allis-Chalmers *86 

Motor, Single-phase. Advance *239 

Motor, Wcstinghouse Sirgle-phase Compensated. *59 
Motor, Wcstinghouse Variable-speed, with Auxili- 
ary Poles *163 

Motors. Alternating-current, Sell" Starters for....*3S3 

Motors, Fan. (See Fan.) 

Motors. General Electric, for Small Machine Tools. *361 

Motors for Hire. (Editorial) 236 

Motors. Polyphase, Starting of 454 

Motors. Purchasing in Too Small Sizes 424 

Motors Should Replace Engines in Building Con- 
struction. (Editorial) 470 

Motors. Two-phase and Three-phase, Comparison 

of. By Bradley McCormick *523 

Motors. Westinghouse, Small *219 

Motor-generator, Mercury-arc Rectifier Operating 

in Multiple with 195 

Mount Hood, Glaciers on, Proposed Power Devel- 
opment of the S2 

Mount Vesuvius Eruption and Abandonment of 

Electric Railway. By Frank C. Perkins *332 

Mueller-certificate Ordinances of Chicago Citv 

Council ■ 82, 104,450 

Muucie. Ind., Quits the Lighting Business 443 

Municipal Accounting a Minus Quantity 157 

Municipal Arc-lighting Figures in Grand Rapids, 

Mich : 430 

Municipal Art League Prize Designs for Arc- 
Lamp Posts *213 

Municipal Elecl rica] Enterprise at Ipswich 424 

Municipal Light Plant in Kingston. Ont 145, 386 

Municipal Light Plant in New York City, Will 

Not Build 140 

Municipal Lighting Proposed in Buffalo. .223. 365, 396 

Municipal Operation in Europe. Disappointing 321 

Municipal Ownership in Ashtabula. 266 

Municipal Ownership. E. W. Burdett on 491 

Municipal Ownership Defeated in Denver 443 

Municipal Ownership of Electric-light Plant Pro- 
posed in Boston 109. 145, 167. 306. 538 

Municipal Ownership in Esennaba. Mich 247 

Municipal Ownership. Iowa Cities Oppose 257 

Municipal-ownership Issue in Chicago. (See Chicago.) 
Municipal Ownership, National Civic Federation's 

Investigation of 68. 242, 460. 512. 531 

Municipal Ownership Not a Success in Chicopee, 

Mass 167 

Municipal Ownership piles up Debt, (Editorial) , . 196 



Munlclpul-ownerahlp .-'• ■ '.■ h •■• i. r«ey. 

I i .. 

Muni, n 

• 

Munlclp 10 

. | 
Mm, e u. 
View: 

Munli a. il 

i.. 

I I ' . Iw l'llll 

Munli inr. mi. i, |..,„ i Mill, El ■ I) 

". . . . i . 'in 

Mimic, Kl. el Ileal, .'..lei 

Myth, ,\ Pleasing 



National Braki II 

National Civic Pedi ral ,-. n.- ,n ,i 

' >l >'•"• ' hip 

'. Hi'.ll.ll ML e|, |, , ' , , 

Noil 'i ii i.ii-M Association, Ul 

Convenl Edltoi lol) in, 

Nail. .mil EICI HI 



Convi 

N no 

ihe \\ 
Nations 

In lb. 

No 



elation, a 



171. Tin 



"I'l.i' Ion, ■ ". P 



119 

"I i n I'.i ■ V t i 

i ""i ' '""' "i "i. An ttngemonts t... ... 

N.'.l ii.n.il File I'll, ie, i|. ,n AsM.ieiailnn, Annual 

Meeting of, In I Ihlcago 

National-Interstate Telephone Assoclal Ihl 

cago Convention of r. i:: 

National- 1 ii l en mi.- T.I. pi \ ... i ,,. Work 

"i 'be ie,:,, 2ii. 626 

National Physical t ... t ...... i . .1 \ .n Greal Bi I 

National X 1.1 v lt.ll--.-1 ..r .' pany's "I'ok. I:., 

net" Relleelnr •21, •,,,, 

Nebraska Independent Telephone Association, Lin- 
coln Convention of 

B. C, Municipal Street Railway Lo i 



Nelson 

Mo in ' v 
Nernsl Lamp llluuil 



il inn iii PlttsbUI B . 



Station 

N.riisi Lamp, Swlnbun tlie 152 

Nevada ''.msnli.lal. .1 i'.,p|,,|. i',,ni|iiiiiv. Electrically 

Operated Plant of 1 In 

New Business Deparlmenl. Electrical Journals and 

the. I Editorial) 

New-business Department, Prize I 'oiopetitlon for 

Papers on i.;, | 

New-business 1 icparl ineii I . Proper Handling ..r the. 



(Papon 
111 di 



by .In 



Alien and Harold Alloeii. 
Northwestern Convention.) . . 
in- nl. Proper Handling of. 



New 

By W. A. 
New-busin 

Conventli 
New-busin 

Frueauff 
New Business, Getting and Retaining. George B 



bin 



g Discussed at N. E. L. A. 

il"'. 548, :.l:. 

By Frank W. 

549 



-getting Methods. 



(See also Selling Elec- 



Tripp on 
New-business Notes . 
New-business Suggest! 
tricity.) 

New England. (Correspondence) 

109. 127, 145, 166. 1S6, 2(15. 226. 215, 2fifi, 284, 

306, 324, 316, 307. 3Sfi, 406. 120. .151',, ISO, 500, 532, ">1 

New England Street Railway Club 263 

New England Telephone Company's Report 405 

New England Telephone News. (Correspondence). 107 
New Orleans, Building and Electrical Boom in... 517 

New York. (Correspondence) 20. to. 

65. 89. 108. 127. 144, 166, 1S5. 205. 220. 210 265 281 
306. 324. 346, 368. 3S7, 406. 420, 456, 480, 500. 532, 555 

New York Automobile Shows 53 

New York Central Railroad's Electrical Equip- 
ment •(;, 7. 144. 368. '400. '528 

Now York- Central Railroad's Gasoline-electric Cars 200 
New York City, Central-station Advertising in..*343 

Ncav York City, Co-operation Meeting in 260 

New York City Electric Light and PoAver Rates. . 

65. 127. 110. 308 

New York City, Municipal Light Plant in. Will 

Not Build 140 

New York City. The Pennsylvania Railroad's Im- 
provements in 

*7, *273, 276. *293, *313, *416, •164. *516. *539 

New York City. Possible Telephone Competition 

in 144. 324. 340. 3S7. 457. 480, 500 

N"\v York City Streel-railw.lv Statistics 285. tor, 

New York City. Telephone Rates in 480 

New York City Traction Merger. 26. 46. 108, 127. 185. 205 
New York City, Williamsburgli Fridge in. Rub- 
bish Incinerating riant for Lighting *215 

New York Edison Motor Load 65. 161 

Now York Edison Waterside Station 9 

New York Electrical Club 308 

New York Electrical Society, Annual Meeting or.. 528 

New York Electrical Testing Laboratories Ill 

New York Gas Inquiry 46. 177, 266 

New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad's 

Alternating-current Equipment 238. 284. r 208 

Nexv York Railroad Club's Discussion on Alternat- 
ing-current Traction 238 

New York State. Electric. Lighting in 237 

New York Subway. Alternating-current Signal Cir- 
cuits in. By J. M. Waldron ._ »395 

New Yuri; Sul.wav Engines. Test of 123 

New York Subway, Fire in the 480 



New York Subway, Q 
New Zealand. Use of 
Falls, Econo 



205, 210. 555 

49 

II W. Buck 



r c 

I Niagara Falls. How Mav, 
\ of Mankind? By Orrii 
\ Niagara Falls, Long-distance Power Transmission 

) from *135^ 

Niagara Falls Power Development 



Nurrli, Henry H. 






■ 



E. Dunlap *134- 



■ 

■ 

Ohio Indepcndi >lum- 

• invention <>( 

, ... pendi ni r- l< pi-" ■ Bi ill rti. 
Ohio and iti'ii itlf im. pur hi r i Rail* 

■•( 

Ohio, Michigan and Indiana, Long Tr-.n- >■ Trip In 100 

• ti,i. i' 

■lit-.rlal* 

oil Switch, Wt stliiKli.H. H 
' ihl.. T. |.|..i.>,].' Not- 

.... :. 106, 126, Hi, i 

224, -'"1. '-'•'.'. 

i 
■ I'M Te il Supply Power f-»r 

i'ptm- 


• H. I., ■ I., I ,■ .. . : 

I il'" 

. Power * rOmpanj a I Nlag ira F 

i i ..r the • 

development Investigation. . 
Oregon Independent Telephone Association, For- 

i n '" th 

<"'r«",'oii ami Washington, Tin T« 

i espondt at I 

boi * L. A 

Oscillograph for the Study of Alternatlng-cui 

Wave Forma 

Oscillographic Researches on Surning In I Itch - 

tension Lines, Bj C. David '<- 

< '.-aiiinni Lamp Filaments, Support for 

Osmium Lamp, Swlnburnt on 'he 

Ottaw Ont., Sti 145 

Overheati »\, r , nary. >.f Warren- 
Jamestown SinKlo- phase Railway «15S 

' .verl ■ -I C bructloi for Seel 

Sinul.-pha-s.- Traction Fxpf-riments 

Overhead Llni Construction. By Paul Speneor. 
■: 

Overhead versus Underground I,ines 201 

Overhead Wirim: Conditions in Grand Rapids, 
wis :ti 

Overliead Work. (See also Construction.) 

Ovi rshlner, E. E *33 

Oxone 300. 3S0 



Pahsl Brewery, Power Plant 2 

J ■: i -in. Cable, American, Is Completed 3<?1 

Pacific Cable, P,rilish 1 : 

Pacific Gas and Electric Company VI, 193 

Pacific Slope. (Correspondence).. 

26, 17. 66. 90, HO, 128, 157. K7. W, l'"7. :47, 
2S6. 307. :::<;. ::vs. ms. 131. !"v is:, "ii. 
Pacific Slope, The Telephone on the. (Corre- 
spondence) 12S. 2*2 

Paderno, Italy, Hydro-electric Plant 

Panama Canal, Cable to. Proposed 97 

Panama Canal Zone, Electrical Plants for 

2.". , :77. 331'. . 

Paper-box and Bag Factory. Electrical Equip- 
ment of *2"- 

Paper Mill. Large, Electricity in a. By F. M. 

Feiker - 3i> 

Parallel Operation of Compound-wound Dvnamos. J'":' 
Parallel Operation of Shunt-wound Dynamos. . . . 107 
Parcel Delivery by Street Railways of Man- 
chester, England 166 

Parcel Delivery. (See also Express Service.^ 
Paris, Large St earn- turbine Power Stations for 

Paris Lighting Situation. The . 311 

Paris Metropolitan Railway »ii 

Parkville, Mo., Heating and Lighting Plant at.. »23 
Parr, G. D. A., on Deterioration in Storage 

Batteries 'HO 

Partridge. James. Death of 

Party-line Selective Telephone Svstem. Step-bv- 

step ."..•124 

Pas-s & Seymour Sign Receptacle »22 

Passenger Rates in Ohio Lowered by Electric 

Competition. (Editorial) 196 

Passenger Station. New. of the Pennsylvani: 



Patent Record. Illustrated Electrical. 

28. 49. 69. 91. Ill, 

131, 149, 169. 1S9. 209, 229, 24:">, 2->9 2S9 S09, 329. 

349, 371. 391. 411. 433. 401. 4S5. 513, 535. 559. f.flO 

Patent Regulations. German. (Editorial) 47'" 1 

"Pattern Making." By F. W. Barrows. (Book 

Review) 142 

Peat. Electrical Production of Fuel from 454 

Penington, T. C «155 

Penn Iron Mining Company's Hydro-electric 



Alev Boat to Dispers* 
Niagara Falls. The "Preservation" of...4S, 93. *134. 

152, 159. 191, 222. 259. 277. 296, 313. 3S5. 423. 420. 453 
Niagara Falls. The "Preservation" of. Bv Terrv 

T. King 159 

Niagara Falls. The "Preservation" of. (Editorial) t^S- 
Niagara Falls Pulp Mill. An SOO-horsepower Mo- 
tor for the Operation of a. By Orrin E. Dunlap. *463 
Niagara Falls. Transmission Line from, to Svra- 

cuse. By Orrin E. Dunlap *151 

Niagara Power, Cheaper, New York Cities Want.. Wfi 

©Niagara Power Transmission. (Editorial) US. 

Niagara's "White Coal" : 277 

Nickel-plating Industry. The Development of the. SS" 

Niesz. H. E *33. '157 

Nitrogen. The Production of. from the Atmosphere.* 197 
Noise, Unnecessary, in Steel-building Construction. 
(Editorial) ' 470 



5S 



H,! 



York City. 
-•7. *273. 270. »293. *313. *416. *464. 

Frank C. (The Bille Central Station 
y). 



•291 



Pork-'-s. Frank C. (The Exposition In Milan and 
the Electrical Undertakings of the City) *4S7 

Perkins-. Frank C. (Mount Vesuvius Eruption 
and Abandonment of Electric Railwari *332 

Perkins. Frank C. (New Simplon Tunnel Elec- 
trical Equipment) *153 

Perkins. Frank C. (A 60.000-kilowatt Steam-tur- 
bine Plant at St. Denis, France^ *537 

Perkins. Frank C. (Steam-turbine Power Station 
in the Clyde Valley near Glasgow) «71 

Perrlgo's "Modern Machine Shop." (Book Re- 
view) 241 

Perry, Prof, John, Accident to 409 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



Personal Notes 

111'. 12S, M7, lf-S, 1ST, UH7, L'J 
327, 347, 369, 388, 408, 131, 

Peru Electric Manufacturing < 
Rosettes 

Peru, Electrical Opp"H imp }< ■- 

L-Miil;H].-'lpliiii Iil.-<-tri.- <\..,,pn, 

Philadelphia, Electric U Coi 31 

Philadelphia, Electrical ! .ev< 

Frank H. Taylor 

Philadelphia, Franklin < '• h-hra 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit O 
Philadelphia Subway. Tin- N>\ 

Philadelphia Telephone Serv 



■17, 66, 90, 
7, 286, 307, 
. 511, 533, 557 
s Fuseless 



Phin'! 



ew) . 



Follj.-y .if Si'i' 



the Mercury- vapor 



Photometry. By Dr. Louis Bell *504 

Pierce, Mrs, R. H., Death of 30S 

Pignolet Switchboard Insl .ruinents *450 

Pipes, Cold Bending of, for Electrical Wires. 

By R. G. Grayne *94 

Piping in Long Island City Power Station 294 

Pittsburg Isolated Plant, Large *52S 

Plan du Var (Franco Hydro-electric Station 

13, *14. *192 

Plant Life, Electric Power Stations and. in Lon- 
don 399 

Plate "Warmers, Electric , 342 

Pole Line Construction, Spencer on *521 

Pole Line and Equipment for Long Island Rail- 
road *465 

Pole Rot, The Prevention of. B'y Charles H. 

Coar 31 7 

Police Patrol Boxes. Alarm Gongs for 222 

Polyphase Induction Motor, A New Type of....*551 

Polyphase Motors, Starting of 454 

Poole's "Wiring Handbook." (Book Review i 211 

Popoff, Prof. Alexander, Death of 220 

Pontiac. 111., Flywheel Accident in 12!) 

Portland (Ore.) General Electric Company, Ad- 
vertising of *85 

Port William, Ont., Kakabeka Falls Power Devel- 
opment near 205 

Poster Advertising of Incandesceni Lamps* H7S 

Potomac Electric Company's Power House in 

Washington, D. C... 200 

Power Bill, Government, before the Ontario Leg- 
islature 423 

Power Center for Small Users in Indianapolis... 404 

Power Development, California, Notes of 235 

Power Development of Chicago Drainage Canal. 

(See Drainage Canal.) 
Power Development, Electric, in and near Win- 
nipeg 521 

Power Development. FJk River, m-ar Minneapolis 202 
Power-development Investigation, Ontario. . . .401, 423 
Power Development at Niagara Falls. (See Ni- 
agara Falls.) 
Power Development, Proposed, from the Glaciers 

on Mount Hood 82 

Power Development, St. Croix River 177 

Power Development, St. Joseph River 222 

Power Development, Susquehanna River. .217. 370, 409 
Power Development and Transmission. (See also 

Hydro-electric, Waterpower, etc.) 
Power Distribution of Great Northern Power 

Company 4<%3 

Power, Electric, a Boon to Mexican Mines 541 

Power Generation and Transmission. (New 

Tear's Review) S, 10, 13 

Power House and Equipment for Potomac Elec- 
tric Company of Washington. D. C 200 

Power Output of Central Stations. Suggestions 

for Increasing the. By P. H. Korst S5 

Power Plant. A. By Harriet Monroe. (Sonnet).. 6 
Power Plant at Baltimore, New Consolidated 

Company's 1 363 

Power Plant, Clyde Valley, near Glasgow. By 

Frank C. Perkins *71 

Power Plant. De Cew Falls, Additions to. By 

Orrin E. Dunlap *115 

Power Plant Economics. By Henry G. Stott. . 

*101. *120 

Power Plant and Electric Elevators in Majestic 

Theater Building, Chicago *373 

Power Required by Maehin.- Tools 454 

Power-station Design, A Pine Example of. (Edi- 
torial) 276 

Power Station, Long Island Cil y . . *273. 27G. *293. *3I3 
Power (Motive Power) Statistics of Maryland... 142 

Power Transmission. (Notes) 

67, 130, 168, 1SS. 22S. 

26S, 287, 30S, 32S. 348, 370. 3S9. 409, 432, 483, 512 

"Power Transmission." (Look Review) 450 

"Power Transmission." By Dr. Louis Bell. 

(Book Review) 222 

Power Transmission, Black River 381 

Power Transmission, Direct-current 13, 34S 

Power-transmission Line and Third-rail System 

of the Long Island Railroad *464 

Power Transmission Projects in South Africa 10S 

Power Transmission. Proposed, in Western New 

York 83 

Power Transmission in Wales 10, *1S1 

Power-transmitting Device, Thomson's *3o 

Power-wise, Are You? 161 

Prindle, E. J., on the Art of Inventing 475 

Printing Telegraph. A Wireless 3S 

Printing Titles on Drawings- . 395 

Prize Competition for Pa,pers on New-business 

Department.. 197, 4SS 

Prndueer-gas Power Plant in Worcester 478 

Projectile Shop. Machine Tools in a, Electrical 

Equipment of *451 

Provo Plant, New, of Telluride Power Company.. 4S3 
Public Service Building of Milwaukee Electric 

Railway and Lighting Company *46S 

Public- Utilities, The Ownership of. By Lyman 

E. Coolev 200 

Public Utilities. The Ownership of. (Editorial).. 196 
Public. (See also Municipal.) 

Publications, (Notes) 27, 4S, 6S, 

90, 111. 130, 148, 16S. 1SS. 208, 228. 268. 288. 30S, 
32S, 34S, 370, 3S9, 409, 432, 459. 4S3, 512. 534, 558 
Pulp Mill. An SuO-horsepower Motor for the Oper- 
ation of a. By Orrin E. Dunlap »463 

Pulp Mill, Electrically Operated, at Sauk Rapids, 



Mil 



S6 



Pumping Plant, Electric, of the Schenectady Wa 

terworks. By C. T. Wilkinson "351 

Pumps, Fire, High-pressure Electric, for New 
York City 116 

Punga's "Single-phase Commutator Motors." 
(Book Review) 3S5 

Pupin. M. L. on Telephone Engineering 223 

Pyrometry, Errors in 3S1. 479 



Questions and Answers. 197, 262, 321, 454 



Radium, Discovery of. Irrtportance of the 

torial) 

Rae, Frank B., Jr. (Modern Methods of A 



Should Be Electrified. <Kdii 
Railroad Shops/ Louisville and Nashville. Electrical 

Equipment of. By A. G. Wessling * 

(See Signals and Signaling. > 
rs. Proposed Licensing of. 



Knilpiading. [01. ■. -lit.-. ruder I ii flit-ult irs 


3 Trunk.. 
. By Dr. 


204 
=231 
*19 


Railroading. Electric. A "Hissing Link' 
plied 

Railroading, Heavy. All, anal ing-eurrent 
in. (New York Railroad I'lnhl 


in, Sup- 

Traolion 


Kadi- ling, Heavy. Various Application 


s of Elec- 




-7i; ■>:: .a., :;i;: ; s.; pin. ' i .; l. *,,15," 


it.ii. -7::, 
'.".lii. 532. 


■53!) 



Affects Passenger 



abined. 



Railway. Electric, Three-conductor. Direct-cur- 
rent, in Bohemia. Bv C. Smith *3 

Railway, Electric. Triumphs in San Francisco 42 

Railway Motor. Allis-Chalmers *S 

Railway Properties, Appleyard Electric. Sold.. .17$. 20 
Railway Purposes. Induction Motors for, Arm- 



New York City) 

Railway Signal Associal 

Chicago) 

Railway. Steam and E 

Massachusetts 

Railway Telegraph Supe 



larch Mi 
Merger ] 

its Meet 



Railway Work, Shunt and Compound-wound Syn- 
chronous Converters for. By TV. L. Waters. 474. 
Railways. Direct Versus Alternating Current for. 



477 



[Editorial) 

Railways, Electric. Rural. Hygiene of 451 

Railways. Electric. [See also Interurban. Rail- 
roading, Single-phase, Street Railway, Third 
Rail. Traction. Trolley, etc.) 
Raleigh, N. C, and Its Three Telephone Systems 

204. 304 

Rates. Iirainage Canal, for Power. .. .156, 157. 25(1, 39S 
Rates, Electric-light, Attacked by a Newspaper.... 122 
Electric-light, of Aurora, Elgin and Chi- 



cago Railroad Comp; 
Rates, Electric-light, it 

156, 157, 177, 198, 21' 
Rates, Electric-light, i 



Chii 



545 



257, 3S3. 425. 493. SIS. 541 

cago. (Editorial) 

156, 316, 520 

ht, in England and the United 



Rates. Electr 

States 

Rates, Electric-light, Minneapolis 55S 

Rates for Electric Light and Power in New York 

City 65. 127. 140, 368 

Rales. Electric-light. Regulation of, in Iowa 340 

Rates, Electric-light, in Seattle 129 

Runs. El <-iri. --light, Wrighl Iicinnnd Sysleni and 



356 



ill" -a. 



Rates, Electric-light. (See also Wright Demand 

System.) 
Rates, Electric-power, in Wi 
Rates, Telephone, in Chicagi 

144, 165. 1S4, 244, 263. 284, 323. 428 

Rates. Telephone, in England 244 

Rates, Telephone, in Indianapolis 

45, 164. 204. 304, 360, 3S5. 455. 506 

Rates, Telephone, in New York City. 480 

Hates, Telephone, in Toledo 45 

Rates, Telephone, in Wisconsin, New Law Regu- 
lating 125 

Rates. Telephone, World-wide, Disclosed by Ca- 
nadian Inquiry .'.-.323, 345 

Real dun. T. H. (An Amateur's First Dynamo).. 52S 

"Reasons Why" for the Merchant 525 

Reduction of Metal Sulphides O. W. Brown on... 379 



"Reflecting Arc." New Pa 

Reflector, Hnlophane. New 

Reflector, "Poke Bonnet," for Window Lighting. 



Refrigerating ain.l Cold-slorage Plant. Larc 

Chicago 

Refrigeration, Mechanical, Meyer on 

Refrigeration. (See also Ice Cream Freezing 
Refuse Destruction. (See Garbage Burning.) 



Overload and Reverse-current, Alternatin_ 

current 

Relay, Reverse, Construction. Mershon on 

Repulsion Induction Motor. 'Institute discussion). 
Resonant-circuit Telephony. (A. G. Davis' Pat- 
ent) 



Re 



tect 



al of Energy in Generators, Wilson's Pre 

nst 

nt Relay. Overload and. Alternating 



n olds 



Hor 



ntal-vertieal En 



gin 



E. W.. Jr.. Candidacy of 1 

Richardson Lighting Outfit 

Richmond (Va.) and Chesapeake Bay Railri 

Single-phase Equipment for 

Richmond. Tnd.. Municipal Lighting Plant in. 



Roche 



Di' 



of Er 



Railroad. Ele 



509 



Rock Island. Mnline and Davenport, Merger of 

Electrical Properties in 302 

Reeky Minimum States. 1 1 'ni respnndence) . . . . 40S. 533 
Roosevelt. President. Recommends Legislation to 

Preserve Niagara Falls 259 

Rope-tightening Device, Electrical, for Telpher 

System *531 

Rosettes, Fuseless. New Line of *'S6 

Rosewater's Recollections > 304 

Rotary-converter Sub-stations of the Long Island 

Railroad . 516 , .539 

Rotary ( onverters. The Automatic Control of »53 

Rotary Converters. Shunt and Compound-wound. 

(Institute discussion) 474 477 

Roussel's System of Typewriting Telegraphy.. '»214 
Royal Gorge Bridge for Electric Railway Proposed n 0<- 



Rubber, Production of 

Rubber Shoes or Rubber Gloves? . .'. 

Rubbish Incinerating Plain for Lighting Williams- 
burgh Bridge in New York City * 

Rudd, W. A., Death of 

Rushmore, D. B„ on Design of Hydro-electric sta- 
tions 

Russia, The Telephone in : 

Rustin, Henry, Death of 187 '«■ 



St. Croix River Power Development 177 

St. Denis, France, A on.oim-kilowatt steam-tur- 
bine Plant at. By Frank C. Perkins »537 

St. Gallin-Trogen In term-ban Railway in Switzer- 
land. By Franz Koester .443 

St. Joseph. Mich., Railway and Light Property 

....'. 146 



1 or 434 

St. Paul, Minn., Tollboard Equipment of Tri- 

state Telephone Company of 4494 

St. Paul, Minn., Wiring Conditions in 35 2S7 

St. Peters-burg, Electric Railways in ' 499 

Salomons' "Management of Accumulators." (Book 



Salt Lake City Ele 

San Francisco Earthquake and Fire. (Editorial) 

316, 336, 378, 420 



»376. »397, 405, *415, 421. 422. 458, 4S2,' 493 ' 533 
ban Francisco Gas and Electric Company Ab- 
sorbed 417 49^. 

San Francisco, Geary Street Railway in..'.'."' ' 557 
San Francisco. Independent Telephone Company 

Established in , 544 

~" Old Edison Plant in. Destroyed 

177. 193. 247. 272 



San Franc 
by Fire. 
San Francisco, A Vivid Short- 

Saren Are Lamps at Chicago Electrical Show.. T> 

Sarnia_Tun_nel, Single-phase System for..»32. "59. 532 



Sauk Rapids 



Mil 



Electrically Operated Pulp 



Mill al 
Schenectady Waterworks, Electric " Pu'm'p'i'i 



Sehi.lt. William H 

Scott. Charles F., on Cable Testing 

Scott, Charles F., on Self-exciting" Alternators 



•507 
360 
221 



Scott. Henry T.. President of Pacific States 

Telephone Company 407 144 *-">33 

Scrihner Automatic Signaling Patent Not In~" 

fringed in Galesburg Case * *105 

Seribaer-McBerty Telephone Patent Defeated.'.'/ 87 

Sealing Press. A New Form of 4497 

Searchlight "Morse" for Announcing Election Re- 
Searchlight's to Aid Firemen'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.' 401 

Searchlights as Car Headlights lijj 

Senile, R. M.. on Location and Care of Light- 
ing Fixtures 215 

Seasickness Treated by Electric-vibration Chair/ 148 

Seattle, Electric-light Rates in 129 

Seattle Electric Company, Concrete Power House 



Alfred Gradenwitz "*515 

Self-synchronizing of Alternators. B'y Morgan 

Brooks and M. K. Akers 474, 476 

Selling Electric Light and Power. By S. Mor- 
gan Bushnell 34 

Selling Electricity. (Department) 

*S4, 160, »260, »,342, 424. «5dS 

Selling Electricity. (Sec also New Business, etc.) 
Separation, Electrical, of Substances of Different 

Dielectric Capacities *192 

Series and Parallel, Direct-current Generators in, 

■Operation of 262 

Follies of Science." By John Phil 



Sewing .Machine. Electric Power for the 425 

Shal.r, N. S., Death of 327 

Sheldon. Samuel *-i>7s 3'vi 

Shepard. B. E. S., on Errors in Pyrometry '. 381 

Shcpardson, Professor, on Technical Men as 

Dividend Earners 339 

Shock, Electrical, Alleged, Apparent Blindness 

Due to 4X9 

Shopping by Telephone '."! 994 

Short-circuit in San Francisco, A Vivid. 



Shreltlcr Engine Indicator and Overload Alarn 
Shunt-wound Dynamos Operated in Parallel. 
Shunt-wound Rotary Converters. (Institute d 



Sig 



Steam-turbine Installation in 

s. Carl, Death of 

Increased in Fond du Lac by Elec- 



trical Show r 425 

Sign, Electric, The First ..".'.' 161 

Sign. Electric, Large, in Indianapolis 455 

Sign. Electric, New Use of, to Please Central- 
station Customers 261 

Signs. Electric. (Editorial) 296 

Signs, Electric, Free Installation of 490 

Signs. Electric, Must Bum till Midnight in Seattle 2611 

Signs. Electric, as a Summer Load 343 

Signs. Labor-saving Receptacle for , . *23 

Signs and Symbols in Preparing Drawings....'' 477 
Signal Circuits in the New York Subway \lter- 

nating-current. By J. M. Waldron .391; 

Signal Service, Unh ersal Space-telegraph Inter- 
ceptor for 94 

Signals Discussed by Central Electric Railway 

Association *_ 955 

Signaling in the Electric Zone of the New York 



Tunnels 434 

Signaling, Railway, in London '" 19(3 

Signaling System. An Extensive '" 952 

Signaling. (See also Railway Signal Association) 
Silk Factories, Electrical Operation in. By Dr 

Alfred Gradenwitz ' *311 

Simplon Tunnel Electrical Equipment. New. " Bv 

Frank C. Perkins ' *153 

Simplon Tunnel, Electrification of the. (All re'f- 

"" *153, 302. 535 
tors." 13 

Iin Punga. (Book Review) 

Single-phase versus Direct-current Traction in 
England 439 497 

Single-phase Equipment for Central iil'inoi's 
Electric Railways 240 

Single-phase Equipment for Milwaukee Electric 
Railway Company .994 

Single-phase Equipment for Richmond and Ches- 
apeake Bay Railroad 597 



WESTERN l .1.1 < rRIi 



Slnglo-phuso Locomotive), !J. i, toi 

Sw,.n i. Rallwn i.. C h '10! 

; UnKli phase for i «ondon and Brighton Eliillrond 

In England ■•.. 16 ■■ 

Blngli phn i nun. i , -.I •r.a 

Blngli pha i Motoi . Tho, for I ;. m - 

Purposes. (Institute iIIbi-iikhIiuu 177 

Blnglo-phni i Motoi . a ntui 

Slur.-- i < i ■ . i i Railway Etaulpi I foi Anderson. 

B. C, ... 

Blngli p] : .ii . -. , .i 

Blngli phage System In Italy, Wostlnghouso- 

I'lu/.i 

Single-phase System for Surnlu Tunnol 
Slnglo-phase Traction, (Now Konr's Rovlow) 

-ii. 7, I I 

shade pin 'i'i.iiiIi.i, r;-|.. i inn. iii i. illicit '■ n 

•Ion, mi the Bet :b Wi tl i B Dr. 

Alfred Qrodi nwlts .., 
Small Ki'ihii- Plant, How to Mule-, a, Pay. 

Bj D, i'\ McOeo 

Smelting, Blootrlo, or tron al Bnull Sto, Mario, 

"mi !8, 10 

Smelling I ii.ii Hi'.- I.y Kleel Holly, i I'i. III. ii I. ill . i:ii; 

Smith, i'. (Contra! i.ighi and Power Station In 

Hani iv. ir, Germany) 

Smith, C. (Three c tor Dlrocl curronl R ill 

way In Bohemia) Ml 

Smith, ('. iTu.iii> -limn .ui.i ...n single. phase 

Loci live tor the Swedleh Railways) . ...•11)1 

Smith'i i" .i ' Pin •:,-::> 

Smoke Ibatomenl In England 26, I0G 

Societies llllll Sri |;i. I N.il. r;i 

48, US. Ill, 13(1, |i;:i. ISS. 2IIK, 22S, J IS. JUS. 2SS, 

808, 828, 348, 370. 880, 110, 182, 183, 612, 531 

Socket Bushing, Knostraln »123 

Sodium, A Mew Process (or the Manufaoture of. 

By !•:. A. Ashorofl ..380 

Solaoring Flux, Cuvenlem '|'i (or 'lm 

Soli "s "Electricity Meters." n k Review). 385 

Sons of Jove i. isms Rapidly in 

hnuih Ai'ri.M. |...w.r Transmission Projects In., his 
■ s ' AH" ' 'i !'■ Ti lep in 845 

.Snillli A l-l.-.-i. Eleoll'lcnl (l|i|iiirlun||||.M ill.. Ml'.', Inn 

Southeastern States. (Correspondoi i 

17. i;,; . 108, 127, I 15, I si;, 508, 228, 246, 266, , 

326, 848, 868, 887, 107, 130, 457, 181, 510, 588, 566 

Soutl .-.,..- Ti'li'plHini- I levolopnieuts-. (Cnrre- 

II V.. 'ill, ! 34, •I.7 HI.' ■I'.s I .. ,|| 

S Invest. -m Electrical nu. I (Ins Association. 

Galveston (Yinvenlion .if .J u | 

Space-telegraph Apparatus Apparently K. .r.-l il Im 

Earthquake ;;,;;, 

Sparc-telegraph Industry, Guv eminent ('.nil,',, I ,,!'. 

" Italn ill;'.. 824. 480 

in Industry, Marconi Company's 



Sp; 



Rep. 



Spac 

nal Service * 

Space- leli 'Kl'ii ph Mcssngi 
Space-telegraph Signals. 

of, Hv William Marc 



Universal, for Sig- 



Npuoo 

Space 



410, 



208 



Space Telegraphy in the Dutch East Indies. Bv 

Dr. Alfred I (radenwitz :<i37 

Space Telegraphy. Internalii.nal Co-operation in. 

Desirable 292 363 

Space Telegraphy in Mexico 308 

Space Telegraphy, Navy Department's Work Willi L'"s 

Space Telegraphy. (New Year's Review) 9 12 15 

Space Telegraphy for North Pole Expedition.. . 

„ •■■; 56, 300. 404 

Space Telegraphy Proved Useful at San Fran- 
cisco. (Editorial) 4*>0 

Space Telegraphy on the Stage. (Editorial 1 80 

Space Telegraphy on Seagoing Steamships. By 

Dr. Alfred I iradenwilz *353 

Space Telegraphy. (See also Wireless.) 

Spencer, Paul. (Overhead Line Construction) 

472. '521 

spencer. Theodore. Death of 126 

Sporry, E. A., on Electrochemical Processes for 

Central Stations 380 

Sprngue, Frank J., on Alternating-current Trac- 
tion 239 

Sprongel. Dr. H. J. P.. Death of 110 

Spring. E. C «255 

Springfield, III.. Construction Work in 139 

Standard Electric Light and Power Station. Under- 
writers' Requirements for a 365 

Standardization Discussed in England 185 

Standardization of Electrical Machinery. (Edi- 
torial) 236 

Standardization Rules. (American Institute of 

Electrical Engine. as) 416, 44S 

Sl.iiidariliz.il ion. Wire and Cable. (Editorial) 356 

Standardizing Rubber-covered Wires and Cables. 

By John Langan 358 

St.inley-G. 1. Electric Manufnct tiring Company's 

Manufacture of Wright Demand Indicators *43 

Stanley-,;. I. P, ,lypl,:,se Induction Motor *551 

Stanley-!!. I. Devolving- field Inductor Generator .* 1113 
Slanley-G. I. Wright Demand Indicator for Trans- 
former Testing *47S 

Stanley's, William. System of Transmitting and 

Utilizing Low-frequency Currents *396 

Star Electric Fans *241 

Station, Passenger. New, of the Pennsvlvania 

Railroad in New York City *416 

Stationary Engineers Visit Atlis-i 'halluces Shops 

at West Allis «551 

Statistical Table of Electric Service Facilities in 

the United States 237 

Statistics, Cnnniliaii Electric-railway 237 

Statistics. Census, of Electrical Industries. (Edi- 
torial) 176. 420 

Statistics. Census, of Electrical Manufactures for 

1904 343 

Statistics. Census, of Telephones and Telegraphs 

in 1902 428 

Slatistics. Central-station, of Massachusetts 449 

Statistics, Chicago Lighting ; 448 

Slatistics of Electrical Manufactures, Western 

Electrician's 17 

Statistics. Iowa Central-station 334 

Statistics. Ohio Independent Telephone 165 

"Steam-engine Indicator." By W. W. Beaumont. 

(Book Review) 241 

Steam Engine. (See also Engine.) 

Steamship Mauritania. Elect rival Equipment of... 26S 

Steamships, Seagoing. Space Telegraphy on. By 

Dr. Alfred Gradenwitz »353 

Steam-turbine Accident, Peculiar *507 

Steam Turbine, Curtis. Tests of 365, *554 

Steam-turbine Design, Recent Improvements in. 
by Stumpf, Elihu Thomson and W. L. R. Emmet 493 

Steam-turbine Economy, Stott on *103. 120 

Steam Turbine in Europe. Development of the. 

(New Year's Review) 13 

Steam-turbine Plant at St. Denis. France, A 

60.000-kilowatt. By Frank C. Perkins »537 

Steam Turbine and Reciprocating Engine, Com- 
bination of. for Freight Steamboats 432 

Steam Turbine. Seliultz 26S 

Steam Turbines. Allies-Chalmers *60. :! 3Kl 

Steam Turbines. Curtis, in Chicago "1, »554 



with. 

I ... I.e.. 






Hl.l 



IllH 












Hi hi 

... . i. . i . . . 
tot . Battel 

> 

. i: .ii. n. til ... ,. 

Battorlcs, (nil 



Stoi 






Btorai Buttoi 

s i , S i: ..... i 

PI I 

SU. III! ..I SI.'' I 101 ' ' ' 'III. 

tli In ' ' ■ " 

si. .ii. Hem v O. .i'...-.. i i- ! 

'.. "i :...... ... . 

Trip 

Street Llgh [oi 

v 

Sl, 



. Rail* i 

Imp 
elopmcnl 



■rn. (Instltui '. ' 



Sill, :.l 
I..I, 

Suh-sl. 



verier, of tin Lon| 



■ mi. Court I isi ni !l!l-yt\ir A. I. Jin. J I -, 

.'.,, t Tin, ti..,, in l-'.n glut, d 

iug ill lllgh-lensio,, Lines. ( iscill. .graphic U"- 

searches on. By C, David 

Susquehanna River Power Development. 217, 370, 

Swedish Railways, Siuel. ph. I. Hv-' (or 

the. 20,000-volt. By C. Smith • 

Swinburne, James. (Efficiencies) 

Swinburne. James. (Metallic Limp Filaments).., 

Switch, Knife. A Curious Home-lnide • 

Switch. Oil. (See Oil Switch.) 

Switchboard Apparatus in Long Islam 
Station and Sub-stations 

Switchboard Equipment Company. I 
breaker of 

Switchboard in Mandel Brothers' Plar 

Switchboard Practice. Modern, witl 
Reference to Automatic Devices. By E. M. 
Hewlett *5 

Switchboard Structures, Class Flooring for 3 

Switzerland. Hydro-electric Development in 1 

Switzerland. St. Gallen-Trogen Interurban Rail- 
way in. By Franz Koester *1 

Switzerland. The Telephone in 

Symbols and Signs in Preparing Dr. 

Synchron 

Svnehron 



I ',.\. .a 



Particula 



n e 



Tanning bv Electricity 169, 

Tantalum Incandescent Lamps. General Electric.' 
Tantalum Lamp. (All references) 

9, 15, SS, 347. 4f,2. 191, *554, 

Tariff Reform Agitation in Great Britain and the 

Electrical Trade. (Editorial) 

Tasmania. The Telephone in 

Taylor. Frank H. (Electrical Development in 

Philadelphia) * 

Technical Definition. Illustrated (Overhead Line 

Work) « 

Technical Education. (Editorial) 

Technical Education in Germany Overdone 

Technical Men as Dividend Earners. By George 

D. Shepardson 

Telegraph. (Notes) 130, 1611. L'ns. II, ,, |32. 

Telegraph Extension in Central America 

Telegraph Ciphers by the Billion 

Telegraph Messengers. Men as 

Telegraph. Printing. A Wireless 

Telegraph Work, Iron Wires Substituted for Cop- 
per in 

Telegraphs and Telephones in the United States 

in 1902 

Telegraphy. Rapid, on the Continent 

Telegraphy. Typewriting, Roussel's System of...* 
Telephone. Automatic. , See Automatic.) 

Telephone Cable Roller. New Style of * 

Telephone Circuits-. Auxiliary. By Charles H. 

Coar 

Telephone Companies. New. (Notest 

SS. 107. 126. 164. 1S4. 224. 244. 263. 455. 

Telephone Conditions in London. (Editorial).... 

Telephone Construction Work. (Editorial) 

Telephone Engineering. By J. J. Carty.182, 202. 
Telephone Engineering as a Profession. By J. L. 

McQuarrie 

Telephone Equipment. Independent, in Meridian, 

Miss *! 

Telephone Exchange in Chicago, The Newest 

Branch *! 

Telephone Exchange. Ni 

Iowa 

Telephone-extension Litigation. . . . 
Telephone Extensions and Improvem 
Telephone. False Teeth at the. 
Telephone, Frivolous Use of the. i 

D. C 

GOV€ 



Council Bluffs. 



Wit. s. 



Washii 



Tel. phone Inquiry, C: 
Telephone Line. The. 

Telephone Lines on Highways 

Telephone Lines. Sectionalized Inducti' 

ductor for 

Telephone Manufacturers and Deale 



1S5, 



263. 



Jst. 



Telephone Men. (Notes) . 

Telephone News. General. (Notes) 

..25, 45, 64. SS. 107. 126. 144. 16:.. is:.. 225, 245, 
365, 2S3, 305, 333, 345, 367, 405, 479, 506, 536, 



Tcllurtde power * '." ■ 



Tcmlsknmlng oi 









Ml 









'i-.ii.tl Value 
(Instil . 

• 
pond. 
Texas Independent T- Ii 

Thermo-electric ' !oupl« 

ires . 



Third Rail, I n. prevention of 

Third Rail vei - ■ In England 

Long island Railroad 

Thorns I'. II.. on Mercury-vapor A;' 

(Institute discussion) 

Bllhu, 

S, Elihu 

Turbines 

Thomson's. Elihu 

..... , . 

Failure 

Three-condiiili.r I I 
hernia. By C. Smith 

Tbree-phosi ... Quarter-phase Currents, Conver- 
sion of. (Stelnmetz) 

Three-phase and Two-phase Motors, Compai 
of. By Bradley McCormlck 

Thutv's Direct-current Power Transmission.... I] 

Tin. High Price of 

Tokio Electrical Generating Station 

Toledo Telephone Rates 

Topeka, Central-station Affairs In 

Toreiiio. Philip, on Tests- for Wire Insulation 
Tiitp.-.lo Exploder. Wireless. N.-w Form ..I.. 

Toureoing International Exposition 

Towne. F. T.. Death of 

Townley. Calvert, on Alternating-current Ti 






tlon 



;.-.•-. 



Track Circuits for Signaling 

Tracks. Street-railway. Two-part...' 303 

Traction. Alternating-current, in Heavy Rail- 
roading. (New York Railroad Club) 

Traction. Elect lie. i.V.'W Y.-ar's Review). .6, 10. II 
Traction. Surface-contact. (See Surface-contact.) 

Trade News. (Notes) 2S. 49. t5s. 31. 

i ii. i:;... 1 is. 1.;:.. lsn. _•..■.. .... . 

::js. ;;is. 371. :::„,. 111 
Train Lighting on the Great Western Railway 

of England s- 

'I'm, informer Stations of Warren-Joniestown Sin- 
gle-phase Railway IS8 

Transformer. Stt t. in Milan. Italy "4ss 

Transformer Testing. Portable Wright Demand 

Indicator for • 17s 

Transformers in Long Island Railroad Sul.-st items 517 
Transmission, Eleotric. (See Hydro-electric. 
Power Development, Power Transmission, etc.) 
Transmitting and Utilizing Low-frequency Cur- 
rents. Stanley's System of 

Trenton Falls (N. Y. i Hydro-electric Develop- 



■ity Railway and Light Company. Forma- 



is.' 



Getting and Retaining 



of. 

Tripp. George 

Business :,is 

Tri-state Telephone Company of St. Paul. Toll- 
board Equipment of the •lot 

Trolley Boat to Disperse Floating Ice at Niagara 
Falls Power House »93 

Trolley Suspension on Seebaeb-Wettingen Line.."5M 

Trolley. Theater Excursions by It: 

Trolley Trip. \ Long 

Trolley Wheel of Pure Copper 



Tungsten. (See Wolfram.) 

Tunnel. Detroit. (See Detroit.) 

Tunnel Excavator. Jackson's Electrically Oper- 
ated 

Tunnel. Sarnia. (See SarniaO 

Tunnel. Simplon. (See Simplon.) 

Tunnels. Chicago Freight. (See Chicago Freight 
Tunnels.) 

Turbine. Hydraulic 9.700-horsepower, for Cali- 
fornia Gas and Electric Corporation : 

Turbine. Steam. 1 See Steam Turbine.) 

Turbo-generator. Large. The Starting of a •! 

Turbo-generators. Regulating. Emmet's System 



•293. 295 
n.l Tiiree-phas" Motors. Comparison 

adley McCormick 447. '523 

ontroller, Eastman's '312 

Telegraphy, Roussel's System of..*214 



U 

Ultra-violet Tamp with Heat-radiating Qualities. .'376 

Ultra-violet Wave-length Test to Detect Exist- 
ence of Life (Editorial) 296 

Underground Cable Practice. Present. Comments 
on. By Wallace S. Clark 359 

Underground Cables. Maximum Voltage for 445 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



Underground Construction In La Crosse, Wis. By 

W. D. Burford 1»J>. 

Underground Construction for Long Island Rail- 



ia.l 



.Mod,. 



Underground Electrical Construction 
Tendency in 

Underground Mail Conveying System in C 
(See Chicago Freight Tunnels.) 

Underground Versus Overhead Lines 

Underground (Tube) Railways in London 
London.) , „ ,._ 

" Report on Electrical Conditions 



(Se 



Underwri 
Detroit . . 

Underwriter 
trie Light 



Requirements lor a Standard Elec- 

„., and Power Station 

United Engineering Building 33, 99, 217, 

United Engineering Building. Cornerstone Laying 



of 



(See Ex- 



By 



United States, Electrical Export 

United States, Electrical Progress in, in 1305. 

Henry H. Morris. (New Years Review) ... . .... 

United Stales Telephone Company 204, 4s5, 479. , 

Units. Electrical. ( Editorial) 

Units, Electrical, International 257, 

Units of Measurement. Electrical. The Charlottcn- 

burg Conference on. By Henry S. Carhart •. 

Utica, N. Y., Large Waterpower Developments 

Near , 



Vacuum Tube. The. and Electrical Effluvia 

Vacuum-tube Lighting. (See Tube Lighting.) 

Valentine. E. H., Retires from Business 

Variable-speed Operation of Induction Motors....' 

Vesuvius, Eruption of ■ ...itx, 

Victoria Falls fewer Transmission, Proposed 

Victoria Park, Niagara Falls. Annual Report of 

Commissioners of 

Voltmeter. Westingliouse Electrostatic 

Voltmeters. (See also Instruments.) 

Vose, Frederic P 



\Af 



Ne 



Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company's 

Works ■ - ,'•;,'." ; 

Waldron, J. M. (Alternating-current Signal Cir- 
cuits in the New York Subway) ■*< 

Wales, Power Transmission in 10, 1 

Wallace, John F ............. ...*M. '■ 

Warren (Pa.) and Jamestown Single-phase , Kail- 

Washington'-Baiti'more Electric Railway 347, i 

Washington, D, C, Frivolous Use of the Telephone 

Washington, D. C.. New Telephone Building in '. 

Washington, D. C, Potomac Electric Company s 
Power House in ■ ;a" ' ' 

Washington and Oregon, The Telephone in. (Cor- 
respondence) '- •■■■•■■•■ 

Waterpower Development of Kakabeka Falls, near 
Port William, Ont ................ . 

Waterpower Development at Sewalls talis, rj. t±. 

Waterpower Developments near Utica, N. Y„ 
Large .■ • ■ • ■; ■ - 

Waterpower. (See also Hydro-electric, Power De- 
velopment, Turbine, etc.) 

Water Purification. Electrical. (Editorial) 

Water Purifier, Electrical, for Household Pur- 
Waterworks' Schenectady. Electric Pumping Plant 
of the. By C. T. Wilkinson * 



Waters', W. L., Improvement in Motor Field Com- 
mutation • ■ ,-* 273 

Waters W. L. (Shunt and Compound-wound 

Synchronous Converters for Railway Work). 474, 477 
Watseka, III.. Proposed as Electrical Transmission 

Center • ^^ 

Weather Reports by Telephone 164 

Webb II. L.. on European Telephone Service.... 305 
Weeks E R. (Notes on the Lighting of Churchesr i..3 

Wilding Apparatus. Arc, Improved *469 

Wellman Polar Expedition. I Editorial) ....... .... 56 

Wellman Polar Expedition. Plans of the.56 300, 305, 404 
Wellman Polar Expedition. (See also North Pole.) 
Welsl.aeh's (Dr. Carl Auer von Welsbaeh) Support 

for Osmium Lamp Filaments ...»254 

Wessling, A. G. (Electrical Equipment of Louis- 
ville and Nashville Railroad Shops) "175 

West Shore Railroad Electrification 258 

West Virginia Independent Telephone Association, 

Parkersburg Convention of •■ 244 

Western Electric Company. Hawthorne Plant of, 

Chicago Edison Men Entertained at 361 

Western Electric Company. Hawthorne Shops of 

the. By H. R. King ■ ■ . V «J 

Western El.ctric Company, New S'oek Issue of.. 169 

Western Electric Fan Motor 219 

Western Electrician's Statistics of Electrical Man- 
Western Ohio' Railway Extension ■ .*19, 206 

West. Til Society of Engineers. Electrical Sec- 

tion of. Meetings of 100, -43, 1-3 

Western Society of Engineers. New Officers of... 19 
Western Union Telegraph Company's Quarterly 

Reports ■ • • ■ v - 26s < ■'■' 7> 

Western Union Telegraph Company s Semi-cen- 
tennial -«*";"i j 

Westingliouse Alternating-current Overload ana 

Reverse-current Relay "53 

Westingliouse 1906 Electric Fans — 

Westingliouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany Increases Capital Stock j59 

Westingliouse Electrostatic Voltmeter ......... .. *40 

Westingliouse. George. Awarded John Fritz Medal, lt>8 
Westingliouse Graphic Recording Electric Instru- 
ments ■ ••■■ .": " 

Westinghouse High-voltage Electrically Operated 

Oil Circuit-breaker 66 

Westingliouse Motors. Small -19 

Westingliouse Personnel. Changes m ••■■■■ ;;' 

Westingliouse Singlc-pha s. Compensated Motor... *o9 
Westingliouse Turbo-generators in Long Island 

City Power Station 7, *293, 295 

Westinghouse Variable-speed Motor with Auxili- 
ary Poles ];» 

Weston. Edward, on Service Meters 491 

Wheaton 111.. Electrical Conditions at 202 

Widnes-Runcorn Electrically Operated Transporter 

WiWiimann's ' ri;:tt"h. imsti > iE;i Fill!*) 4r0 
Wil-us W. J., on Alternating-current Traction.. 239 
Wilkinson, C. T. (Electric Pumping Plant of the 

Schenectady Waterworks) 3&1 

Willey D A. (Electrically Operated Floating 

Fuel' Depot for Coaling Warships) :....... *93 

Williams. Arthur ..'WS, *494 

Williams, C. H. (Modern Central-station Design 

as Exemplified in La Crosse, Wis.)... 171 

Wilmington, Del., New-business Campaign 424 

Wilmington. Del.. New Steam-turbine Plant for.. 4SS 

Wilson-MacKean Insulator Pin • 140 

Wilson's. Leonard. Protection of Alternating-cur- 
rent Generators Against Reversal of Energy, .'lob 
Winnipeg, Electric Power Development in and 

Winnipeg, Electric-power Rates in • 425 

Winona, Ind„ Interurban Railway Company, 
Equipment for 477 



Winter Use of Electric Fans. (Editorial) 56 

Wire and Cable Standardization. (Editorial).... 356 

Wire Glass 484 

Wire, Hard-drawn Copper. By T. B. Doolitlle 61 

Wire, Insulated. (See Insulated Wire.) 

Wire Stringing for Overhead Lines, Spencer on.*522 

Wires and Cables, Rubber-covered, Standarizing. 

By Joh n Langan 35S 

Wires, Electrical, Cold Bending of Pipes for. By 

R. G. Grayne *94 

Wires. Iron. Substituted for Copper in Telegraph 

Work 454 

Wires, Thin Insulation for .303 

Wireless Conference, Another 363 

Wireless Contract, Navy, Awarded 139 

Wireless, Long-distance 61, 277, 407 

Wireless Printing Telegraph, A 38 

Wireless at San Francisco During the Great Fire 121 

Wireless, Subterranean 116. add 

Wireless Telephony. Collins' System of *-'■>- 

Wireless Torpedo Exploder. New Form of 401 

Wireless. (See also Space Telegraphy.) 

Wiring Conditions in Western Cities 

35, 36, 129, 139, 193. 202. 271. 287, 300. 320. 483 

"Wiring 1 hagrams and Switchboards." By New- 
ton Harrison. (Book Review) 142 

"Wiring Handbook." By Cecil P. Poole. (Book 

Review) 241 

Wiring. Inside, in the East and in the West. 

(Editorial) 36 

Wiring of New Houses, The 6S 

Wiring. (See also Construction.) 

Wisconsin Light and Power Company's Central 

Station at La Crosse, Wis *171, ISO 

Wisconsin River Power Development at the Dells, 

Proposed 16S 

Wolfram Lamp, The New 179. 352 

Wood, James J., Mrs., Death of 16S 

Worcester, Mass., Electric-lighting Situation in. 

(Editorial) 39S 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Electrical Engi- 
neering and Railway Laboratories at *441 

Worcester, A Producer-gas Power Plant in.... 47S 
Wright Demand Indicator Business in the United 

States, Growth of the *43 

Wright Demand Indicator, Portable, for Trans- 
former Testing *47S 

Wright Demand System and Electric-light Rates. 

(Editorial) 356 

Wright Demand System in England 26n, 303. 362 

Wright Demand System in England and the 
United States. By J. S. C 362 



X-ray Apparatus, Portable, for Testing Cables .. *254 



Yerkes, Charles T., Death of ' *19, 64 

Yerkes' Successors Named 41, 88 

Yonkers, Municipal Ownership in.. ......... 111 

Yonkeis Specialty Company's Ground- wire clamp. ..0., 

Y'ork. Pa.. Street Railways of, Sold 300 

Yorke, R. F., Death of 279 



Zahm A W »334, 340 

Zahm' A. W. (The Care and Maintenance of 

Electric Meters) |°J 

Zeidler Gasoline Blow Torch &"9 

Zinc Refining Industry ««» 

Zirconium Lamp io 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



EVERY SATURDAY 



Vol. XXXVIII. 



CHK AGO, .1 Wi 






Fisk Street Station of the Commonwealth 
Electric Company, Chicago. 

IWiih Supple in I 

p KNTKAl. ST.Vl ion practice in Chicago al 

*-* the present time exemplifies lany ways the 

highest develo] ml of the art. A city with a 

population nf nearly j.oou.otjo schiK, distributed over 

an area about 26 miles long and averaging some 
eight miles in width, with a central portion which is 
densely congested by business requirements, offers 
a great variety of problems to the central-station 
management. 
Fifteen years ago several central Station com 



whose development h rly by 

practice. It is the pui i iclc to 

th four 
lare.e iiniis complete. The previous articles which 
have- appeared ern Electrician, notably 

thai of May 23, 1903, were more preliminary in 

I 111 I Ml' 

It is to be rioted that, whereas the three older 

- hi the pre "i equipment have a nominal 

1 in f 5,000 kilowatts each, they have been run 

continuously at 6,000 kilowatts, and at tin 
peak load as high as 7,500 kilow 1 



for an ullimal 

Station will !.• • -lic*ed 

that no other electric-light ai n any- 

where 

phot when it . 

-ruu. 
Fisk Street the juncture of 

Fisk Street and the South Branch of the Chicago 
and is about three miles from the down- 
town business district At tl mmon- 
wealth company owns 23 acres of land, the 1 
location of the proper' in Fig 2. the 




STEAM TUKt'.INES 



panies were operating in the city, among them the 
Chicago Edison Company, which was the largest. 
To-day, however, a different state of affairs exists, 
and all the smaller independent companies have 
given place to the two large companies which 
now control Chicago's, central-station business — the 
Chicago Edison Company and the Commonwealth 
Electric Company. Each generates and distributes 
electricity in its own territory, that of the Edison 
being the central portion of the city and that of the 
Commonwealth the surrounding parts. However, 
the two systems are interconnected, and that of 
the Chicago Edison Company receives much of its 
current from the principal generating plant of the 
Commonwealth Electric Company. This generating 
plant is known as the Fisk Street .Station, the first 
steam-turbine central station to be put in operation. 
Equipped entirely with steam turbine's ,and the 
most modern apparatus, and with an ultimate 
capacity of 156,000 kilowatts, the Fisk Street Station, 
from its great size and many new features, is one 



latest unit — No. 4 — which is the farthest from the 
spectator in the picture on this page, and sepa- 
rately illustrated in Fig. 7, has a maximum capac- 
ity of 9,000 kilowatts. As it stands at present the 
station has a record of carrying 2S,500 kilowatts. 

But four more units have been ordered and will 
undoubtedly be placed in position during the year. 
These, like their predecessors, are General Electric 
outfits with Curtis turbines. These turbo-gener- 
ators will have a nominal rating of 8,000 kilowatts, 
guaranteed, however, to run continuously at 9,000 
kilowatts, and for two hours, the period of maxi- 
mum load, up to 12,000 kilowatts. This equip- 
ment will add 48,000 kilowatts to the capacity of 
the station, bringing the total up to 76,500 kilo- 
watts. 

After this addition it is the intention to remodel 
the three older turbines now installed, so that no 
machine in the station shall have less than 9,000 
kilowatts maximum capacity, while all after the 
first four will have 12,000. The plant is designed 



heavy outlines denoting the company's property. 
On the north, the tracks of the Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railroad enter the grounds, as shown, 
and at the south end of the property, across the 
river from the station, the tracks of the Chicago 
and Alton gain entrance, so that coal and supplies 
may be obtained from two separate roads. 

Ample facilities for the storage of coal are 
provided, as will be seen by Fig. 2. not only 
across the river from the station, but on the same 
side as well, where sufficient trackage is provided, 
which, however, is not indicated on the diagram. 
As much as 60,000 tons has been in storage at once, 
and still the capacity was not taxed greatly. Coal 
is transported from the storage yard across the 
river to the station side by means of large scows 
or barges. 

Most of the coal burned is screenings from the 
Springfield district, averaging about 10,500 B. T. U. 
The station has used as hfgh as 1.000 tons in a 
day in December. This low-grade coal has been 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



found very satisfactory and makes an intensely 
hot fire under the excellent firing conditions which 
exist in the plant. Combustion is nearly complete 
and very little smoke is noticeable; indeed, this 
28,000-kilowatt plant emits less smoke than comes 
from a small nearby plant using an engine of 
probably a few hundred horsepower. 

Located near the center of the property is the 
generating station and the switch house. The 
part indicated in heavy black in Fig. 2 is the 
present completed portion, the part indicated in 
solid lines is work now under construction and the 
part in dotted lines is for future extensions. The 




width of the station is approximately 230 feet. 
The completed portion (A) is 185 feet long, the 
portion under construction (B) is 165 feet in 
length, leaving for the future extensions the por- 
tion (C) which is 265 feet in length. 

At the north end of the property, near Twenty- 
second Street, is a substation now in process of 




fig. 3. 



TERIOR OF FISK STREET STATION OF COMMONWEALTH ELECTRIC 

ty 



' (SWITCH HOUSE AT RIGHT). 



construction, which is known as the West Tw 
second Street Substation. 

Generating Station and Equipment. 
Fig. 3 is an exterior view of the Fisk Street 
Station as it now stands. The building is of the 
French style of architecture with red pressed-brick 
walls and cut-stone trimmings, the whole effect 
contrasting in a pleasing manner with the plain 
surroundings of the neighborhood. Reference to 
the accompanying supplement will show the general 
layout of the plant, both in plan and section. The 
unit idea pervades the whole installation, from the 
coal conveyors to the last outgoing line switch, 
each group or unit being complete in itself, with 
the idea of localizing and confining any possible 
trouble that might arise. 

On the eastern side of the building is the train 
shed, which extends the entire length. Here the 
coal cars are- run in for unloading into hoppers 
below the floor, which discharge the coal into 
crushers preparatory to its entering the conveyor 
system. The crushers are motor driven, and one 
is provided for each boiler unit. From the crush- 
ers the coal is carried by Meade conveyors having 
24 by 24 inch buckets to the coal bunkers, which 
are located above the boilers, the bunkers for each 
boiler unit having a capacity of 1,000 tons. The 
conveyors travel continuously and are utilized to 
remove the ashes from the pits beneath the boilers 
to a hopper above the railroad track, from which 
they may be discharged into cars. 
Boiler Plant. 
Each boiler unit consists of eight Babcock & 
Wilcox boilers, the boilers of each two consecutive 
units facing each other as shown in Fig. 4. The 
boilers have 5,000 square feet of beating surface, 
there being in each 52 four-inch tubes 18 feet long, 
arranged in banks iS tubes wide and 14 high. 




Nominally, the pressure carried is 180 pounds to 
the square inch. The chain-grate stokers are driven 
from a shaft extending the full length of each 
boiler unit, this being driven by either of two en- 
gines, one of which is always held in reserve. 

Coal from the bunkers above the boilers is 
brought down to the grates through swinging 
chutes, which distribute the coal evenlv along the 
grates. The bunkers for each boiler unit having a 
capacity of approximately 1,000 tons. The entrance 
of the coal into the chutes is governed by a valve- 
like arrangement controlled by chains which are 
within the reach of the boiler attendant on the floor. 
The furnace gases pass from the flues through 
curved uptakes, shown prominently in Fig. 5, to the 
boiler breechings which lead into the stack. One 
stack is provided for each two boiler units. The 
stacks are of steel construction, rising to a height 




FIG. 4. INTERIOR OF 



STREET BOILER PLANT, SHOWING FRONTS OF TWO BOILER UNITS. 



of 205 feet above the boiler-room floor and with an 
inside diameter of iS feet. They are not built from 
the ground up, but are supported above the boilers. 
Superheat of 150 is used, which is obtained bj 
a superheater receiving the direct influence of the 
hottest part of the furnace gases. The superheated 
steam from each pair of boiler units passes from 
the superheater upward to a point above the boilers 
and from there into a six-inch pipe passing down 
to the main steam header located in the basement. 
In the view above the boilers (Fig- 5) the arrange- 
ment of a portion of this piping is shown in the 
foreground. Reference to the supplement will indi- 
cate more clearly the arrangement of the boilers 
and piping, since one portion of the plan shows 
the top of a set of boilers with the piping arrange- 
ment, another portion shows in plan the piping in 
the header room below the boiler-room floor, and 
the third portion, which shows boiler units 5 and 
6, not yet constructed, is a plan through the 
pent house with roof construction removed. 



January 6, [906 






In .-I 11 ]r.,i ii partmi nl ol Ihi b 

header room ( a mcnl I abovi 

boilc 1 ' "i' ol the 1 I" adi 1 1 

in i' 'jg, 1, Two main team headers, varying in 

I. ,1,1 i, 1 i,,, ni fivi i.. 1 1 ini hi . 1 ti nd Ii ngthwi le 

,,1 il lartment, and into Ihi m in 

ii dei - ig dov .'i i" boili 1 

1 hi 1 ii- adi 1.1. how n in ihi pi in (sc< 

in ni 1, each pa 1 1 1 1 1 

,1,1,1 to the ini bine . thu 1 pn 1 1 . ing the un 

'l here is, however, an inti n 01 bel n 

pair of main headci « hii Ii ■■■ ill allow ol 



room, 

turbine to bi 

1 

1 hi in ' 

itindation foin [1 making; 



— 




bine being run from its adjacent boiler unit if 
desired. Remote-control motor-operated valves are 
used. In the header room there are also located 
the feed and auxiliary headers for the auxiliary 
apparatus. 

In the basement below the boilers is located an 
air-compressor outfit, which furnishes air at go 
pounds pressure for operating window shutters and 




EALTH ELECT R 

the total height above the floor about 30 feet. In 
size and arrangement the buckets are so propor- 
tioned that the velocity of the steam, for any par- 
ticular rotative speed, is only partially taken up in 
the first stage, the remaining part being practically 
all utilized in the second stage. So low is the 
velocity of the steam at exhaust that the exhaust 
openings are made of unusual size, and the con- 
denser is placed close 
up to the turbine. 

Governing is accom- 
plished by the successive 
opening or closing of 
the various nozzles lead- 
ing to the buckets. Each 
nozzle may be closed 



its general dimensions, weight and speed arc the 
same as for the first three units. Tig. 7 is a good 
view of unit No, j 

The turbine room, as seen in Fig. 1. extends 
north and south and i- at right angli 
of boilers forming each boiler unit. This i> a radi- 
cal departure from the usual practice of setting the 
lines of boilers parallel to the lini 
The main steam headers pass in an upward direc- 
tion direct to the turbines, as previously mentioned. 
Fig. 8 is an interesting picture showing these head- 
ers as they emerge from the partition beneath the 
visitors 1 gallery and pass in sweeping curves to the 
various units. 

The long room in which the turbines are installed 
i3 handsomely finished in white glazed brick and 




in Turbine Room, Showing Headers Leading to Turbines. F >K- 9- 

VIEWS IN FISK STREET STATION OF COMMONWEALTH ELECTRIC COMPANY 



tools, cleaning electrical apparatus, etc. It is driven 
by a 35-horsepower motor, the whole being en- 
closed in a sheet-iron housing. 

Steam-turbine Installation. 
Above all other things that have made the Fisk 
Street Station a landmark iu the progress of 
central-station development is the use of the steam 
turbine exclusively as the prime mover. This 
radical step was first taken in the Chicago plant, 
and the first 5,000-kilowatt steam turbine to be put 
in operation was here installed. Since the first 
turbo-alternator was put in, which was in the early 
part of 1903, three others have been installed, two 



gradually, and can be worked continuously at any 
position between full-open and closed. The governor 
is mounted on top of the alternator and connected 
to the end of the vertical shaft. 

As the first unit installed represented the first 
type of 5.oco-kilowatt turbo-generator (nominal 
rating) built by the General Electric Company, 50 
the last unit, or No. 4. represents the latest phase of 
its development, which, though essentially similar, 
contains some few- improvements as to detail. The 
essential points of difference between the No. 4 unit 
and the previous three are that the steam enters the 
turbine through two steam chests instead of three. 



terra cotta from floor to ceiling, with ornamental 
terra cotta architraves to all openings. A 
gallery extends along both sides, giving a good 
view of all the units. A railroad track enters the 
building at the main entrance on the north front. 
so that parts for each successive unit may he taken 
direct from the car and put in position by the 50- 
ton crane that serves the turbine room. The floors 
are of vitrified German tile of small size laid in a 
pattern which gives a general mosaic effect. 
Condensers and Auxiliary Apparatus. 
The surface condensers, containing 20.000 square 
feet of heating surface each, were furnished by the 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



Alberger Condenser Company of New York city. 
These condensers are located close to the turbines 
and one of the units is shown in Fig. 9. For 
circulating the condensing water a centrifugal pump 
is used with each condenser, driven by a vertical 
Corliss engine, which is shown in Fig. 9. On the 
same shaft with the circulating pump is a vertical 
two-stage dry-air pump. The wet vacuum pump is 
installed as a tailpiece on the steam cylinder of the 
vertical engine. 

Duplicate vertical boiler feed pumps, the hot well 



supplied to the bearings, and derives its supply 
from a steam-driven pump, the pressure being also 
maintained by an accumulator similar in construc- 
tion to the type of accumulator used in high- 
pressure hydraulic elevator systems. Oil for lubri- 
cation is supplied by a gravity system. 

General Electrical Features. 
Three-phase current is supplied by the turbo- 
alternators at 9,000 volts, 25 cycles. Each alter- 
nator, with its switching apparatus, forms a sepa- 
rate unit. While each of the different units will 




00000066 



SNECTIONS OF HIGH-TENSION SYSTEM AT FISK STREET STATION. 



and the feed-water heater are located underneath 
or adjacent to the surface condenser, so that the 
entire equipment for each unit is ■ compactly 
arranged as shown in Fig. 9. The boiler feed 
pumps take their supply directly from the hot well 
into which the condensers discharge. 

Condensing water is taken from the slip on the 
east side of property, this being the upstream side, 
by means of one concrete tunnel for each two units. 
These tunnels deliver to wells from which the circu- 
lating pumps take suction. After passing through the 
condenser the circulating water is delivered to other 
concrete tunnels, one for each four or five units, 
which tunnels discharge into the slip on the west or 
down-stream side of the property. 

Excellent results thus far obtained indicate that 
the power required for driving these various con- 
denser auxiliaries is extremely small, in fact a con- 
siderably smaller percentage of the total output of 
the generator than is the usual practice. 

Other machinery which might in a general way 
come under the head of auxiliary apparatus in- 
cludes a complete fire-protection system maintained 
by the station. For this purpose a spherical pump 
capable of delivering water up to a pressure of 
200 pounds to the square inch is located in a 
separate room off from the turbine room. This 
pump is driven by a 225-horsepower General Elec- 
tric motor. " By the use of a Cutler-Hammer con- 
trol board, which is located in a sheet-iron housing 
in the pump room, the motor is automatically 
brought up to speed upon closing the switch. 

Another important part of the auxiliary apparatus 
is the oil-pumping system for the step bearings of 
the turbines. This apparatus is located in the oil 
room, which opens out of the turbine room. The 



1 1 




tfflHF .' 




O 


W' ; 'JKF ■ 


-■,4 '" 

II 





oil from the turbine bearing comes directly to the 
filters located in this room. After filtering it is 
taken to a storage tank, from which the various 
pumps supplying oil to the bearings derive their 
supply. To keep up the oil pressure in case of 
emergency a main oil pipe is provided which con- 
tains oil under 1,200 pounds' pressure, the pressure 



ordinarily be operated independently, provision is 
made whereby any unit can be connected in multi- 
ple with any other in reference to its group of 
feeders. 
The high-tension installation for the station is 



erator bus in the switch house. From this bus, in 
the first four units, the energy is delivered to three 
sets of busses, namely, transfer, auxiliary and line 
busses. The line busses for these four units are 
equipped with sectionalizing oil switches. 

Beginning with the fifth and the following units, 
the generator bus is connected with four sets of 
busses, namely, transfer, auxiliary and two line 
busses. Here it will be observed there are no 
sectionalizing switches between the line busses. 

In the first three units all lines are equipped with 
two selector switches and only four lines per unit. 
In the fourth and following units the lines are 
equipped with only one switch each, five lines ema- 
nating from the fourth and eight lines from each 
of the following units. The increased number of 
outgoing lines per unit is due to the larger size of 
turbines to be installed, beginning with the fifth 
unit. 

There are installed at present three 50-kilowatt 
induction-motor exciter sets, on an inter-connected 
system. It is proposed to install two similar exciter 
sets in the portion now under construction. In 
each case these exciter sets are connected to the 
generator bus of that particular unit through an oil 
switch and a step-down transformer located in the 
switch house. In addition to these exciters there 
is an emergency steam-driven exciter which con* 
sists of a General Electric 127.5-volt 588-ampere 
generator direct connected to a vertical engine. 

In the first four units the compartments for the 
high-tension bus-bars in the basement of the switch 
house are so arranged that all busses and con- 
nections to oil switches for each unit are contained 




FOR FIRST FOUR L'Ni: 

located in the switch house, a two-story building 
with a basement, which parallels the main station at 
a distance of 50 feet (see Fig. 3). One-half of this 
building, to accommodate seven units, has been 
erected. At the present time the electrical instal- 
lation for units 6 and 7 is in progress. The wiring 
connections for the high-tension system are shown 
in Fig. 10. 

High-tension oil switches and instrument switch- 
boards are located on the first floor of the switch 
house, while the bus-bars and other high-tension 
connections, together with the instrument trans- 
formers and the necessary manholes and subways 
for the outgoing lines, are located in the basement. 
Fig. 11 is a view showing part of the oil switches 
for the first four units, and Fig. 12 shows the 
instrument transformers in the basement. 

A distinctive and special feature in the design of 
the switch house is the isolation of all high-tension 
bus-bars and connections thereto in fireproof com- 
partments. The oil switches, together with the 
instrument switchboards on the first floor have also 
been grouped in units, but not, however, in sepa- 
rate compartments The control and instrument 
wiring in the switch house is brought to the con- 
trolling switchboard located in the operating gal- 
lery in the turbine room through separate groups 
of ducts fof each unit. 

As will be observed from the diagram of high- 
tension bus connections, the energy after leaving 
the turbo-generators in the turbine room is deliv- 
ered by means of high-tension single-conductor lead- 
covered cables through an oil switch to the gen- 



5 IN SWITCH HOUSE AT FISK STREET STATION. 

in one compartment (see Fig. 13). The instrument 
transformers and underground cable connections 
for lines are also contained in a compartment by 
themselves and similar connections for generator 
leads are contained in another compartment, making 
three compartments per unit 

In the fifth, sixth and seventh units a feature of 
special interest has been introduced in the bus 
connections whereby each bus has a separate com- 
partment and all oil-switch connections, together 
with the instrument transformers and bells for 
cables, are likewise contained in separate compart- 
ments, one for the generator and two for the out- 
going lines, a total of seven compartments per unit. 
By this arrangement it has been possible to separate 
and isolate all phases of busses and connections, 
including the instrument transformers, by means 
of concrete barriers, thus insuring reliability in 
operation, simplicity in design and economy in in- 
vestment. The busses are arranged in a vertical 
position and supported on porcelain petty-coated 
insulators, while the oil-switch connections in all 
cases consist of copper rods practically self-support- 
ing. 

It is possible by means of the transfer and 
auxiliary busses, in case of any disability of any 
particular unit, to furnish the necessary energy for 
its lines from any other unit. Ordinarily the units 
are operated independently. The outgoing lines 
leave the station in three-conductor 0000 under- 
ground cables and are distributed to the various 
substations, as shown on the diagram of the trans- 
mission system, Fig. 14. This diagram illustrates 



January 6, 1906 

admirably the relation of the Fisk Street Station to 

iln combined ' 1 >f the Commonwealth and 

Chicago Sdison companies. A. shown in ! 
linea N08, 1 to 200 inclusive are from, the 




WESTERN hl.i' 

unit an irated from those of another 

unit, either by vitril 

I hi Wiring : ,' .,, 

All conti 

,1 the 

table, Hi iik- through tin 

blc. A hronizing plug 

•■ h, and 
causes on the synchronize! an indicatioi 
I 
point . about to be do witch 

At the rear of the board the wiring is i 
larly to 1 for its simplicity and neat- 

ness. All the control and instrument mull 

• lii> 1 tbli end at the terminal board, carefully 

lettered 

hi ■• it I ■ mand a 



■ 

taking 

though the COI 

■ 

; 

Bern , t>. 

Ample facili' 
I pro. 

fitting up a restaurai 
second fl'/or of the switch home, wl 

uiioii 
and to . zrd in 

■1 the plant 

iped throughout with 



Street Station, 201 to 300 from the Morgan Street 
Station and 301 to 400 are tie lines between sub- 
stations. 

Switchboard and Apparatus. 
Remote-control apparatus which is used to operate, 
the switches in the switch house is contained in an 
elevated switchboard room which is built up on the 
west side of the turbine room, as shown in Fig. 15. 
This compartment, which is supported on a highly 
ornamental structure, looks out upon the turbine 
room, and is entirely enclosed on the front and ends 
by glass, giving an unobstructed view of all the prin- 
cipal machines. The oil stwitches in the switch 
house are controlled from the station switchboard 
by means of an auxiliary low-pressure system 
operating at no volts. Here are located also the 
instruments for the outgoing lines. All remote- 
control wires are carried in multi-conductor lead- 
covered cable arranged so that the cables of one 




signal system between each turbine and its operat- 
ing panel. 

Station Light and Power. 
Light and power for the Fisk Street Station are 
supplied from West Twenty-second Street Substation, 
located on the same property (see Fig 2). At 
present there are about 1,200 incandescent and 50 
arc lamps required for lighting the station and 
switch house. The light and power system is in 
duplicate. One main service board is located in the 
turbine room, also a controlling board in the boiler 




MAIN OPKRATINo 



TREET TUREINE 



electrical cooking apparatus and is designed to pro- 
vide for fifty people. The electrical stoves, broilers 
and toasters are mounted on a specially designed 
slate cooking table, which is built along the north 
and west walls of the room. This table consists of 
three shelves at suitable heighths. and of a width 
sufficient to accommodate the various cooking units. 
These shelves are built against a slate back, which 
is firmly secured to the wall, and on which the 
outlets for the various circuits are mounted. 

Ovens and a^ five-gallon urn for providing hot 
water for cooking purposes are installed on a sepa- 
rate table near the center of the room. Coffee 
will be made in an electrical urn located in one 
of the dining rooms. Each outlet is controlled 
from a main cut-out cabinet and each circuit is of 
sufficient capacity to earn- any one of the separate 
pieces of appartus. 

In the store room adjacent to the kitchen is lo- 
cated a 200-pound motor-driven refrigerating ap- 
paratus, which provides the necessary cold storage 
space, and is also provided with facilities for man- 
ufacturing the ice necessary for cooling the drinking 
water. 

In the design of this restaurant careful con- 
sideration has been given to sanitary conditions, and 
the dining rooms are fitted with a view to the com- 
fort and convenience of the employes and all furni- 
ture and fittings have been selected so as to secure 
a neat and harmonious effect. 

On the same floor as the dining room and kitchen 
are several comfortable bedrooms for employes 
who may be required to stay for any considerable 
length of time at the station. 

One of the most interesting features of this part 
of the work is the asserhbly and reading room, 
which is accessible to those who may be off duty. 
A view of the interior of this room is shown in 
Fig. 16. It is fitted up with comfortable furniture 
which harmonizes well with the finish of the room. 
Large tables are provided, where the current 
technical literature is obtainable for those who 
desire to read. Well-filled bookcases stand along 
the wall, and their contents form part of the cir- 
culating library which the Chicago Edison and 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



Commonwealth companies keep up for the benefit 
of those in their employment. 

Boiler-house employes have quarters located di- 
rectly above the north boiler unit. Here are pro- 
vided well-ventilated locker rooms, lavatories, 
shower baths, etc. In these quarters is also located 
the office of the boiler-house engineer, who is thus 
at. all times in close communication with the men 
of his department. 

The turbine-house employes have their quarters 
on the second floor of the switch house, where 
they have their own locker and bath rooms. 
Miscellaneous Features. 

To furnish excitation to the generators in case 
of emergency a storage battery has been provided, 
of the Electric Storage Battery Company's make, 
situated in the third story of the main station 
building. The battery contains 70 type G cells and 
is provided with the usual end-cell regulation, the 



ELECTRICAL PROGRESS IN UNITED STATES IN 1905. 




end-cell switches being contained in a separate 
room. 

The West Twenty-second Street Substation, 
which is located on the Fisk street property, is now 
in course of construction. It contains one 1,000 and 
one 500 kilowatt motor generators, which transform 
the incoming current from 25 cycles to 60 cycles 
for distribution There is also a 2,000-volt rotary 
converter which supplies current to the station and 
for adjacent territory. 

In order that better transit facilities be provided 
between the Fisk Street Station and the Harrison 
Street Station and downtown offices than is afforded 
by the street railway lines, the officers of the com- 
pany have for their use an electric launch, which 
will take them by water between these points in a 
few minutes. The launch is one of those used at 
the Pan-American Exposition, and will seat 20 
people. It is provided with 44 Chloride accumula- 
tor cells with 120 ampere-hour capacity, and may 
be propelled at five different speeds by a six-horse- 
power 88-volt motor. 

Among the contributors to the success of this 
work should be mentioned Sargent & Lundy of 
Chicago, who were the consulting engineers; Shep- 
ley, Rutan & Coolidge of Chicago, the architects 
who designed the group of buildings, and the gen- 
tlemen composing the Commonwealth company's 
permanent engineering staff, under whose super- 
vision the apparatus was installed. The result is 
an electric-light and power station, which, already 
one of the most notable in the country, is to be 
extended to be, perhaps, the largest in the world. 



"A Power Plant." 

It is not often that a power station forms the 
subject of a sonnet, but in the Century Magazine for 
January there is an example of this form of poetical 
composition inspired by the Fisk Street power house 
of the Commonwealth Electric Company, which is 
described at length in this issue of the Western 
Electrician. The author is Miss Harriet Monroe 
of Chicago, well, known for her poetical gifts, and 
a sister of Mr. W. S. Monroe of the engineering 
firm of Sargent & Lundy. The title is "A Power 
Plant — the Fisk Street Turbine-engine Electric Sta- 
tion in Chicago." The verses, which are here repro- 
duced by permission, are as follows: 

und— 

-footed Power 

, caged in the i 
Sing as they labor with a purring sound. 
The abysmal bres, crated and chained and bound, 
Burn white and still, in swift obedience cower; 
While far and wide the myriad lamps, a-flower. 
Glow like star-gardens and the night confound. 
This we have done for thee, almighty Lord; 
Yea, even as they who built at thy command 
The pillared temple, or in marble made 
Thine image, or who sang thy deathless word. 
We take the weapons of thy dread right hand. 
And wield them in thy service unafraid. 



By Henry H. Norris 



The year just closed has been one of remark- 
able activity in all of the fields of application of 
electrical engineering. The clearest indication of 
this is in the unprecedented demand for technically 
trained electrical engineers. The experience of all 
of the high-grade technical schools has been that 
their students are needed in all lines of develop- 
ment in numbers far greater than can be supplied. 
This shows that important undertakings requiring 
men with well-trained minds are attracting the at- 
tention of financiers, manufacturers and engineers. 
The demand also shows that the adaptability of 
carefully trained young engineers to all kinds of 
electrical activity is being more clearly recognized. 
There was a time when a recent graduate from 
a technical school was regarded with suspicion, 
the feeling being that he could not be trusted on 
account of his devotion to theory, with a sup- 
posedly corresponding neglect of practice. The 
technical graduate has proved to the satisfaction 
of the business world that his theoretical training 
does not necessarily make him unpractical, and 
that while his ideas at first may be crude, he has 
acquired the ability to adapt himself speedily to 
any new environment. 

The year 1905 was a remarkable one in many 
ways, but particular attention has been devoted to 
the field of electric-railway engineering. Naturally 
the public views with keenest interest the develop- 
ment of improvements which have a tendency to 
increase its comfort and convenience. For this 
reason the actual introduction of alternating-cur- 
rent traction and the adaptation of electricity to 
steam-railroad conditions have received a large 
share of attention during the year. At the same 
time, telephone engineering has made as great, 
although less sensational, progress, and it is com- 
ing to be recognized as one of the most promising 
fields in which the activities of the rising genera- 
tion of young engineers may be applied. Electric 
lighting is not far behind, while the use of the 
electric current as a means for transmitting me- 
chanical power is steadily increasing. 
Electric Railways. 

At the convention of the American Street Rail- 
way Association held at Philadelphia during Sep- 
tember a plan of reorganization was adopted which 



organization should form associations, in the con- 
ventions of which their methods of work could be 
discussed, and as a result improved. The Ameri- 
can Street Railway Association, the parent organ- 
ization, was organized in 1882, and for a long time 
sufficed, for the needs of all departments. Within 
the last few years, however, there have sprung 
into existence the Street Railway Accountants' 
Association, the American Railway Mechanical and 
Electrical Association, the American Association of 
Street Railway Claim Agents, and the American 
Street Railway Manufacturers' Association, the last 
named being composed of manufacturers, and or- 
ganized for the purpose of bringing to the atten- 
tion of the other associations the merits of the 
various lines of street-railway supplies. 

The necessity for affiliating all of these associa- 
tions, without at the same time interfering with 
their individual development, has been apparent for 
several years to all persons conversant with street- 
railway affairs. This necessity finally resulted in 
the appointment of a reorganization committee, the 
itsults of the work of which were approved at 
the Philadelphia convention. The present plan of 
the organization consists in establishing close con- 
nection among all of the associations, with the 
central authority vested in the American Street 
and Interurban Railway Association. A permanent 
secretary for this association has been appointed, 
with headquarters at New York, and through this 
central office will pass all material affecting the 
electric-railway business. At the secretary's head- 
quarters are maintained reference files of all kinds 
of information for the benefit of the members. 
The proceedings of the association are to be as- 
sembled and issued to members of the parent asso- 
ciation in the form of bound volumes. 

The affiliated associations are represented on the 
executive committee of the parent association, so 
that each has a voice in the general management. 
It is expected that this arrangement will conduce 
to very systematic work, each association con- 
fining its activities to its particular field, but each 
having due consideration for the work of the 
others. The scope of the work has been further 




Single-phase Locomotii 



TWO TYPES OF ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES, 



it is expected will introduce a new epoch in the 
history of that very useful organization. This step 
was made necessary by the enormous expansion 
of the electric-railway industry and by the diversity 
of the interests now associated with the electric- 
railway business. When the association was founded 
the organization of a street-railway system was a 
very simple affair, each officer being conversant 
with the conduct of all divisions of the work. 
When the horse was supplanted by the electric 
motor, necessitating power stations and complicated 
systems of distribution, it was necessary to add 
engineering talent to the operating force properly 
to care for the new and expensive equipment. As 
speeds increased, accidents became common, and 
the further addition of legal talent became abso- 
lutely necessary. The rather simple forms of 
bookkeeping employed in the early days were en- 
tirely inadequate to the later demands made upon 
them, and elaborate systems of accounting were 
gradually developed by men trained for that line 
of work. Finally, as the simple tram-rail con- 
struction proved to be inadequate to the strains 
introduced by the heavier rolling stock, track de- 
partments, similar to those of steam railways, were 
introduced. 

The present age is one of associations and con- 
ventions, and it was therefore natural that, one b; 
one, the various departments of the street-railway 



enlarged by introducing the feature of associate 
membership, to which any person interested in a 
practical way in electric-railway work is eligible. 

The Philadelphia convention was without doubt 
the finest ever held by the association. In addition 
to the excellent papers and discussion, a prominent 
feature was the exhibition of products of the elec- 
tric-railway manufacturers. This was on a most 
elaborate scale, and the exhibits will undoubtedly 
form an increasingly instructive and attractive 
part of the conventions. The re-election of Hon. 
W. Caryl Ely to the responsible post of president 
was not only a token of appreciation of his valuable 
services to the association, but it was evidence of 
a desire to effect a continuity of management which 
shall tend to greatest efficiency. 

It has been stated that one of the functions of 
the railway association is to furnish reliable data 
to its members. In this connection it is well also 
to note the excellent work of the United States 
Census Bureau. The entire electric-railway pro- 
fession is indebted to the United States Bureau 
of Commerce and Labor for the publication during 
the last year of the Census Bureau report on street 
and electric railways. In addition to the numerous 
data compiled by the bureau, the report contains 
a great amount of information on the general 
subject, prepared by the special expert, Mr. T. C. 
Martin. The report has been widely appreciated 



January 6, [906 



ERN ELECTRII 



1 1 finding man u efu] field 1 ol 

' itii ii work as this, 1 ombini d ■■■ itn tin 

which will be afforded bj thi centra! ofl ( (he 

Street Railway '•• tion, •■■ ill plai ■■ at t! 

po .il "l !li, . 

During the yi ai [90 ; thi Elect™ Railwa 

1 !i in lion, ■■'. hii h ws 01 - mm 1 tion 

with tlir 1 ouisinna Pun hasi E po it 1 ompleted 

;i long programme "i ■ pi 1 mi' nta 1 1 > I and de 

voted :i large amount "i Mm 1 n , Lo thi 

prcparati I 1 report "i thi wotV The fund 

■ upended in mil ing thi te 1 :1ml in dcdui h 

n nil were furnished by individual I 

interested in furthering tin- development of s Bci 
mi ific basis of electt 11 railway opi ration, 'I he 
project is important in that il 1 1 "i" of the fi <■■■ 

undertakings in which .-ill of the contribt 1 

■a ere m; de for the gem ral "-",'1 and not fot thi 




direct benefit of any one contributor. The report 
was completed in December and is coining from the 
press at the present time. 

Among the most important features of electric- 
railway development last year were the opening of 
traffic on two single-phase interurban lines, the 
adoption of heavy single-phase alternating-current 
locomotives for use on steam lines by the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company, the 
successful test of the New York Central direct- 
current locomotive and the decision of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company to equip its Philadel- 
phia-Atlantic City line with electricity. 

The Indianapolis and Cincinnati Traction Com- 
pany's line started regular operation, after three 
weeks' preliminary trial, on January 21, 1905. This 
line has since been in successful operation, and it 
illustrates the most modern type of construction. 
The cars weigh over 4S tons each, with an elec- 
trical equipment of four 75-horsepower Westing- 
house single-phase motors and the Westing- 
house electro-pneumatic system of control. This 
road may be said to be the first of its kind to be 
operated on a large scale. On March 15th the sec- 
ond single-phase road, the Bloomington, Pontiac 
and Joliet railway, equipped with General Electric 
apparatus, was opened for traffic. It is the first 
large system using alternating-current apparatus 
of General Electric manufacture in this country, 
although a small line has been in practical opera- 
tion for some time. This road was constructed 
by the Arnold Company, and it has been in suc- 
cessful operation to date, with practically no ex- 
pense for repairs. The cost of this road without the 
power plant was less than $15,000 a mile, showing 
that the single-phase system can be installed at 
reasonable expense. 

This road and the one previously described are 
furnishing the evidence so much desired by engi- 
neers in regard to the practicability of single-phase 
traction. The alternating-current motor appears 
to be entirely satisfactory, and the special line con- 
struction difficulties have been overcome. A sat- 
isfactory type of trolley wire suspension has been 
developed; insulators have been produced to with- 
stand the high electric pressures combined with 
the shocks incident to this service, and on the 
whole the single-phase motor completes its test 
year with satisfaction to all concerned. 

The announcement made by Mr. C. F. Scott, 
-onsulting engineer of the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company, at the Philadelphia 



cidi d to 1 

will weigh appn 

i with 
1 In- equipment will pi 
ti',11 upon eithi 1 din cl ir alien 
i thi 

tin: tr.,, 

which will I, 
current 

: ' atillg Willi 'III, 

' total ot t,6oo hi for four mot 

\\ hile alt' mating current tt 

inig the year, there h 
been development of direct current apparatus for 
railway purposes. tin- direct-current loc 
i" entlj built the G 1 : "inpany 

hi. 1 Hi, \ m, in-all Locomotive Company has dur- 
ing tin Li 

1 d 1 the Mew York Cen- 

tral Railroad Company, It will be remembered 
that the required service tests comprised 50,000 
miles of operation, which mileage is now nearly 
complete. The locomotive has stood the severe 
strains without undue heating -a wear, and the 
statement is made that the operation improves as 
1I1, tests prepress. 

Another important feature of direct current trac- 
li.'ii has been the completion of the Long Island 
Railroad power house ami tin- beginning of 
service upon that road. 'Ibis ■ tcm i in exam 
pie of the adaptability of the electric curn 
steam railroads, particularly in the operat 
suburban ear- I he Long Island Railroad Com- 
pany has gone into this matter with great thorough- 
ness, and the success of the present venture re- 
flects credit upon the engineering talent of the 
road and of the consulting engineers, 
Westinghouse, Church. Kerr & Co. The system 
was opened for operation on July 20, 1005, upon 
approximately 90 miles of single track. Direct 
current at 600 volts is used in the cars, and the 
transmission is with alternating current at 11,000 
volts. The power house, located at Long Island 
City, is equipped entirely with Westinghouse 
steam turbines of 5.500 kilowatts each. There are 
at present three units installed, with provision for 



I 

which, 

entt in 

.'. arm,, R I fThia station 

13.200- 

vo It Westinghouse tt m thii 

: r ■ y ton, 

in the building of in em I 

30,000 

kilowatts, and both of the stations will 

in parallel. 
equipped with I 
General Electric Company, 

about 
15 feet in diameter and .i.; tier high <•■ I 
"f the generator. The work is under the - 
supervision of Vice-president W. J. VY: . 
the New York Central Railroad, and 
in a remarkably thorough manner. 

ring talent i- associated with the staff, and 
rk is subdivided so as to place the responsi- 
bility upon those most capable of bearing it. The 
character of the electrical part of the work is indi- 
cated by the names of the men comprising the 
electrical traction committee, which consists of 
M,-,rs W. J. Wilgus, J. F. Deems. B. J. 

.1. Sprague, while Messrs, K, P.. Katte and 
J. I). Keiley are the company's electrical engineers. 
As has air, many important elec- 

tric roads -'.cam turbines 

of power and in units of increasing size. The ex- 
treme in this direction is in the case of the new 
Williamsburg power house of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company This station will contain at 
present three turbines, two being of the Y. 




POWER STATION OF 



RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY, SHOWING TIRBO-GENERATORS. 



doubling the capacity of the plant as the demand 
increases. 

The completion of this work marks one step in 
the entrance of the Pennsylvania Railroad system 
into the city of New York, as the Long Island 
Railroad will connect with the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road in the large station now under construction 
between Seventh and Ninth avenues and Thirty- 
first and Thirty-second streets in the Borough of 
Manhattan This station will be reached from 
Long Island by four tunnels tinder the East River. 



house type and of 7.500 kilowatts capacity each. 
The other is one of the new turbines recently de- 
signed by the Allis-Chalmers Company, having a 
capacity of about 9,000 horsepower or 5.500 kilo- 
watts electrical output. The Williamsburg station 
is remarkable for its compactness, the space taken 
by the engines being almost negligible in com- 
parison with that occupied by the boilers. , 

The most noticeable step yet taken by a steam 
road in substituting electricity for steam as the 
source of motive power is that of the Pennsyl- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



vania Railroad, which just awarded the contract 
for the electrical apparatus needed to equip elec- 
trically its high-speed line between Philadelphia 
and Atlantic City. The Pennsylvania Railroad 
maintains a remarkable express service between 
these two cities, and the steam trains make 1 as 
great speed as upon any road in the country. 
The service is mainly between the terminal cities, 
as no stops are made by the fast trains except at 
the terminals. It is announced that the intention 
is to maintain 15-minute service between the two 
cities as well as to provide some local service 
to the suburbs of Philadelphia. It is noticeable 
that direct-current motors are to be used, and in 
accordance with what appears to be standard 



of these companies are also active in preparing 
for the, distribution of their power to considerable 
distances. The plant of the Ontario Power Com- 
pany is located in the gorge below the Horseshoe 
Fall, and a large transformer station is placed 
immediately behind and above. Early in the year 
it was announced that contracts had been made for 
the supply of a considerable proportion of the 
power to the Niagara, Lockport and Ontario Power 
Company. The transmission lines of the company 
are also being extended into Central New York. 
It is expected that in March of the present year 
power will be available at Syracuse for the opera- 
tion of the extensive railway system of that city. 
The Canadian Niagara Power Company has 



way indicate the fields of application of Niagara 
power. In other parts of the country the same 
condition of affairs exists in regard to the rapid 
extension of existing systems. The important 
power plants are being enlarged and the most 
recent types of apparatus installed. The tendency 
is to generate a standard form of power by means 
of large units and to transmit this at high tension 
over increasingly large areas. The attention which 
has been given to the matter of high-tension trans- 
mission by the important electrical engineering 
associations indicates that further development in 
this direction is to be expected. It is a pleasure 
to note that high American tension work is being 
recognized abroad. The latest evidence of this 




PRESENT APPEA 



practice at present steam turbines will be the prime 
movers, the Curtis turbines being adopted in this 
case. 

It is to be expected that electric traction will 
be most rapidly developed in the eastern states, 
where the population is dense and cities near to- 
gether. This is particularly true of interurban 
and suburban development. It should not be in- 
ferred, however, that there is a lack of activity in 
the Middle and Far West. The Middle West has 
always been a center of very great activity, espe- 
cially in the line of interurban railways. The 
Bloomington, Pontiac and Joliet railway has 
already been referred to, and there is a direct-cur- 
rent line now under construction by the Arnold 
Company between the high-speed Aurora, Elgin 
and Chicago railway and the interurban system 
centering at Rockford, 111. This road is mentioned 
merely as an indication of the tendency to inter- 
connect the high-speed interurban railways, which 
tendency has now resulted in the formation of a 
more or less complete network covering the states 
of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The result is that 
the "interurban" has now lost its novelty in these 
sections and has taken its place as a necessity 
of every-day life. 

Power Generation and Transmission. 
The statements already made in connection with 
electric-railway work indicate two tendencies in 
trie design and construction of steam engines for 
electric power generation. The first of these is 
the increasing use of the steam turbine and the 
second the increase in size of units. This latter 
tendency is also noted in the case of water tur- 
bines. Stationary water turbines or steam tur- 
bines with capacities of 10,000 horsepower and up- 
ward are not now considered remarkable, although 
of course the actual number of units in use is 
not very great. These large units are used not 
only for railway purposes but for lighting and for 
power transmission. 

A number of power-transmission undertakings 
have been recently described in the electrical 
press, but only a few of these have been brought 
to completion during the year just passed. Ni- 
agara Falls continues to attract attention as the 
power-generation center of the East, . There appears 
to be no limit to the extension of, the five plants 
forming the equipment of this great, power-pro- 
ducing region. Of the new plapts now practically 
complete those of the Ontario Power ' Company 
and of the Canadian Niagara Falls Power Com- 
pany have begun practical operation during the 
year. Each of these plants has several large units 
now delivering power, and both companies are 
increasing their equipment at a rapid rate. Both 



practically completed a splendid power plant along 
the same general lines as those of the power 
houses upon the American side. This company 
will be able to supplement the output of the 
Niagara Falls Power Company, which has found 
an ample market for the sale of its product in 
the immediate vicinity of the Falls and in the city 
of Buffalo. 

The Electrical Development Company of On- 
tario was organized to develop Niagara power and 
to transmit this to Toronto over the lines of the 
Toronto and Niagara Power Company. The De- 
velopment Company is installing a large power 
plant above the other two just described, and be- 
fore very long will be delivering 20,000 horse- 
power in Toronto over a line 75.5 miles long. 

On the American side of the Niagara River 
ground has just been broken for a new power plant 
for the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Man- 




DETROIT EDISON COMPANY S DELRAV POWER HOUSE. 

u-.facturing Company. This company has been 
gradually increasing its output, and the new 
plant, which will add a capacity of 20,000 kilo- 
watts, is to be in operation within the next two 
years. The plant ' will contain 5,000-kilowatt alter- 
nators, built for 11,000 volts pressure and 25 
cycles. In adopting a uniform pressure for all 
of the units in the plant the company departs 
from its original practice, in which each unit was 
adapted to the particular kind of service which 
it was to supply. The present practice indicates 
that the engineers believe, as do many others, that 
it is more economical to transform a standard 

. variety of current to the desired form at the point 
of application rather than to have a variety of 
machines for the various kinds of load. 

The above statements show in general the present 
status of affairs at Niagara Falls and in a general 



is the selection of Mr. R. D. Mershon, who has 
had charge of the -high-tension work of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, as con- 
sulting engineer of an important African trans- 
mission system, in which it is proposed to trans- 
mit power a distance of 700 miles from Victoria 
Falls to the Rand. In this proposition there is 
under consideration the possibility of using the 
Thury direct-current system of distribution, which 
is opposed to the present American practice. 

Gas-engine Power. 
This- general survey of the subject of power gen- 
eration would not be complete without some men- 
tion of the gas-engine installation, now nearly 
complete, for the California Gas and Electric Cor- 
poration. In spite of the fact that this company 
is located within reasonable reach of large water- 
pOwers already electrically developed, the engi- 
neers concluded that a combination of maximum 
ecoriorny' and reliability would be secured by the 
introduction of large gas-engine units. They 
have, therefore, had constructed three gas-engine 
electric-generating units of 4,000 kilowatts capacity 
each, the units being contracted for under the 
most rigid specifications. This remarkable experi- 
ment is regarded with great interest in view of the 
fact that the gas engine is here in competition with 
a very cheap form of electric power, and if suc- 
cessful a most important problem will be solved. 
If gas-engine power can be produced more cheaply 
than waterpower, it can also be produced much 
' more cheaply than steam power. 

The Electric Motor. 
This subject deserves special mention on account 
of the expiration of the Tesla induction motor 
patents, which occurred in May, 1905. While there 
is still some question as to the exact results of 
this important event, it is the general belief that 
induction-motor manufacture is now thrown open 
to all .wjio desire to compete for this very desir- 
able business. A number of companies are entering 
the field, arid there is prospect of keen competition. 
The larger companies which have been manufac- 
turing this type of motor for many years have 
developed an improved type to meet this competi- 
tion. The motors of this year are designed for 
maximum economy of material, combined with good 
efficiency. Undoubtedly under the present circum- 
stances the induction motor will compete even 
more sharply than before for supremacy over the 
direct-current shunt motor, over which it has some 
important advantages. These induction motors are 
being built in very large sizes. The Westinghouse 
company recently turned out a number of 1,500- 
horsepower motors with squirrel-cage secondaries, 



January 6, 1906 



rERN I. I.i' 



III, , l,i mi' 1 . 1 ' . ] . ; 1 1 . 1 ',' lli. I.. 1 •■■ I n ..! 

ever built, for while [he 1 buitl 

World's Fair were large, thi lecond- 

.11 1. 1, 

The Bullock Kliulm -.1 < 11 I otnp HI) 

lias recently constructed for the Shawinigan 

and Town 1 ' p.1111 ;i '. 111 lii'iiiuii 1 1 1. .1 ■ . 1 -.( ;■:,!"" 

hui cpowcr capacity, ihi ■ I ;• ii 1 nl tin' 

Ini'K'' .1 1"l "I ll"' tnlH. It I fin II •■ II, .1 

motor-generator set which has a total 1 i- 
12,000 kilowatts. 

h is interesting to note also that <lnrii in the 
last year the Wagner Electric Manufacturing Com- 
pany has perfected I pul into operation a de 

velopmenl of its single-phase alternating-current 
motor for elevator service, ["hi makes possible 

the operati f elevators on il rdinary lighting 

circuit, and if will undoubtedly have a tendency 
to improve the status nf the electric elevator. In 
many locations it is impossible to secure current 
for direct-curent motors or for polyphase induc- 
111, 11 motors, and under these circumstances the 
new Wagner motor will undoubtedly meet with 
considerable favor. 

Ei 1 , mi, Lighting. 

The National Electric Light Association con- 
tinues to exert a great influence in assisting in the 
development of that important industry. The 
Denver convention held during June, 1905, was a 
remarkably successful gathering, this result being 
due to the energy displayed by the officers in 
arousing interest throughout the whole length and 
breadth of the country. 

The vacuum-tube and mercury-vapor lamps are 
finding special fields for themselves where the 
quality of light combined with high efficiency are 
important items. Cadmium amalgam has been 
suggested as a substitute for mercury vapor, and 
it has been applied already with more or less suc- 
cess. 

The tantalum incandescent lamp, which permits 
of an exceptionally high-filament temperature, 
has great promise as a competitor of the carbon- 
filament lamp. The efficiency of this lamp is almost 
twice as high as that of the carbon lamp, while 
its useful life is quite as long. The osmium 
lamp, which has about the same efficiency as that 
employing tantalum, is another example of the 
effort to replace carbon by metallic filaments. The 
discovery of these highly refractory metals has 
made this change possible. It will be remembered 
that platinum was used in the earliest incandescent 
lamps, but this metal did not give as great satis- 



:: lib higher 

■ .hi during ' 

■Derate 
•.ith a 

■ in nt in the quality and quantity 
light. 

in make up 

.1 the lighting 

line an inter- 
c ting ind payment 










NEW (BELL) TEI.I III -k IN BALTIMORE. 



attachment which has just been placed on the 
market by the Fort Wayne Electric Works. By 
means of this device a coin may be inserted and 
current will continue until the amount of energy 
paid for has been consumed. 

In the matter of electric-lighting power stations 
there has been great progress during the year 
1005 both in the generation and distribution of 
power. The Waterside station of the New York 
Edison Company has been enlarged and now con- 
tains two additional Westinghouse turbine units 
of 7,500 kilowatts each. It will be remembered 
that there are already in this station 5,000-kilowatt 
turbine units of the Curtis type. 

The city of Baltimore has also a new lighting 
station containing two 2,000-kilowatt Westinghouse 
turbine units with 6,600-volt three-phase distribu- 
tion. These two stations are mentioned merely as 




DAM AND POWER HOUSE OF ATLANTA 

faction as carbon on account of its comparatively 
low melting point. 

The Nerrist lamp continues to fill an actual want 
in the field of street and house lighting. For the 
former purpose it occupies a position intermediate 
between the arc and the incandescent lamp, giving 
a good distribution of light with high efficiency. 
The fact that it has continued to increase in popu- 
larity and permanence shows that it is well be- 
yond the experimental stage. The number of lamps 
in use has increased rapidly, and where installed 
they appear to remain. 

No remarkable changes in regard to the arc 
lamps have been made during the last year, but the 
possibility of using smaller carbons in enclosed 



ATER AND ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY. 

examples of the present practice in electric light- 
ing, which is following the same general trend 
as that of electric railways. 

In concluding this part of the subject attention 
should be called to the special report of the United 
States Census Bureau on Central Light and Power 
Stations, published in 1905 from data collected in 
1902. The report comprises an elaborate summary 
of the history and development of electric lighting, 
with numerous data concerning financial features 
and general statistics. 

Transmission of Intelligence. 

The several means of communication are being 
increasingly utilized, and a steady and substantial 



apparatus it will be possible for a ship to retain 
communication with both shores during its entire 
voyage. Numerous minor, improvements in the ap- 
paratus have been made. 

In the telephone field the most healthy growth 
is evidenced both in the number and the size of 
the new exchanges. Large exchanges are being 
installed by the Western Electric Company in San 
Francisco, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington 
and a number of other large cities. The installa- 
tions for New York city provide for approximately 
60,000 lines, while numerous other exchanges of 
from 8,000 lines upward have been constructed 
during the year. Other telephone manufacturers 
show similar activity. 

A noticeable feature of the telephone situation is 
the growing appreciation of this field of activity 
on the part of young electrical engineers just start- 
ing out in their practical work. As the number 
of subscribers increases the complication of the 
system grows even more rapidly. The systems 
of distribution require the very best engineering 
construction, and in addition there are the power 
plants and other features of a general engineering 
nature. These facts are coming to be realized by 
the technical schools, and telephone engineering 
is taking its place with railway engineering, light- 
ing and power engineering. 

In electric-railway work the telephone plays a 
most important part, as it is used in train dispatch- 
ing on the high-speed interurban lines. By en- 
abling the dispatchers to be in almost constant 
communication with train crews it is practicable to 
reduce accidents, even on a single-track road, to an 
insignificant number. 

Conclusions. 

In taking a retrospective view of electrical prog- 
ress in 1905 it is noted that a general prosperity 
is indicated on the part- of all branches of the 
electrical industry. There is at the present time 
passing over our country" a wave of popular inter- 
est in municipal ownership of public utilities. 
Electric railways and electric lighting arc the par- 
ticular subjects of attention by politicians, corpo- 
rations and the general public The climax of 
this agitation has not yet been reached, and inter- 
esting developments may be expected. The mat- 
ter is being investigated carefully by the various 
associations concerned in providing electric service 
for the public, and the amount of time being de- 
voted to the subject indicates its importance. 

The rapid progress being made on the L T nited 
Engineering Building in New York city, which will 
in the course of a year house a number of engi- 
neering associations, is very encouraging to those 
whose associations will use the building. The 
funds for the erection of this building were con- 
tributed by Mr. Carnegie, while the site was pro- 
vided by the associations, who will divide the space 
among them. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY IN GREAT BRITAIN IN 1905. 



We have passed through a notable twelvemonth 
in Great Britain from the electrical engineering 
viewpoint, as the result both of what has been 
accomplished and what it is sought soon to bring 
about. The predominant feature has been power 
supply, for not only have several "bulk" supply 
companies in England and Scotland put their works 
into operation, but since March, 1905, London has 
been the center of a raging controversy, the 
stremiousness of which has been such that even 
in the "close" season the matter has not been 
allowed to rest, and at the moment of writing pro- 
moters of schemes for giving London electricity at 
prices ranging between one and two cents per unit 
(kilowatt-hour) are treading upon one another's 
heels in their anxiety. Nearly a dozen schemes 
may be expected to be placed before Parliament in 
the 1906 session. 

The far-reaching recommendations of the Royal 
Commission on London Traffic and the official 
promise that the government will develop what 
many people regard as the one practical and prac- 
ticable proposal made, viz., the establishment of a 
traffic board, has given an impetus to this branch 
of the industry. 

Thus in two most important directions may the 
year 1905 be said to have witnessed the commence- 
ment of a development, the ultimate limits of which 
one dare not attempt to define. The highly suc- 
cessful electrical exhibition held in London in the 
autumn has given the industry generally a much- 
needed revival, and many firms have reported a 
welcome increase in the volume of business trans- 
acted since the exhibition closed. 

These are the most' important events during the 
year without going into detail, which will be done 
later. Industrially it can truthfully be said that the 
British manufacturer has progressed, for although 
prices, and consequently the financial results, are 
not all that may be desired, the large majority of 
firms are well filled with work, and the tendency 
for orders to go abroad is far less prominent than 
hitherto, for which the difficulty of ascertaining 
and controlling the conditions of Tabor when work 
is carried out abroad (a sine qua non of many 
specifications) is to some extent responsible. 

Electric Power Supply. 

Putting on one side for the present the proposals 
for giving a cheap supply of electric power in 
London — which was work of a negative character, 
so to speak — the most important development in 
the matter of power supply has been the progress 
made with the North Wales electric power scheme. 
This project deserves attention for many reasons. 
First, although not a technical reason, the expe- 
dition with which the works have been carried 
out, the bill only having been obtained a couple 
of years ago; second, the plant is water-driven, 
and third, a more extensive use of overhead mains 
will be made than in connection with any under- 
taking of the kind in Great Britain previously. As 
a complete description will be available within a 
very short time, a bare outline of the undertaking 
will suffice. The waters of Llyn Llydaw, a portion 
of the crater of Mount Snowdon, are to be made 
use of, the area being 5,500,000 square feet? The 
lake is one and one-fifth miles in length and one- 
fifth mile wide. A fall of 1,500 feet is available, a 
pipe line of 600 feet length having been constructed 
for driving the Pelton wheels, which are attached to 
three-phase generators. About 12,000 horsepower 
will be available at this spot, but another water 
area farther north in Wales, Llyn Eigan, will, when 
necessity arises, furnish the company with double 
this power. The estimate for the high-tension 
transmission cable was $3,000 a mile. 

Indirectly the North Wales scheme has no doubt 
been responsible for broader views being held in 
certain official quarters on the question of overhead 
mains, for a great development in this direction is 
now being witnessed. Only quite recently an im- 
portant sewage scheme in Birmingham was put 
into operation in which bare overhead transmission 
mains are employed. To continue the record of 
the work of the "power" companies, it is to be men- 
tioned that four such undertakings have started 
operations during the year, viz., the Yorkshire 
Power Company, the Lancashire Power Company, 
the Clyde Valley company and the Fife company. The 
latter two concerns are in Scotland and have started 
on somewhat moderate lines, possibly owing to the 
nature of their areas. Two views of the Fife com- 
pany's works are given herewith, and the York- 
shire scheme has been described already in the 



[From the London correspondent of the Western Electrician.! 

Western Electrician. The Lancashire scheme is a 
twin of the latter, for both undertakings were de- 
signed by the same consulting engineer and both 
have adopted Curtis turbines. The Clyde Valley 
works are on similar lines to the Fife. 

That the "power" companies are now in full 
swing and rapidly developing there are abundant 
signs. An engineering adjunct of much importance 
to these undertakings is a telephone system. To 
pick out one, the Lancashire company, which has 
many miles of 10,000-volt transmission mains, both 
overhead and underground, has recently had a 
specially designed switchboard installed for con- 
necting up its various consumers, many of whom 
have their own sub-stations. 

Industries of the most varied character are 
rapidly adopting electric driving, and the opportuni- 
ties for cheap power which these "bulk" supply 
companies afford have resulted in a greater ex- 
pansion of this nature than in any previous year. 
The effect of load factor and diversity factor upon 
economical production is now borne upon the man- 
ufacturer to an extent not attempted in the past, 
with the result that in many cases the charges for 
current vary according to the period of the day 
during which supply is demanded. 

High-power generating units are of course inti- 
mately bound up with such undertakings, and it is 
satisfactory to note that attention has been paid 



in which more than one American subscribed to the 
preliminary expenses), estimated that a power 
scheme w r orked on true "power" lines could supply 
current at anything from two cents per unit down- 
ward, and that the average selling price of the 
company w r ould be Ij4 cents. When the existing 
high prices in London are remembered the effect 
of such a proposition was naturally consternation, 
and although toward the end all of the existing 
companies came to terms with the new promoters, 
the opposition of the local authorities was so skill- 
fully drawn out that there was not sufficient time 
for the bill to receive the royal assent, although it 
was passed by committees of both houses of Par- 
liament. 

Electric Traction. 

The first matter of importance to be dealt with 
under this head is the report of the Royal Commis- 
sion on London Traffic, whose labors, extending 
over three years, culminated last year in a num- 
ber of voluminous reports. These reports made 
certain recommendations which by many people 
were considered obvious ones and aimed at a 
Utopian condition of affairs which can hardly ever 
be hoped for in the present building condition of the 
metropolis. These provided for the construction 
of a number of very wide main avenues passing 
across London from the four cardinal points of 
the compass, accommodating tramways to a very 
considerable degree. In addition a great extension 
of electric tramway was suggested, although no hint 
was given as to the responsible authority to find 




engine room of 

to both the prime movers and the electric gener- 
ators. Quite a number of firms have taken up 
the manufacture of the Parsons turbine with im- 
provements of their own. The Curtis turbine also 
has shown a marked increase in its sales. 

The increasing adoption of what are called here 
extra-high pressures has called forth a set of regu- 
lations at the hands of the Board of Trade espe- 
cially to deal with such cases. These regulations 
stipulate that two trunk mains shall be laid to each 
sub-station and that the electrical power trans- 
mitted by any extra-high trunk main shall not ex- 
ceed 1,000 kilowatts except with the consent of the 
Board of Trade. These rules apply to all systems 
using more than 3,000 volts. A set of overhead 
regulations has also been drafted by the Board of 
Trade. The use of electric power in mines and 
the development brought about therein by the 
report of the Home Office committee some time ago 
has necessitated special regulations being drafted 
for this purpose, which have been found to work 
to the benefit of the mine owner and for the safety 
of the miner. High-tension switch gear, too, has 
undergone considerable change and modification, 
one leading firm having discarded practically all its 
old patterns and re-designed its apparatus as a 
necessary corollary to modern methods of supply. 

This section of my article may fittingly be 
concluded with some reference to the power 
schemes for London that were before Parlia- 
ment last year. In all no iess than eight com- 
panies came forward with such schemes, but only 
one proposed to deal with London and its sur- 
rounding districts as a whole. This scheme, which 
came to be known as the $25,000,000 scheme (and 



electric power house. 

the necessary capital for the works. That the 
reports of the commission will be valuable as a 
future guide there can be no doubt; but whether 
the advantage so gained will be sufficient to justify 
the immense labor involved is disputable. One very 
necessary and practical reform, however, has re- 
sulted, and that is the recommendation to appoint 
a traffic tribunal for London consisting of -well- 
qualified and amply paid gentlemen whose business 
it shall be to scrutinize all schemes of locomotion 
submitted to Parliament respecting London, and so 
to bring about a little uniformity which is so sorely 
needed. The past history of traffic legislation in 
London, so far as railways, at any rate, are con- 
cerned, is that everyone has selected the most likely 
routes, leaving many bare patches of undeveloped 
district. Such a condition of affairs will be en- 
tirely eliminated by the establishment of a traffic 
tribunal such as that suggested above ; and this has 
already been promised by the government. 

Travelers upon the much-maligned District Rail- 
way and Metropolitan Railway (familiarly referred 
to as the "Inner Circle") will look back with pleas- 
ure to the year 1905, for the last steam train has 
been withdrawn, and swift and more or less com- 
fortable traveling is in vogue, although a new order 
(to us) of unfortunate human beings has been 
created, viz., the "strap-hangers," who under the 
old regime traveled under even worse conditions 
than holding on to the straps provided in the new 
electric cars for standing passengers. 

The equipment of these railways and some con- 
tiguous lines, over which there are running powers, 
is on the standard direct-current system, with two 
electric rail conductors, but another London rail- 



Januarj 6, [906 



II'. I.I.I,. I IT 



ir 



way company in the south ha tati d 

to adopt, 1 cpei imi ntall on 

the 1 ingli i'li isi irit! [uipmi m 

A niiHMi li. 1 bli hcd tl ' : order ha 

bci " givi n to the VII ■ ine Elckl 

schaft, although 1 ■ I vouch foi it 

1 v 1., ili'- pn 'hi .ill iii. "li... 1 railwa 
panic . having termini in 1 <ondon n 

from electric traction, although il I u 

thai '\'i'l 'if them will 
problem in the near future, in 1 01 




mm- 11 I-. i Rli I'iiw 11 SB IN SCOTLAND. 

electric power proposals which arc now being made, 
Initial expense has been a noteworthy deterrent, 
and much of this would disappear if a reliable 

supply cmdd he obtained from outside trees, A 

new tube railway running to the northeast of Lon- 
don was authorized by Parliament, the district 
much requiring improved facilities. The North- 
eastern Railway Company, too, has decided upon a 
considerable extension to its electrically equipped 
system, and some talk of overhead traction has 
been heard in this connection. Experiments have 
been carried out on these lines with a limestone 
ballast, the property of which is said to be that 
while it remains dry it is safe to touch the 500-volt 
rail when standing on it. I have not heard of any 
considerable use of it, however. 

Considerable interest has manifested itself in the 
tramway systems at Torquay and Lincoln, where 
the Dolter and Griffiths-Bedell systems, respec- 
tively, have been adopted. Very little can be said 
about either at present, for whereas the cars have 
only just commenced running at Lincoln, so many 
squabbles have taken place between the contractors 
at Torquay and the corporation that the progress 
there has been unsatisfactory, and the lines will 
probably not be completed for some time yet. 
Apart from these two instances, the trolley system 
has continued to be adopted, and considerable ex- 
tension has taken place, intercommunication being 
so freely adopted between various towns that runs 
of 20 and 30 miles are almost common in the 
northern Midlands. 

The possibility of these long tram journeys, with 




cheap fares, has had a most prejudicial effect upon 
the local revenue of the railway companies which, 
in many cases, have resorted to the use of single 
motor coaches upon their ordinary rails, in order 
to accelerate and cheapen the service. 

The use of top decks, although most ungainly, 
has proved a profitable investment to many authori- 
ties, and especially in industrial towns, where the 



i\cepti- 

ni, and 

. 1 

irm from on 

made ii 

I In hi. 

.I v.iili tin familial rapt , and t 
itatioi 

order to rim; the l> 
believe it was thi 

foi hot trolley wire should it 

adopted. 
Mi. ti "" ■. ontiaued 

to - ■ ' ite mui li mi' est and 

1 ..inn 1 ouncil early in the year m 

lli' ' ini' hi'. lines in (he 

north, and iln lease 

rendered in April, somt two or three years earlier 

than would be otherwise tin ca 1 ■■• over 

40 mile?, and thi rei mstructioi 

tion a combin; of trolley and conduit — will 

take place immediately the council has •<■ 
them, 1 In large gem rating tation .-. hicl 
don County Council is erecting at Greenwich is 
now well forward, anil a view of one of the 3.500- 
volt alternators in course of erection is shown. 

The sketch (section) of the subway tramway 
under the new thoroughfare in London, by which 



been dii 

brilliantly lighti 

There ha- 1 

nd quite a numlicr 
types I the market, although 

many of the makers keep the details of their con- 
stru'ctii ' 1 lamp, 

I'", i- securing although perh • 

for street lighting, the change from the vertical 




SECTIONAL SKETCH OF NEW THOROUGHFARE IN LONDON (KINGSWAY), SBI 



it is hoped eventually to connect the north and 
the south, will also be interesting, in so far as this 
subway was decided upon after a visit to America. 
Tram cars will run in this subway from the city 
to the north of London very shortly. The subway 
is a little less than one mile in length, but the cars 
will continue into the open, and the passengers will 
not have to change. 

The continued efforts to secure parliamentary 
powers along the Victoria Embankment were again 
frustrated, this time by the House of Lords, when 
it was almost regarded as a foregone conclusion that 
these powers, after many attempts, would be 
granted. Until these powers are granted we shall 
always have the north and the south of London 
divided by the river, and with no tramway com- 
munication, although doubt is frequently expi 
as to whether the latter is really necessary. 

Several new companies have been formed for 
exploiting motor omnibuses, and with the help of a 
daily paper something like a scare was created 
among tramway shareholders, and also among some 
municipalities. It was soon laid to rest, however, 
and although the horse omnibus is fast being super- 
seded by the motor vehicle, the status quo ante 
seems to have been maintained. 

Regenerative control on tramways has made con- 
siderable development, and Mr. Ra'worth lias suc- 
ceeded in equipping a large number of tram cars 
with his system, for the exploitation of which a 
company has now been formed. On one particular 
test the consumption of energy per car-mile was 
shown to be only one unit, and the general ex- 
penses have been materially reduced. Another 
regenerative tramway motor- has been placed on the 
market by Johnson-Lundell, but hitherto no prac- 
tical application of it is known. 

Once again there is little progress to report with 
regard to electrically- driven automobiles. 

The Engineering Standards Committee has had 
the question of standardizing tramway poles and 
trolley wire under consideration, and reports have 
been issued concerning these matters. A number of 



glower to the horizontal not being regarded as a 
wise one in some quarters. Efforts have also been 
made to improve the scope of the mercury-vapor 
lamp, by the addition of a few ordinary glow 
lamps, and the combination certainly produces a 
pleasing effect. Imitation candle lamps have also 
become popular, while long-filament lamps for shop- 
window effects have so "taken on" that one firm 
has commenced to manufacture tubes and filaments 
for this of no less a length than four feet. Osmium 
and tantalum lamps are now purchasable, but only 
so recently that their development can hardly In- 
recorded. 

The use of prepayment meters and hire purchase 
wiring has received rather more attention than in 
previous years, but the results can hardly he termed 
satisfactory. The uncertainty of the tenant 
before anything like an adequate return upon the 
money has been arrived at. and the man 
unsatisfactory conditions surrounding I 
cla~s so wired, has resulted in most supply authori- 
ties keeping aloof, although success seems I 
been achieved in some towns. The proposal made 
by the London County Council in Parliament that 
all the London borough councils owning electricity- 
works should embark upon municipal wiring 
defeated, the London electrical contractors offering 
most strenuous opposition. Many towns have au- 
thority to spend money for wiring and fitting houses 
of electric supply, but in almost all cases the work 
is done through a contractor. 

Toward the end of the year a proposition was 
made by the Engineering Standards Committee that 
a conference of glow-lamp makers should be held 
f >r the purpose of arriving at some degree of 
standardization in incandescent lamps. This was 
atled upon, but the result cannot be made known 
yet. The Cable Makers' Association, which con- 
' the majority of the leading firms, agreed 
standard form of tender for cables during 
the year. 

Two other important features of the year have 
been the large number of provisional electric-light- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



ing orders which have heen revoked by the Board 
of" Trade, and the failure of the Government, for 
the third time, to secure the passing of the Supply 
of Electricity Bill, ' which would have introduced 
several very necessary reforms into the present 
condition of legislation. With regard to provisional 
orders, many urban councils secured orders years 
ago, and they shelved them with the sole idea 
of keeping others out, but yet not intending to put 
them into force themselves. The policy of the 
Board of Trade is fast breaking down this condi- 
tion of things. 

Telephony, Telegraphy and Space Telegraphy. 
An. important event has been the ratification of 
the agreement between the National Telephone 
Company and the government, by which the under- 
taking of the former will be acquired in 191 1 upon 
agreed terms, as set out in the parliamentary agree- 
ment. These terms have been much criticized, but 
all those who have thought about the matter agree 
that the best interests of the telephone-using public 
have been considered thereby. Many extreme peo- 
ple have argued that inasmuch as the telephone 
company could not, by law, carry on its business 
after 191 1, and that, furthermore, the postmaster- 
general was not bound to acquire its business on 
any terms whatever, ho agreement involving pur- 
chase money should have been entered into. It will 
at once be seen, however, that to avoid utter stag- 
nation of the telephone service of the country— 
a wholly impossible proposition— the government 
was forced to one of two courses, viz., the laying 
down of a separate system, which would mean an 
almost wicked waste of money, so great would 
have been the duplication of plant, or an amicable 
agreement with the company. This latter suggested 
itself as the most common-sense course, and Parlia- 
ment, together with a big majority of the public, 
agreed. The outstanding question now is the posi- 
tion of the few local authorities which have taken 
up telephony. This has not yet been decided, but 
so bare was the response to the offer contained 
in the Telephone Act of 1899, to allow municipali- 
ties to erect competing exchanges, that the responsi- 
ble officials of the postmaster-general are firmly 
convinced that they should all be absorbed by the 
government when their licenses expire. 

The unsatisfactory financial conditions of the 



Wheatstone working between England and Teheran 
(Persia) was put into operation, and the results 
have been quite satisfactory. The Murray type- 
printing telegraph has again been prominent, the 
British government having adopted it. McDonald 
Murray, the inventor of the system, received a 
premium for a paper on the subject before the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

A standard of telegraph material has been worked 
at by the Engineering Standards Committee, and 
a report has been issued in connection therewith. 

For the last two or three years the Marconi 
Wireless Telegraph Company has not failed to 
introduce some new practical application of its 
system which very quickly disappeared. The year 
1905 has been no exception, for after continued 
negotiations with the postmaster-general, it was 
agreed to accept wireless messages at any postoffice 
for transmission by ordinary telegraph to certain 
specified ports, whence at scheduled times outward- 
bound liners could be reached by the Marconi 
operators. The system worked for a time, but was 
abandoned after a few months. The whole world 
is familiar with the exploits of the London Times 
steamer Haimun, fitted with the De Forest system, 
in the neighborhood of Port Arthur during the 
Russo-Japanese war, and the eminently successful 
results obtained. The very success of this new 
departure in war chronicling led to its being dis- 
continued by request. Some interesting work is 
being carried out by the Lodge-Muirhead syndicate, 
which is working well with the British government. 
The system has also been adopted by one of the 
railway companies in its cross-Channel steamer 
service with pronounced success. The Admiralty 
has entered into an agreement with the Marconi 
company for connecting a number of lightships 
with the mainland. 

The first return issued by the government since 
it assumed control of the wireless telegraph indus- 
try here has been put out and makes interesting 
reading. The return was dated March 31, 1905. 
There were 78 applications for licenses of the vari- 
ous classes, and of these two were made by Ameri- 
can companies, viz., the De Forest company and the 
National Electric Signaling Company. At the time 
of the report no definite arrangements had been 
come to between the parties, but a license for 



will be of use. It was designed and constructed 
for the London and Southwestern Railway Com- 
pany's new graving dock at Southampton, and with 
the exception of the electrical equipment, which 
is German, it is wholly British made. It has a 
lifting capacity of 50 tons, and the following are 
the principal dimensions: Gauge between rail cen- 
ters, 25 feet six inches; clearance under truck 
cross centers, 15 feet; diameter of roller path cen- 
ters, 25 feet 6 inches ; wheel base, 30 feet ; length 
of jib, 85 feet; height of jib from ground level at 




50-TON ELECTRIC TRAVELING CRANE AT SOUTHAMPTON DOCKS. 



government Pacific Cable and some differences 
between the Pacific Cable Board and the competing 
telegraph companies were the cause of a Pacific 
Cable conference in London. Although the exact 
decisions come to were not published — the con- 
ference was private — it is understood that some- 
thing in the nature of an amicable arrangement 
was settled. The submarine telegraph companies 
have also been the cause of a deputation to the 
chancellor of the exchequer as to the high rates 
charged between London and Egypt, Africa, India 
and China, and it is satisfactory to note that con- 
cessions in this direction have been made. Direct 



another site was offered in one case, and a license 
is said to be in course of execution in the case of 
the National Signaling company for a site on the 
Irish coast. In both cases the license would be 
for experimental work between Great Britain and 
America. 

Miscellaneous. 

Illustrations herewith show a large electric crane 
and an electrically operated transporter bridge 
across the River Weaver in Cheshire, and they 
demonstrate two of the most interesting pieces of 
electrical engineering work that have been carried 
out during the year. Some figures as to the crane 






WIDNES-RUNCORN ELECTRICALLY OPERATED TRANSPORTER 
BRIDGE IN CHESHIRE, ENGLAND. 

maximum radius, 60 feet; height from ground level 
at minimum radius, 103 feet. There are three 50- 
horsepower motors, one 80-horsepower motor and 
one 25-horsepower motor for the various operations 
of lifting, derricking, traveling and slewing. The 
net weight of the crane is about 250 tons, unloaded. 
The Widnes-Runcorn transporter bridge will not 
need much description; the illustrations are almost 
self-explanatory. A separate power house has been 
erected and is seen in the end view of the bridge, 
together with the transporter car. The dynamos 
are gas-driven. The motors on the car, which is 
operated on a sort of tramway trolley principle, 
are 35 horsepower, the whole of the operations 
being controlled by a driver in the roof of the car. 
Mention has already been made of the good 
work that has been carried out by the Engineering 
Standards Committee, but the National Physical 
Laboratory has been in rather hot water, owing to 
the feeling that has been engendered in private 
testing undertakings that the laboratory officials 
have exceeded the scope of their mandate. In 
other words, that state-aided competition is being 
carried on — a thing not contemplated at the time 
of the inauguration of the laboratory. 

The electrical exhibition at Olympia, in London, 
has had most beneficial results, and very great 
interest is now being taken in electric heating and 
cooking, to mention only one result. The general 
result exceeded anticipations. 

Municipal trading, if anything, has been checked, 
so far as new undertakings are concerned, and 
especially in connection with trading outside the 
area. Parliament has Very decided views upon this 
matter, and it is almost hopeless at present to ask 
for such powers. 

Technical education, although not quite so promi- 
nent as in past years, has again been well to the 
front, and the establishment of the British Science 
Guild has also indirectly helped the matter forward. 
The facilities now are far greater than ever, and 
to quote only' one instance, $50,000 was given by 
an anonymous donor toward the completion of the 
electrical department of the new Birmingham Uni- 
versity. 

Space forbids detailed reference to the several 
improvements in single-phase motors, the develop- 
ment in the design of gas suction plants and small 
oil generating sets, etc., but a real improvement 
in these and many other directions has been 
manifest. 

Colonial. 
As usual it will be impossible to give anything 
approaching an exhaustive review of what hastaken 
place in the colonies during the year, and if atten- 
tion is drawn to a few of the leading features this 
must suffice. At the moment of writing there is 
much discussion of the proposal to generate elec- 
tricity at the Victoria Falls in South Africa and 
to transmit it a distance of 700 miles to the Rand. 
I believe that English, Continental and American 
engineers are agreed as to the technical possibilities 
of the scheme, but as to how far they aaree as to 
the adoption of the high-tension continuous-current 



January 6, [906 



ERN ELEI l RIl 



lyitem, which the financial lyndicate al the back 
of the project seems to favor, I am not awan 

In Auatralia, South Africa and elicwhei 

■iderable extension! to existing electricity 

have been made, and many new worl , 

municipal, have been put into opei ation I hi 
Pretoria (South Africa) corporation haa pa ed 

lull alltllori/illK Hi'' ' I" "'III I : ' ,.'">."" •"' 

electric supply. At Sydney (N. S. W.) $1,125,000 
has been voted fur extern ion foi both 1 

and lighting. A new three pha c plan) ha I 

1 n 1 ted al 1 .aunceston, 1 a mania, and ■■> 1 cheme 
involving $275,000 has t •«-«-■ x authorized for Auck- 
land (N. /..). In New Zealand, al o, .1 rcporl a 
to the waterpower resources of the country for the 
purposes of generating electricity shows thai there 

■ 1 sufficient for almost all the needs of those 
islands, and the future will without doubt 10 thi 
report acted upon. 

A vast exten ion of the use of electricity in its 
application to mining purposes has occurred, and 
for very few purposes now is electricity not 
adapted. In the development of electric energy as 
a power agent in other directions it should be 
noted 1l1.1t al the Table Kay Harbor no less than 



ELECTRICAL PROGRESS OF 1905 ON THE CONTINEM 



■i. Couacv. 



I'.n iini 

uid the leading clcc- 
ii leal factor! upplying considerable 

."ippar.ii n 

tl u In 

bus been formed to 

manufai tt 

ini ludi thi t.i ip, ' urg-Nuremburg, North 
1 li nimi Lloyd Schuck- 

erl tinii lb. bn I,,, in France is to be carried 
on by the Schneider firm of Crcusol 

ii ml ■ we bud the Brown-Boveri Company, 

which is making a great number of team turbines 
on the Parson patent i land and alio 

in i .' i many, I he Allgemeine Elekti 
schaft of Berlin i i also building the ti 

The French Thomson-Hou 
turned out a large amount of electrical machinery 
,ii its Paris works. Pari of it went to supply the 
hydraulic plants on the coast near Nice and the 




END VIEW OF 



TRANSPORTER BRIDGE, 



21 electric cranes, manufactured in England, have 
been erected, costing some $1,750,000. And this 
brings me to the point that British manufacturers 
are greatly in the ascendancy in the large majority 
of the. colonies. In Calcutta the trams have been 
converted to electric traction by British plant and 
British contractors ; similarly at Hong Kong, Singa- 
pore and Bangkok. Again, at Johannesburg, some 
very large continuous-current dynamos, made in 
the Midlands, have been erected, and they will be 
driven by gas engines. At Durban the corporation 
is so far up with the times that funeral tram cars 
are in existence. The South Australian trairnvays, 
to the extent of 70 miles, are being converted 
from horse haulage, as also are the Adelaide lines. 
The Stone system of train lighting has been 
adopted on the New South Wales railways. 

The Australian colonies also had a big share in 
the Pacific Cable conference in London. The com- 
petition of the cable companies is so keen that a 
pooling of the receipts was suggested, but a later 
proposal is to nationalize the company's eastern 
lines. Trunk-line telephony is also making head- 
way, and Melbourne and Sydney were joined up at 
a cost of $250,000. 

All this is sufficient indication — as the facts are — 
that if anything, owing to the commencement of 
development being later, the electrical industry in 
the British colonies is more active than at home. 



extensive tramway lines which are now running 
on the Mediterranean coast. The addition to the 
Metropolitan station in Paris required several 
groups of large capacity, and the increase in the 
subway keeps up the demand for motor equip- 
ments. Some of these have also been supplied by 
the French Westinghouse Company. The latter 
has erected a large hydraulic plant at Clermont- 
Ferrand, and is also to equip several large elec- 
tric railroads in Italy. A number of companies in 
Switzerland and Germany are making trials of sin- 
gle-phase or three-phase systems for railroad lines. 
Among these are the Oerlikon and Siemens- 
Schuckert for Switzerland, while the Union Elec- 
tric Company intends to equip the Hamburg elec- 
tric road. The Allgemeine and the Siemens- 
Schuckert companies have made a combine for ob- 
taining the concession for the Cologne-Diisseldorf 
railway. 

Stations and Power Transmission. 
Two hydraulic plants of large capacity are to 
be erected in the Lyons region for obtaining the 
additional current which the city now requires 
for lighting and power, including the extensions 
of the tramway lines. When finished these will 
figure among the largest hydraulic stations in 
France. The first is located at Mouriers, and it is 
to use the high-tension constant-current series sys- 



I be overhead hue nu 

u\n, and U will 
I 

try machine*, rt 

■ 
plant, which 
the Romanche 

three turbine and all 
kilowatt! each, with an overhead 

ng runiiinj; to 1! OUt- 

- 

ng utilized in 
the Alpine region near the Mediterranean 
France to supply Nice. Monte Carlo and other 
towns in the region ; also the extensive syjtcm of 
tramways aloi a 
which have been already erected, I may menl 

■ which the i n concern ha. 

I at Plan du Var for the Mediterranean 
Coast Electric Company. When finished the sta- 
tion will have two turbine and generator sets, like 
hown in the illustration, of 600 kilowatts 
each. Turbines of the Francis type, built by 
Eschcr, Wyss & Co., arc coupled to three-phase 
1 1,000-volt alternators. 

The Ganz Company of Budapest has lately in- 
stalled a hydraulic plant which is now the largest 
in Bohemia. It furnishes current mainly to the 
extensive paper and cellulose factory of the J. 
Spiro Company at Krummau as well as to some 
of the neighboring towns. The fall at ilohcnfurth 
is about 300 feet. When complete the station will 
contain five turbine sets using Ganz three-phase 
alternators of 2,500 kilowatts each. The overhead 
line which runs to Krummau is operated at 15.000 
volts, and the step-down transformers lower it 
to 300 volts. The two large paper factories use 
a number of three-phase motors ranging from 100 
horsepower down. 

The gas company of Clermont-Ferrand, which 
is one of the large towns of France in the Au- 
vergne region, put in a large hydraulic plant not 
long ago in order to secure the increase of current 
which the town requires. The plant is located on 
the Sioule River about 20 miles off, and the outfit 
will include six turbo-alternator sets of 1.200 horse- 
power each, using Escher-W r yss turbines (-$ foot 
fall) and alternators which have been built at the 
Havre works of the French Westinghouse Com- 
pany. The overhead line uses 20,000 volts, which 
is furnished by oil transformers. At Clermont 
there is a large sub-station containing similar 
transformers for reducing to 3.000 volts. 

Among the hydraulic plants in Italy which are 
to be erected 'I may mention the Naples station, 
which is to be situated on the Volturno. and is 
expected to give 3.000 horsepower at the start. An 
overhead line will run to Naples, operating at 
45,000 volts, and a sub-station will deliver current 
for lighting and for the tramways. Rome is to have 
a new power plant, according to the project of 
the Sila Industrial Company. The current will be 
used mainly for operating some of the local trac- 
tion lines. The Sila River affords a 2.000-foot 
head of water, and it is expected to obtain 6.000 
horsepower. A new station on the Cellina River 
is to furnish a large amount of current for the 
city of Venice, where an increase of power has 
been needed for some time. 

Development of the Steam Turbine. 

The station which is now building in the suburbs 
of Paris, at St. Denis, will be one of the largest 
steam-turbine plants in Europe. It is intended to 
supply current for the Paris subway as well as for 
different surface traction lines and some of the city 
lighting circuits. The station consists of a three- 
part building lying on the Seine, and the main 
hall for the machines is 325 feet long and 70 feet 
wide. The boiler room is to have 20 Babcock & 
Wilcox boilers, each having 500 square yards heat- 
ing surface. Special mechanical devices, motor- 
driven conveyors, etc. will handle the coal as it 
comes on the barges. The dynamo hall is laid out 
to contain four steam-turbine and dynamo groups 
of the Brown-Boveri type, built at the Swiss fac- 
tory of Baden. Each of these sets will have a 
capacity of 10.000 horsepower. The alternators 
are of the three-phase io.ooo-volt type, working at 
25 cycles and 750 revolutions per minute. 

A large steam-turbine set on the same system 
is now running in the Essen plant, Germany, and 



H 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



it operates at 1,000 revolutions per minute. The 
alternator is of the 5,000-kilowatt three-phase pat- 
tern and delivers 5,000 volts at 50 cycles. The 
same turbine, which has a capacity of 8,000 horse- 
power, also drives a direct-current machine of 
1,500 kilowatts and 600 volts. A good speed regu- 
lation is secured here, and it is said that there is 
but five per cent, variation between no load and 
full load. 

Among other steam-turbine plants in Germany 
I may mention the large unit which has been in- 
stalled in the Rheno-Westphalian station. This is 
a 10,000-horsepower group and has a three-phase 



supply a steam-turbine outfit for the large plant 
which the Gas and Electric Lighting Company pro- 
poses to erect at Marseilles. It will furnish a 
large amount of current for the city circuits and 
also for the tramway lines which are being ex- 
tended. The new plant will be built alongside the 
gas works, and when finished it will contain six 
steam-driven sets besides three units (300-kilowatt), 
which will have Curtis steam turbines. The Thom- 
son-Houston Company has adopted the Curtis tur- 
bine and expects to use it in the future on the 
Continent. These groups will have a capacity of 
1,000 kilowatts and operate at 50 cycles. The other 







1 
m 




-'itfiiiu' — "^SHI 


^j3^litf*ifi»i^ySi 


y — _cJKr 


i^giir'lK^ 


18* -V*! 1 



Switzerland, are used here. The boiler room is 
laid out on the most modern principles and con- 
tains 35 boilers at present, having 330 square yards 
heating surface each. The motor-driven apparatus 
for handling the coal and ashes is most complete, 
and in a 10-hour day it takes care of 380 tons of 
coal. The engines, which are of the triple-expan- 
sion type, with 60-inch stroke and 85 revolutions, 
have mounted on the main shaft a 3,000-kilowatt 
alternator having a 70-pole interior field. An ex- 
tensive switchboard is used to handle the different 
circuits of the station. 

Traction. 
The question of using electric traction upon the 
railroads is one which has been occupying the at- 
tention of the different governments or private 
railroad companies in nearly all the leading coun- 




MEDITEERANt: AN 



MOTOR TRUCK USED ON PARIS METROPOLITAN 



5,000-kilowatt alternator working at 5,000 volts 
besides a 1,500-kilowatt direct-current machine at 
600 volts. The speed is 1,000 revolutions per min- 
ute. The turbine set with the two machines occu- 
pies a length of 65 feet and weighs some 200 tons. 
It was built at the Mannheim factory of the 
Brown-Boveri Company. 

To show the development of the steam turbine 
in Europe I may mention some of the large plants 
which the above firm has installed in the different 
cities up to the present. The largest equipment in 
France consists of four 6,000-kilowatt turbo-alter- 
nator sets which are running in the plant belong- 
ing to the Compagnie Russo-Francaise at St. 
Ouen in the suburbs of Paris. In Switzerland we 
find a 2,400-kilowatt set at Beznau and one of 
1,500 kilowatts in the Rheinfelden station. Russia 
has two large groups of 2,000 kilowatts each in 
the St. Petersburg city plant, while the Moscow 
station has lately installed a group of the same 



six units of the station will be run by steam 
engines and have a capacity of 1,000 kilowatts. 
Garbage-burning Plant in Zurich. 
A successful plant is now running at Zurich in 
which the steam is furnished by garbage-consum- 
ing furnaces. There are 12 of these furnaces, which 
have been built by the Horsfall Company of Leeds. 
In 24 hours they will consume 150 tons of waste. 
A system of motor-driven conveyors and cranes is 
used to feed the furnaces, and electric fans produce 
a strong draught for the combustion. The hot 
gases from the furnaces go by a main conduit to 
two boilers, which have 200 square yards heating 
surface each. The steam is superheated and sup- 
plied to a Brown-Boveri steam-turbine group 
which is placed in the dynamo room. The alter- 
nator, of the three-phase 50-cycle type, is designed 
for 3,000 revolutions and furnishes 500 kilowatts 
at 220 volts. The turbine set not only delivers 




size, and a 1,500-kilowatt set is running at Kieff. 
Besides the Essen plant mentioned above we find 
in Germany two large sets of 3,000 kilowatts each 
in the municipal station of Frankfort, a 2,000-kilo- 
watt group at Cologne and many others of large 
size. One of the largest steam-turbine sets on 
the Continent has lately been installed at the 
Bruckhausen mines in Germany, and it delivers 
some 6,000 kilowatts on the three-phase 5,600-volt 
system for ' operating the mining machines. A 
large •'textile factory at Orjechow, Russia, uses a 
thousand-kilowatt set. 
The French Thomson-Houston Company is to 



DUNE ELECTRIC RAILWAY IN SWITZERLAND. 

current for running the motors of the furnace 
plant but also supplies a certain amount to the city 
mains. 

Moabit Station in Beklin. 
Among the large electric stations of Berlin is 
the Moabit plant, which is located in .the north- 
western part of the city between the Spandau 
Canal and the Hamburg railroad. At present the 
station has four engine-driven units of 3,500 horse- 
power each, and it is expected to install four new 
sets of 6,000 horsepower before' long, which will 
give the plant nearly 40,000 horsepower. Triple- 
expansion Sulzer engines, built at Winterthiir, 



tries of Europe. In many cases experiments are 
being carried out upon short lines to show what 
can be expected of single-phase or three-phase 
systems. During the year a number of electric 
railroads of greater or less length have been in- 
stalled or completed, and their successful working 
has had a favorable influence on the electrify- 
ing of the main railroad lines. This is especially 
true in countries like Switzerland and Italy, where 
a large amount of hydraulic power can be secured 
for operating the roads. 

The Austrian government is considering the 
question of electrifying the main lines and using 
hydraulic power to operate them, especially the 
roads which lie in the region of the Alps. The 
railroad companies are working in connection with 
the government to develop this idea, and the first 
step will be to obtain accurate data as to which 
of the falls will be best adapted for the purpose. 
The Swedish government is also interested in the 
question, and experiments are now being made with 
a single-phase locomotive built by the Westinghouse 
company. An overhead trolley system using volt- 
ages varying from 18,000 to 3,000 volts is proposed. 
Oil transformers mounted on the locomotive will 
reduce the voltage. On each of the two axles is 
placed a single-phase 150-horsepower motor. Gov- 
ernment engineers are overseeing the trials at pres- 
ent. In Switzerland, where the interest taken in 
the question is probably the greatest, the Oerlikon 
and. Siemens-Schuckert companies have made an 
agreement in relation to carrying on the preliminary 
work and making experiments which are to lead 
to the electrifying of the Swiss railroads. For 
some time past the Oerlikon company has been 
working under the direction of the government, 
and the Seebach-Wittingen line has been allotted 
to it in order to carry out a series of experiments 
with locomotives using 15,000 volts. The first 
trials will be made over a two-mile section from 
Seebach to Affolten. At the same time the Sie- 
mens-Schuckert firm has its experience of the Ber- 
lin-Zossen experimental road to aid in solving the 
problem. 

In Germany a number of projects for high-speed 
electric railroads are on foot. The Allgemeine 
company and the Siemens-Schuckert company have 
lately made a combine in order to secure the con- 
cession for a , high-speed line from Cologne to 
Dusseldorf. The government is also considering a 
project for a direct line between Berlin and Ham- 
burg, using high-speed trains, which will run be- 
tween the two cities without stopping, at So or 90 
miles an hour. On one proposed system such a 
line would cost $20,000,000 for a single track, 
while another project which calls for double track 
gives $40,000,000 as the cost. Belgium is also in- 
terested in high-speed roads, and a recent project 
relates to a direct line from Louvain to the Ger- 



Januarj 6, 1906 

man frontier, with trains running al Ko miles an 
hour, so as to redui c the timi between Bi 
.•Hid Aix la-Chapi He. 1 Cere the cosl Rgi 
$15,000,000. 

In relation to shorl line ol tandartl or nai 

row gauge cleeti ii 1 ailroad, 01 ti a 1 on id 

erable progri 9 during th year on the Continent, 

both aa to the ini n ai e of traffii ind addi f 

new material on the ah 1 ad} - 1 ting 1 . a 

well as ili<' construe! 1 a numbi 1 

roads. A very successful standard ad in 

Switzerland is the line which coi 1 aero bi 

tween two of the main railroad line . and run 

between Bertl I on the Zui ich < !i m va railroad, 

and the statio 1 1 ne, on the Berne Inti 1 lal 1 n 

road. The new electric road now has a large traf 
Sc, as it gives a direct connection between the 
north or easl of Switzerland and the Bcrm 
Oberland. Motor cars are used with trailers to 
form the trains, as shown in the illustration. Hie 
line is about 25 miles long and uses current from 
a hydraulic plant. Ii is an example of the use 
of the three phase system with 750 volts •■!! the 
trolley. Brown Boveri electrical outfits are u ed 
here. The freight trains arc drawn by electrii 
locomotives carrying two 150 horsepower molor 

An important line in Greece, running from Allien 
lo the coast, lias 1 11.11 equipped by the Thomson- 
Houston company; it uses motor cars ami trailers. 
Several new lines on the single phase system are 
io be built in Italy by the Westinghouse company. 
Among these is a 35-mile road from Rome to 
Civita Castellana, using 6,000 volts. 

Electric trains arc now running on the Orleans 
company's tracks in the suburbs of Paris as far 
as Juvisy, u miles, where the electric line uses 
the two outer tracks, and the steam trains of the 
main road run on the two inner tracks. Current 
from the Ivry plant is transformed in three sub- 
stations to 600 volts direct current for the loco- 
motives and motor cars. The latter arc fitted with 
four Thomson-Houston motors of 270 horsepower. 

The Berlin subway is to have a new section 
which will be 12 miles long and will cost some 
$12,000,000, while the present subway is also being 
extended. Turning to the Paris subway, the last 
year has seen the opening up of a new section, 
while several other sections are under way. The 
line will cross the Seine for the first time upon 
two bridges, and at present a tunnel is being laid 
under the river for a newer portion. The West- 
inghouse and Thomson-Houston companies are fur- 



WESTERN ELE( TRK 

•■ 

life of 

which 
It lamp 
1 lighl during 

lean . .111.1 ih. n 

works bi 

;ii not 

I 



■ 




IR1C PLANT IN BOHEMIA. 



used to form filaments, and Professor Wedding re- 
cently brought out some new lamps in which the 
filament is obtained from a mixture of oxides of 
magnesium and zirconium. An improved mercury- 
vapor lamp is made in Germany by the Schott com- 
pany of Jena. It consists of a glass tube seven 
or eight inches long having a carbon stopper at 
each end. Current is brought by platinum wires. 
fused in the glass, and enters the mercury which 
the tube contains. The new lamp is remarkable 
for giving a large amount of violet light. A mer- 




nishing the material for the new trains. A picture 
shows one of the new trucks for the motor cars 
which the latter company lurnished. This truck 
carries two 175-horsepower motors. 
Electric Lighting. 
The new tantalum lamps seem to have met with 
some success during the year, as the Siemens & 
Halske firm is said to have already sold more 
than ioo.oco of them. It appears that they should 
be run as much as possible on direct current, where 
they have a longer life and less blackening than 
with alternating current. Official tests made at 
Vienna show that a 25-candlepower lamp gave at 
first 22.35 candlepower, and after 600 hours 24.6 
candlepower; at 1,200 hours it still held at 23.7 



cury-vapor lamp having a quartz tube has also been 
placed on the market by the Heraeus Company. 
Space Telegraphy. 
One notes considerable progress in space teleg- 
raphy during the year, and stations have been 
erected in nearly all the countries of Europe. The 
Telefunken Company is one of the most active in 
Germany Not long ago it installed an important 
system, which works between Berlin and Dresden, 
over 115 miles distance. The mast wires are 
placed upon four towers, and within the area- so 
formed is located the electric station. The ma- 
chines deliver alternating current at 15,000 volts on 
the primary. The electrical oscillations are very 
powerful, and there is no difficulty in sending the 



the island of Rhodes with Derna, a port situated 
on the African coast. The French Thomson-Hous- 
ton company has lately brought out a system of 
apparatus, and already has stations erected in Ger- 
many, Sweden, Holland and other countries. It 
is already operating 20 coast stations in Germany 
alone, and has equipped 80 war vessels. In Russia 
there are five portable military stations working, 
and four in Austria. 

Telegraphy and Telephony. 

This year has seen the opening of the Paris- 
Rome telephone line, which is one of the most 
important in Europe, and conversation can now be 
carried on between these two cities. It is reported 
that G. Angclini, the chief engineer of Italian tele- 
graphs, has invented a new form of microphone 
transmitter, or rather an improvement in the gran- 
ulated-carbon microphone, and that he used it on 
the Rome-Brussels line, which has not as yet been 
covered, even by the most powerful instruments. 
The new transmitter gave good results in this case. 
It is said to be of a simple construction and can 
be adapted to any line. 

The new telephone cable which is to be laid in 
Lake Constance will use the Pupin coil system. 
The three governments of Wurtembcrg. Bavaria 
and Switzerland have made an agreement in rela- 
tion to the new cable. It has been ordered from 
the Siemens & Halske works of Berlin, and i> 
some nine miles in length. The Pupin system is 
also to be adopted on the new telephone line which 
will run from Vienna to Innsprfick, over .1 distance 
of 340 miles. The line consists of three-millimeter 
bronze wire, and is mostly overhead. The Siemens 
& Halske factory at Vienna furnishes the coils, 
and they will be spaced 2'j miles apart on the 
overhead portion. 

The Rowland rapid telegraph has proved very' 
successful on the Continent during the year. It 
has been in use on the Rome-Xaples line, which has 
a very heavy traffic, and the Italian government gives 
a very favorable opinion of the system in its last 
report. The same company is making negotiations 
in Germany, in order to have the octoplex system 
used on the Berlin-Hamburg and the Berlin-Frank- 
fort lines. 



Chicago Elevated Railway Traffic. 

Traffic on the elevated railways of Chicago for 
December continued good. Compared with Decem- 
ber 1004 the percentage of increase in the daily 
number of passengers carried was : Metropolitan, 
cent. ; Northwestern, 11.42 per cent.: Soutb 
Side, 9.81 per cent. The average daily number of 
igers carried by these roads in 1005 and the 
percentage of increase which that number represents 
over the figures for 1904 is as follows: Metro- 
politan. 124.271, 9.30 per cent.: Northwestern, 77,- 
366, 9.S9 per cent.; South Side, 90,301, S.47 per cent. 



i6 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



PUBLICATION OFFICES.' 

510 Marquette Building, - CHICAGO. 

TELEPHON E, MA IN 1746. 

Eastern Office, 150 Nassau Street, New York. 

Telephone, 4147 John. 



Trade Supplied by Western News Co. 

OOPXBIGrHT.— Not only the title but the entire contents o. 
each number of the Western P^lectriciam are copyrighted. 
This paper is entered at the Chicago postofflce as mail matter 
•>f the second class. 

SUBSCRIPTION, in advance, postage prepaid, $3.00 for a 
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extra copy for eight subscriptions; foreign countries. £5.00 a 
year; single copies, 10 cents. When change of address is re- 
quested, the old address as well as the new should be given. 

CORRESPONDENCE relating to electricity or any of its 
practical applications is cordially invited, and the co-operation 
of all electrical thinkers and workers earnestly desired. Clear, 
concise, well written articles are especially welcome; and com- 
munications, views, news items, local newspaper clippings, or 
any information likely to interest electricians, wMl be thank- 
fully received and cheerfully acknowledged. 

ADVERTISING;.— The Western Electrician— the only 
general electrical paper published in the West— thoroughly 

CAN BB MADE BY NO OTHER ELECTRICAL JOURNAL IN THE 

United States. Electrical merchants and manufacturers 
d''siri//'j western trade will appreciate the tjnequaled value 
of this journal as an advertising medium in its special field. 
Advertising rates are moderate, and will be furnished en 
application. 

REMITTANCES.— All checks, drafts and other remit- 
tances should be made payable to the order of the publishers, 
the Electrician Publishing Company, and addressed to the 
offices of publication. Suite 510, Marquette Building (204 
Dearborn Street), Chicago, Illinois, TJ. S. A. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Fisk Street Station of the Commonwealth Electric Company, 

Chicago. With Supplement., Illustrated i, 2, 3. 4, 5, 6 

"A Power Plant" 6 

Electrical Progress in the United States in 1905. By Henry 

H. Norris. Illustrated 6, 7, 3, q 

Electrical Industry in Great Britain in 1905. Illustrated 

10. n, 12, 13 

Electrical Progress of 1905 on the Continent. By A. De Courcy. 

Illustrated x 3. J 4, J 5 

Chicago Elevated Railway Traffic 15 

Editorial l6 

Statistics of Electrical Manufactures 17 

Mortuary Record of 1905 18 

Electrical Exports of 1905 lS 

November Exports J 8 

American Association for the Advancement of Science 18, 19 

Death of Charles T. Yerkes. Portrait 19 

Northwestern Convention in Chicago 19 

Chicago Gas Inquiry *9 

Illinois Central Electrification May be Hastened 19 

A "Missing Link" in Electric Railroading Supplied. Illus- 

Mr. Arnold Elected President of the Western Society 19 

Business of the Year 1905 in Review 20, 21 

"Poke Bonnet" Reflector for Window Lighting. Illustrated. . 21 

Chicago Street-railway Situation 21 

Richardson Lighting Outfit. Illustrated 21 

Universal Space-telegraph Intercepter for Signal Service. 21 

Westinghouse 1906 Electric Fans. Illustrated 22 

Heating and Lighting Plant at Parkville, Mo. Illustrated 23 

Ohio and Indiana Interurban Associations May be Merged 23 

Labor-saving Receptacle for Signs. Illustrated 23 

Coming Exhibition of Balloons and Air Ships 23, 24 

"International" Switchboard Instruments and Their Makers. 

Illustrated 24 

Mayor Dunne's Views on Pending Municipal Problems 24, 25 

New Stromberg-Carlson Transmitter. Illustrated 25 

General Telephone News 25 

Manufacturers and Dealers 25 

DEPARTMENTS. 

Correspondence 26, 27 

Great Britain 26 

New York 26 

Dominion of Canada : 26 

Pacific Slope 26 

Ohio 26, 27 

Personal 27 

Electric Lighting 27 

Electric Railways 27 

Publications 27, 28 

Miscellaneous 28 

Trade News 28 

Business 28 

Illustrated Electrical Patent Record 28, 29, 30 



DATES AHEAD. 

Railway Signal Association (annual meeting), Grand 
Union Hotel, New York city, January 9, 1906. 

Indiana Electric Railway Association (annual meeting), 
Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, January nth. 

Automobile Club of America (annual exhibition), Sixty- 
ninth Regiment Armory, New York city, January 13th to 
20th. 

Chicago Electrical Show (first annual exhibition of Elec- 
trical Trades Exposition Company), Coliseum, Chicago, Jan- 
uary 15th to 27th. 

American Electrical Salesmen's Association (first annual 
meeting), Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, January 20th, 9 a. m. 

Nebraska Independent Telephone Association (annual con- 
vention), Lindell Hotel, Lincoln, Neb., January 23d and 
24th. 

Ohio Interurban Railway Association (annual meeting), 
Algonquin Hotel, Dayton, Ohio, January 25th. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

The year 1905 was a prosperous one for the 
electrical interests generally, not only at home but 
abroad. In the United States, as is shown by the 
statistical statement on the opposite page, the value 
of electrical and auxiliary manufactures (meaning 
by "auxiliary" only such as are necessary in the 
employment of electricity) was over 16 per cent, 
greater in 1905 than in 1904. The totals were : 

1904, $230,510,000; 1905-. $268,075,000. This rate of 
growth is accentuated by the fact that 1904 was an 
"off" year, falling behind the year before in value 
of electrical manufactures. Comparing 1903 and 

1905, the increase is seen to be 14 per cent., which, 
while somewhat less, is nevertheless gratifying. 
In the matter of electrical exports from the United 
States, too, the year 1905 seems to have made a 
high-water mark, although the figures for December 
are not available at this writing. With the miss- 
ing month estimated, the total is $12,552,360, which 
is larger than for any previous year. 

While the year has been one of advance in all 
departments, there Jias been no striking departure 
from existing practice, although apparatus and 
methods previously advocated, such as the tantalum 
lamp, the use of the direct current for long- 
distance power transmission and single-phase loco- 
motives have attracted much attention. 

In the electric-lighting field the nearest approach 
to a novelty has been the tantalum lamp, which 
was, however, mentioned in the Western Elec- 
trician's New Years number of 1905 (the first 
reference, we believe, in an American electrical 
journal), so that it belongs, strictly speaking, to 
1904. Mr. De Courcy, in his article in this issue 
on "Electrical Progress of 1905 on the Continent," 
notes the assertion that 100,000 of these lamps have 
been sold in Germany. Tantalum lamps are also 
commercially available in England, but not yet, 'in 
quantities, in this country. 

The flame-arc lamp is making friends in locali- 
ties where it can be used ; the osmium lamp con- 
tinues to excite discussion ; the Nernst and mer- 
cury-vapor lamps both show healthy growth; and 
the year has been marked by the appearance of 
an improved "metallized" carbon filament which is 
put forward as resulting in greater efficiency, 
especially in incandescent lamps of the larger sizes. 

Gas interests, both in respect to light and power, 
have been more active than in former years, but 
fortunately there has been a conspicuous awakening 
of central-station companies also, largely due to 
the efforts of the rejuvenated National Electric 
Light Association, and campaigns for new business 
and the study of the manufacture and marketing 
of electricity as a product now receive more intel- 
ligent attention than was formerly the case. 

Municipal ownership of public utilities attracted 
more attention in the United States during 1905 
than ever before. Chicago elected a municipal- 
ownership mayor. New York almost did so ; in 
fact, there are many residents of that city who 
insist that a fair count of the votes would show 
a plurality for the municipal-ownership candidate. 
Cleveland has for its chief magistrate one of the 
leading apostles of the cult. All over the country 
the question has been agitated and debated, and a 
very strong popular interest has been aroused for 
municipalization. But there are some signs of a 
revulsion of feeling, and this the private-owner- 
ship advocates are endeavoring to encourage by a 
campaign of education. 

Electric railroading has gone forward with great 
impetus during the year. The work on the New 
York Central terminal electrification in New York 
city is well advanced toward completion. The 
great electric locomotive (direct-current) to be 
employed in this work has nobly withstood all its 
tests. The New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad made the interesting decision to employ 
single-phase locomotives entering the same terminal. 
This brought about a controversy that reminds 
one of the old days, when all Gaul was divided 
into two parts — direct current and alternating cur- 
rent. Happily, there seems to be no question that 
either type of apparatus will fail to perform the 
duty required of it. In all parts of the country, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the electric rail- 
way is being extended. Steam-railroad companies, 
in not a few cases, are no longer such, but rather 
steam-railroad and electric-railway companies. The 
electric railway is no more merely a rank outsider ; 



January 6, 1906 

it has been taken to the bosom of its elder brother. 
In Chicago the interesting electric-railway freight 
tunnels have been greatly extended during the 
year. Considerable material has been moved through 
the tunnels, which are not, however, fairly in 
operation as yet. 

Power transmission continued to press forward, 
if the expression may be allowed, during 1905. 
The work at Niagara, on the Pacific Slope and 
in other centers was pushed with unabated vigor. 
Following the meeting of the British Association 
in South Africa, there was renewed discussion 
of the proposal to transmit power over a distance 
of 745 miles from Victoria Falls on the Zambesi 
River to Johannesburg. There is, however, grave 
doubt of the practicability of this scheme from 
the commercial point of view. It is also suggested 
that direct current may be used, which would be 
at variance with American practice. But in France 
a 115-mile, 57,000-volt direct-current transmission 
system is to be built from Moutiers to Lyons 
after the design of Mr. Thury, whose work on the 
similar St. Maurice-Lausanne plant is well known. 
This will be the most ambitious direct-current 
transmission in existence, and the practical results 
will be awaited with great interest. In the United 
States polyphase transmission is used almost ex- 
clusively. 

The steam turbine continues its triumphant 
march in the electric power stations of the world. 
The first large steam turbine in the United States 
was installed in the Fisk Street Station of the 
Commonwealth Electric Company in Chicago and 
was first put in operation October 5. 1903. Last 
year it is estimated that the value of steam tur- 
bines sold in the United States to drive electrical 
generators was $4,000,000. The leading feature of 
this issue of the Western Electrician is the first 
complete description which has been published of 
the Fisk Street Station. This great generating 
plant has now four turbo-generator units which 
have carried a maximum load of 28,500 kilowatts. 
Four more, larger machines, are on order, and 
will be installed as soon as possible, bringing the 
maximum capacity of the power house up to 76,500 
kilowatts, while the total ultimate maximum capac- 
ity will be 156,000 kilowatts, or 200,000 horsepower. 

The gas engine is also pushing to the front, 
being made in units of constantly increasing size, 
and there are not wanting those who predict that, 
with producer plant, it will yet prove to be a 
serious rival of the steam turbine, which,, even 
now, seems to have distanced the reciprocating 
engine as a prime mover in large steam power 
plants. 

Telephonic growth was more marked in 1905, in 
the United States, than in 1904. The automatic 
system continues to expand, several large ex- 
changes built last year being provided with the 
apparatus which takes the eplace of operators. In 
Europe important events were the reaching of an 
agreement between the English government and 
the National Telephone Company, by which the 
formcre will take over the latter's system in 1911. 
and the opening of the Paris-Rome long-distance 
line. Some progress is reported in rapid systems 
of telegraphy, while space telegraphy has demon- 
strated its usefulness in such widely separated 
fields of endeavor as saving life at sea and naval 
warfare. 

Several subjects which still remain to be men- 
tioned must be touched upon briefly. One relates 
to the subject of standardization of electrical ap- 
paratus, which is given more earnest discussion. 
In England, especially, the standardization of in- 
candescent lamps has received attention. It is 
evident that there will be no lack of work for the 
International Electrical Standardizing Conference — 
when it meets. 

That electrical pioneers are not forgotten in 
Belgium after their death was shown by the un- 
veiling of the monument to Zenobe Gramme last 
fall in Liege. Perhaps there is a monument to 
Joseph Henry in the United States, but at the 
moment it would puzzle us to say just where it is. 

A large portion of the space in this New Years 
issue is devoted to articles reviewing the electrical 
history which the year 1905 has made. It is a 
vc*ir that will be classed among the "fat" years, 
and we hope that the year now entered upon will 
equal or surpass it. 



January 6, [906 



WESTERN ELECTRK 



STATISTICS OF ELECTRICAL MANUFAC'IUkES. 



The gem ral prospcrit; ol th 

refle 1 tl in 1)"' h I 

closi Ij allied m fai turc in tl ' 

for igoSi as shown by the annual New 

t itimati "i thi v. 1 Elect™ ian, given below 

in tabulated form. The 1 1 1 $268,1 

which, compared with thi $230,510,000 ol [904, 

.in, u Mm i. 11 gc im re; 1; 1 

u, pei cent, U is to be rcmcmbei 1 d, howi rer, thai 
in igo 1 there was a ilighl Calling of) in clccti ii il 
.in, I allied manufactures compared with thi 
before, 10 thai the im rea e how n b thi 
,1 |a 1 year is larger than 11 would havi been 

iverc ii iini foi the c parativclj 1 r how ing of 

[904. I aking the pei ii ,1 [anuai j 1 , 1904, to 

January t, 1906, the increase was something ovei 
1 1 pei cent., which, di n ibuted through the two 
years, shows a rate of growth which 1 not ab 
normal in the electrical busines Furthermore, 

the figures given expn the val 1 the output 

in the various lines in dollars, so thai price a 
well as volume of product affect the result. But, 
in, mailer how the figures are analyzed, il is pleas- 
ing to reflect that the year just closed witnessed 
a larger total value of electrical apparatus and 
apparatus made necessary by the use of electricity 
than any year that preceded it. 

Ill nearly every nne of the elassilieal i, hi -. adopted 
for the following table there is shown a good eon 
and in some instances a surprising increase. In- 
deed, in only one item is there a marked decrease, 
and this is in reciprocating steam engines used 
to drive electrical machinery. Here the falling 
off is no doubt due to the advance of the steam 
turbine and perhaps of the gas engine. Recipro- 



■ 
■ 

both 1 1 

tropl iting and othi 
other instano 

inn, h gi 

than won]. 1 1, 
one wh 
ubjeel ii i also growing 

it il 

po iible thai the yafui ol output for ig 
under tint tied [ndi • d, in all 1 

n .i],' to 1 too 1 high 

' out in gathering inform , 1 

this chat one that the I 'nited 

States is a big 
is a hie, 1 

Mernsl 1 p 

pul of ovei 1 rtli I] arrest 

attention, bul the tuthoritj foi the figures is 

unimpeachable. The same may be said of mi 

vapor lamp In both ca 1 thi 

as well as volume of output is to ■ 

Shafting, pulleys, clut ; ed in electrical 

stations, is mother item that jhow a I 

portionate increase. Bul here, probabb 

an underestimate for 1904. 

Space telegraphy show an im 1 ea 1 of but a 
little over live per cent. The practical utilization 
of this truly marvelous invention seems to be 
proceeding but slowly. 

Telephone apparatus shows a good increase over 
the year before, although the figure is in nowise 



lively 

jrattly 

avoiding dupli 

but thi - 

nnmli, 1 I allied 

industri They 

are based on knowledge and maj 

iccount 
of progi 
To the large number of fri 

the pn p 

mitted to the clectri, 

trtcian returns its hearty thai 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN'S ESTIMATES OF THE VALUE OF ELECTRICAL AND AUXILIARY MANUFACTURES IN THE UNITED STATES. 






1902. 



1003. 



10O4. 



Arc lamps and appurtenances 

Auxiliary steam plant for electrical installations, such as pumps, condensers, separators, feed- 
water heaters, injectors, piping, etc 

Bells, buzzers, push-buttons, call-boxes, annunciators 

Belting used in electrical plants 

Boilers for electrical plants (water-tube) 

Boilers for electrical plants (other than water-tube) 

Cables, underground, aerial and submarine 

Carbons for lamps, batteries, brushes or other electrical purposes 

Cars and trucks for electric railways 

Circuit-breakers • 

Conduits (underground) and similar material 

Conveyors, coal and ash, used in electrical plants 

Cranes and hoists, electrically operated 

Dynamos and motors, including parts of machines, boosters, rotary converters, motor-generators, 
etc., and all motor applications, such as automobiles, not specifically enumerated in this list 

Electroplating an/3 other electrolytic apparatus not elsewhere specified 

Electrostatic machines, induction coils, medical sets, etc 

Elevators, electric (mechanism only) 

Engines, gas, gasoline or oil, used to drive electrical machinery 

Engines, steam (reciprocating), used to drive electrical machinery 

Pans, electrically operated and direct-connected 

Fire-alarm apparatus, also burglar alarms, crossing indicators, etc 

'Fixtures for electric lighting 

Fuses 

Glassware, electrical 

Heating and cooking apparatus, electrical 

Incandescent lamps 

Instruments for measurement and meters of all kinds; also ground detectors, scientific anc 
laboratory apparatus, photometers, Leyden jars. X-ray outfits, etc 

Insulating material, fiber, tape, etc 

Insulators (glass and porcelain) 

Interior wiring supplies, as tubing, interior conduit, molding, junction boxes, rosettes, outlet 
boxes, etc 

Lightning arresters 

Mercury-vapor lamps 

Nernst lamps 

Poles, cross-arms, brackets and pins 

Primary batteries 

Railway supplies, electric, such as trolleys and other contact devices, strain insulators, cross 
overs, rail-bonds, etc 

Rheostats, car controllers, motor starters, etc 

Shafting, pulleys, clutches, etc., used in electrical generating plants 

Sockets, switches, cut-outs 

Space-telegraph apparatus 

Steam turbines used to drive electrical machinery 

Storage batteries, including those used on automobiles 

Telegraph instruments and apparatus • 

Telephones, telephone switchboards and distinctively telephonic apparatus 

Third rail for electric railways 

Transformers, stationary 

Waterwheels, used to drive electrical machinery , 

Welding apparatus, electric 

Wire, bare. 



Wire, rubber covered 

Wire, weatherproof 

Wire, all other electrical 

Miscellaneous, including switchboard frames and panels, signs and flashers, automatic stokeris 
for electrical plants, wire guards, electrical tools and toys, projectors, solenoids, igniters for 
gas engines, waterwheel governors for hydro-electric plants, voltage regulators, electric 
drills, commutator compounds, lamp adjusters, etc 



S 1,935,000 
2,000,000 

si. "..I-.! 

615.000 
5,100,000 

■2. |i mum 
18,650,000 
2,300,000 
7,500,000 

300.000 

1.025.1 UK I 

751 1,1111 
3.500.00(1 



3.750.000 
1,250,000 

1.751 1 urn 

1,000,000 
425,000 



350,000 

4,350,000 

685,000 

2,150,000 

3,200,000 
425,000 

3.500.1 K 10 
200,000 
500,000 

4,500.000 

200,000 

21,000.000 

500.000 

4,200,000 

1,300,000 



17,500.000 
6,425,000 
8,750,000 
2,000,000 



2,000,000 



Total I $221,165,000 



I 2,025,000 

1,950,000 
800,000 
575,000 

1,500,000 

■j.i iii,iiii 
19,700,000 
2,600,OOQ 

7.5m. urn 
1.21 m,UK 1 

2,350,000 
750,000 

4,750,000 



48,000,000 


52,000,000 


275,000 


300,000 


325,000 


425.1 . . 1 


2.1 O0.000 


2,000,000 


1,300,000 


1,500,000 


17.000,000 


16,500,000 


1,500,000 


1,450,000 


050,000 


950.0011 


4,100,000 


1.25. 1,1111 


185,000 


250,000 


51 mum 


450,000 


330.OUI 


325,000 


5,000,000 


5,400,000 



:;.s.-,n,um 
1,400,000 
1,900,000 

1,950,000 
470.000 
30,000 

450,000 

1.7i K 1.1 « H 1 

775,1 « ' 1 

2.1.50.000 
3,400,060 

400,000 
3.675,000 

250,000 
1,200.1X10 
5.000.000 

200.000 
19,500,000 

500,000 
4.500,000 
1.500,000 



18,350.000 
S.250.000 
9/100,000 
2.700,000 



I 2J200.000 

2,300,000 
900,000 
500,000 

5,600,000 

3,100,000 

7,500,000 
1,350,000 
2,650,000 

■.,,,,.., 

3,875,000 



::.s -„i,.,, 
1.600.000 
1,550,000 

1,975,000 

450,000 

60,000 

425.1 > . 1 

4,850,000 
800,000 

1,900,000 

2,850.01X1 

•>5.i. m 
;;.-,.,,.," 

380,000 

2,500,000 
5,000,000 

265.000 

17.21X1.000 

715,000 

4.450.000 
1,230,000 



18,000,000 

S.200.000 

s.5,.1., • 
2,500.000 



■ 

6,731 1,000 
2,850,000 

■ 
- .. ., 
1,450,000 

'..mum 
5.2."- 1,000 



51,000,000 


60,000,000 


250,000 




550,000 


575.1 . . 1 


2,< 00,000 


1-350,000 


l.-...,.u.i 


_ 


14.5oo.uui 


■ 


1,200,000 


1,375,000 


l.lim.um 


1.41m.,.., 


1.125.1 «> 


4,750,000 


:;im.i.m 


650,000 


O 11.1111 


700,000 


425.1 ■ ■ ' 


650,000 


5,750,000 


- 



12200,000 

l. N > _,,, 

22250,000 
500,000 

125.i . . 1 

,»,,..., 1 

5.400,000 

1.200,000 

2.200.000 
5.25'.,.. 1 

750,000 
4,150,000 

400,000 
4,0 0,000 
,;.•_,...,.,. 

300,000 
192200,000 

1.700,000 

95.000 

20,000,000 

11.000.000 
9.500,000 



4,000,000 



1268,075,000 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



Mortuary Record of 1 905. 

Deaths among men in the electrical field who 
had achieved more than ordinary distinction in 
their chosen profession were numerous in 1905. 
No great figure in the purely scientific world died 
during the year, but many who have been of benefit 
to the cause of applied science in electrical lines 
will no longer continue their work. Among these, 
Mm of some prominence in the manufacturing field, 
was Charles C. Warren, who was president of the 
Warren Electric Manufacturing Company, and who, 
with his son, was the designer of the well-known 
Warren alternator. Eugene F. Phillips of Phillips- 
dale, R. I., was a business man of wide electrical 
acquaintance. Charles T. Yerkes, who died but a 
few days ago, while not an engineer, did a great 
deal for street-railway interests, both in Chicago 
and in London. One man who did much in his 
time in the laying of submarine cables was Charles 
Cuttriss, who died while performing work of this 
character on the connecting link of the American 
Pacific Cable. William B. Rankine was a con- 
spicuous figure in the financing and promoting of 
electrical enterprises, and it was due to him that 
the Niagara Falls Power Company was organized. 
The telephone industry lost in John I. Sabin and 
S. P. Sheerin two of its most useful workers, who 
had achieved noteworthy things in their respective 
spheres. 

A list of the men connected in some way with 
electrical development in its various phases who 
died in 1905 is as follows: 

January 7th. — Charles M. Wilkes of Chicago, me- 
chanical engineer for D. H. Burnham & Co. ; aged 
47 years. 

January 12th. — George S. Bowen of Elgin, 111., 
who called the meeting in Chicago for the organi- 
zation of the National Electric Light Association : 
president of the Elgin Electric Light Company in 
1883; aged 76 years. 

January 22d. — Victor Serrin of Neuilly-en-Tel, 
France, said to have been the inventor of the auto- 
matic regulator fpr arc lamps; aged 75 years. 

January 25th.— Edward H. Mullin of Milburn, 
N. J., chief of the literary and advertising depart- 
ment of the General Electric Company; aged 46 
years. 

February. — S. L. Barriet of Dayton, Ohio, of the 
Harriet Electric Company, inventor and designer of 
electrical machinery. 

February 19th. — Albon Man of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
associated with William E. Sawyer in the invention 
of the Sawyer-Man incandescent lamp ; a lawyer by 
profession ; aged 78 years. 

February 22d. — Eugene F. Phillips of Phillips- 
dale, R. I., general manager of the American Elec- 
trical Works ; aged 62 years. 

March.— W. H. Durin of Cedar Rapids, la., well- 
known Independent telephone man. 

March 1st.— Dudley B. Wick of Cleveland, chief 
engineer of the North Electric Company.; aged 29 
years. 

March 4th. — Frederick A. La Roche of New 
York, former electrical inventor and business man; 
aged 46 years. 

_ March 15th. — Edward C. Cockey of New York, 
superintendent of supplies and general purchasing 
agent of the Western Union Telegraph Company ; 
aged 73 years. 

March 21st. — Arthur B. Davis of Baltimore, gen- 
eral manager of the Viaduct Manufacturing Com- 
pany ; aged 74 years. 

March 22d. — Charles C. Warren, Sandusky, Ohio, 
president of the Warren Electric Manufacturing 
Company ; aged 70 years. 

March 29th.— William 0. Mundy of Pittsburg, 
commercial engineer of the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Companj f ; former master me- 
chanic of the St. Louis Traction Company; aged 
30 years. 

April.— John Verity of Wellingford. England, of 
the firm of Verity & Sons, engaged in gas and 
electric-lighting enterprises ; aged 41 years. 

April 2d. — Charles Alexander Gerhardi of Lon- 
don, England, well-known in the field of telegraphy 
and submarine signaling; aged 6S years. 

May 18th. — George W. Davenport of Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., third vice-president of the Niagara 
Falls Power Company ; aged 47 years. 

May 19th.— James P. McKinstry at Clifton Park, 
Cleveland. Ohio, treasurer of Cleveland Telephone^ 
Company, known as the father of the telephone in 
Cleveland : aged 63 years. 

May 24th. — Dr. J. E. Lowes of Dayton, Ohio, a 
pioneer electric-railwav man. 

June 1st.— F. M. Haines of Fort Worth, Texas, 
general manager of the Northern Texas Traction 
Company; aged 4= years. 

June 5th.— Edward A. Leslie of Brooklyn. N. Y., 
general manager of the Kings County. Electric 
Light and Power Company; aged 56 years. 

June 20th. — S. P. Sheerin of Indianapolis, promi- 
nent manager of Independent telephone properties. 

July. — T. C. Wales, Jr., of Boston, chief elec- 
trical engineer of the New England Telephone and 
Telegraph Company; aged 35 years. 

July. — William B. Dick of Sevenoaks, England, 
founder of the establishment of Dick, Kerr & Co. 
of London; aged 76 years, 



July 6th. — William E. Matson of Lynn, Mass., 
head of the stationary-motor division of the Gen- 
eral Electric Works at Lynn; aged 31 years. 

July 13th. — J. Holt Gates of Chicago, electrical 
business man; aged 43 years. 

July 28th. — Jacob C. Chamberlain of New York, 
electrical engineer. 

August 12th. — William E. Langdon of Ramsgatc, 
England, telegraph engineer; aged 73 years. 

September 1st. — Edwin R. Whitney of Penacook, 
N. H., head of the Whitney Electric Instrument 
Company. 

September 19th. — J. Frank Butterfield of Chicago, 
electrical contractor; aged 44 years. 

September 30th. — William B. Rankine of Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., second vice-president of the Niagara 
Falls Power Company ; aged 47 years. 

October 10th. — John I. Sabin of San Francisco, 
prominent Bell telephone manager. 

October 16th.— William D. Barnard of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., a pioneer in the Independent tele- 
phone movement. 

October 27th. — George C. Bailev of Chicago, 
general western manager of the John A. Roebling's 
Sons Company: aged 62 years. 

November. — G. A. Grindle of London, late gen- 
eral manager of the Chloride Electrical Power Stor- 
age Company of London. 

November nth. — Frederic H. Betts of New York, 
patent lawyer; aged 62 years. 

November 14th. — James C. Warner of Chicago, 
who made the original Morse telegraph instruments 
used in line between Washington and Baltimore ; 
aged S2 years. 

November 17th. — Charles Cuttriss, electrician of 
the Commercial Cable Company : aged 55 years. 

November 26th. — William H. Edgar of Chicago, 
president of the Dearborn Drug and Chemical 
Works ; aged 40 years. 

November 27th. — Charles A. Thompson of Brook- 
lyn, founder of the Thompson-Bonney Company, 
and electrical contractor ; aged .44 years. 

December 29th. — Charles T. Yerkes of London, 
large financial promoter of street-railway enter- 
prises; aged 68 years. 



Electrical Exports for 1 905. 

Electrical exports from the United States for the 
calendar year 1905 were the largest of any year on 
record. With complete figures for 1 1 months of 
the year, but estimating the month of December, for 
which month the official figures are not yet avail- 
able, the total value of electrical exports from this 
country for the year just closed amounted to 
$12,552,370. This is $1,512,612 more than the total 
for 1904. For the last five years the total value of 
all electrical exports from the United States was 
as follows: 1905, $12,552,370; 1904, $11,039,758; 
1503, $9,856,047; 1902, $9,997 J95; 1901, $7452,783. 

The following table shows the value of electrical 
exports from the United States by months for the 
year 1905, the month of December, as stated, being 
estimated. The first column of figures represents 
foods classified as electrical appliances, which in- 
cludes telegraph and telephone instruments; the 
second column is for electrical machinery, and the 
third gives the totals: 

Exports by Months for 1905. 

Appliances. Machinery. Total. 

January $ 387,610 $ 554,999 $ 942,609 

February 418,483 637,479 1,055,962 

March 505,705 620,496 1,126,201 

April 443478 564,883 1,008,361 

May 430,692 806,702 1,237,394 

June 472,154 629,256 1,101,410 

Julv 373>i9i 597,483 970,674 

August 542,270 589.233 Li3i,503 

September 386,887 465,882 852,769 

October 454.224 527,669 981,893 

November 546,856 547738 1,004.594 

^December 404,000 645,000 1,049,000 

Total $5,365,550 $7,186,820 $12,552,370 

♦Estimated. 

Both appliances and machinery show a good gain 
as compared with 1904, in which year the figures 
were : Appliances, $4,363,992 ; machinery, $6,675,766. 
For the first ri months of the year British North 
America was, as also in 1904, the largest purchaser 
of electrical machinery from the United States, hav- 
ing imported $1,783,850 worth. Japan, as in 1904. 
was second on the list with $1,180,033 : Mexico was 
third with $947,228, and the United Kingdom, 
which previous to 1904 was the principal buyer of 
electrical machinery from the United States, was 
fourth, with $740,596. 

November Exports. 

Electrical exports from the United States for the 
month 01 November reached a total value of 
$1,094,594, or $94,738 less than those of November, 
1904. The decrease is due to a falling off in the 
amount of electrical machinery exported. Goods 
classified as electrical appliances, which include tele- 



graph and telephone instruments, show a good 
increase over November, 1904. The figures com- 
pared are as follows. Electrical appliances — No- 
vember, 1904, $459,476; November, 1905, $546,856. 
Electrical machinery — November, 1904, $729,856; 
November, 1905, $547,738. 

The following-named countries were the princi- 
pal buyers of electrical machinery from the United 
States in November, 1905, the figures given being 
the values of the respective purchases: British 
North America, $175,323; Japan, $102,757: Mexico, 
$69,269; United Kingdom, $46,356; Argentina, 
$22,556; Cuba, $13,180; Philippine Islands, $12,347; 
France, $11,748; Brazil, $10,452; British Africa, 
$9,305; British Australasia, $9,264; British East 
Indies, $7,071; Germany, $5,043; Hongkong, $2,184: 
Giinese Empire, $1,035. 



American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

The American Association for the Advancemert 
of Science opened the initial session of its fiftj- 
fifth annual meeting in New Orleans on December 
29th, the first session being attended by the dele- 
gates of all sections. The retiring president. 
W. G. Farlow, was taken sick during the preced- 
ing night and was unable to attend the meetinp-. 
The attendance was small, there being barely ic: 
people in the auditorium of the Temple Sinai 
Nearly all the various sections began on their 
programmes on the opening day, all but one hold- 
ing their meetings at Tulane University. The an- 
nual address of the president was given on the 
night of the 29th, President Farlow being then 
able to speak. 

At the opening session in the morning the Hon. 
Charles F. Buck welcomed the visitors in behalf 
of Governor Blanchard; Mayor Martin Behrman 
of New Orleans afterward welcomed the dele- 
gates to the city. President E. B. Craighead of 
Tulane University also extended a friendly greet- 
ing to the visitors in behalf of the schools and 
colleges of the city. 

Section A, Mathematics and Astronomy, elected 
Prof. Howe of Cleveland a member of the coun- 
cil at its first meeting. Dr. Alexander Ziwet de- 
livered his vice-presidential address upon "The 
Relation of Mechanics to Physics." 

Section B, Physics, elected Prof. C. C. Trow- 
bridge of the University of Wisconsin member of 
the council, and began its regular programme on 
December 30th. 

Section C, Chemistry, at the opening session 
elected Dr. J. H. Long of Northwestern University 
member of the council. Several talks on subjects 
relating to chemistry were given at the opening 
session of this section. 

Mechanical Science and Engineering supplied 
the topics discussed by Section D, which began 
its first session on the 29th by electing Prof. F. O. 
Marvin of trie University of Kansas member of 
the council. 

Section E, Geology and Geography, elected Presi- 
dent C. R. Van Hise of the University of Wis- 
consin member of the council. 

Section F, Zoology and Botany, organized and 
elected Prof. Herbert Osborne member of the 
council. 

Many interesting things were brought out .in 
President Farlow's address. Speaking of the ways 
the public could aid scientific men he said that 
this might be done directly by endowments for 
paying salaries and indirectly by providing properly 
equipped laboratories and other necessary equip- 
ment, and especially for paying the services of 
assistants. If, as it appears, the public has reached 
a better conception of the position of the scientific 
man, he said, it might be that he could hope that 
he could appeal to the public not only for pecu- 
niary but for moral support. He thought it well 
to state somewhat explicitly some of the conditions 
which were unfavorable to the progress of sci- 
ence in this country, or which tended to retard it. 
Here it is not so much a question of money as 
of just appreciation of the true position of scientific 
men in their relation to those for whom their 
work was undertaken. That work, using a rough 
classification, might be considered under three 
heads — that done in technical and commercial con- 
cerns, that done for the government and that done 
in universities, including colleges, scientific schools 
and similar institutions which have a permanent 
endowment of some kind. 

Taking up the commercial side of the question, 
he commented on the "reluctance of Americans to 
employ original investigators for the purpose of 
developing their business," and contrasted that 
with the policy of the Germans, who have coined 
money in chemical industries. "If our business 
men are too stupid to take advantage of the help 
afforded by science," said he, "although informed 
as to what is done by their foreign competitor, 
we shall not be called upon to shed many tears 
over their ultimate failure in the competition for 
business." 

All sections held regular sessions on the 30th. 
One of the most interesting of the speakers was 
Dr. James Carroll of the Army, who was one of 



January 6, [906 

il Jr i men who d n tratcd tl " thi 

pry of il"' Iran mi i I ■ 

l in cngi " 1 1 tion pti ■! an invitation 

i,, |at< i mii ill' ■ ' ' '■'" '-'"I i '■ i ins 

iti 'I ih" • Id ii i' lii'lit plant "ii Hi' -1 

Section I. upon meeting Saturdaj , Ii ti m -I to 

:, paper prcpan 'I nj 'I \ I p, thi chaii 

ni.-in of the section and chaii I thi [nl 

i . . i , rcc I mi ion, m, " I ran portation and 

Competition." Mr. Knapp wa i nol pre enl and 
the papi i was read by Acting I Ihairman Powi i 

Colonel I F, vlci i ) , | i al in 

oi Mi. ill nil railroad, n ad a p; 

the "Mi thod i ol Devi loping I n Indu try and 

Immigration by a Modi rn Rail m Follow 

him the Hon. II. T. Newcomb read a paper u| 

: i " Proposed Solution ol the Railw a; Rati Prob 

In the mattei "I attendam e thi i cond day of 

the convention ti :d • >nt more favorablj than thi 

in i. ,i , in. mbei I epl arriving by all trains. \i 

the general session on that day it was pro] I 

t iii.il. the section of anthropology include al o 

psychology il also in form a new ;cc( 

education twenty-two new members wen 
Sleeted hi this session. 

A brief report of the later sessions of the con- 
vention will be given in the Western Electrician 
of next week. 



Death of Charles T. Yerkes. 

Charles T. Yerkes, a "traction magnate" well 
known in two hemispheres, died in New York city 
on December 29th. Bright's disease and hearl 
trouble arc said to have been the immediate cause 
of death. He bad been il! fur some time with a 
complication of diseases. During last summer he 
bad a rather serious illness in London, but recov- 




CHARLES T. YERKES. 

ered sufficiently to permit him to come to the 
United States. His condition became serious soon 
after his arrival, however, and for several weeks 
he was seriously ill at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel 
in New York. 

Mr. Yerkes was a man of conspicuous business 
ability and accumulated a large fortune by his 
exploitation and management of street-railway prop- 
erties, principally in Chicago, but afterward in 
London. In recent years he devoted his energies 
to the building of underground railways in London. 
A large portion of this system is now in successful 
operation. 

Mr. Yerkes was born in Philadelphia on June 
2 5> 1&37- After a varied career he came to Chicago 
in 1S81 and opened a bank at La Salle and 
Madison streets. In 1886 he obtained control of 
the North Chicago street-railway lines. One of 
the first things he did was to change the motive 
power from horse to cable. The LaSalle Street 
Tunnel was constructed by him. The first cable 
trains on the North Side began running March 26", 
1888. In 1888 he also got control of the West 
Side lines and converted them to cable operation. 
He and his associates also built electric lines run- 
ning to the suburbs, and became interested in ele- 
vated lines. In 1899 he sold his North and West 
Side lines for $10,000,000 to a syndicate which 
organized the present Union Traction Company. In 
1900 be sold his outlying electric lines and a year 
later his stock in the elevated railways. He soon 
after went to London, where he became interested 
in the construction of underground roads. 



Northwestern Convention in Chicago. 

The Northwestern Electrical Association will hold 
its next annual convention at the Great Northern 
Hotel, Chicago, commencing on Wednesday morn- 
ing, January 17th, and continuing through the iSth. 
A very full and interesting programme will be 
rendered. The entertainment committee is com- 
posed of James Wolff, H. Almert, W. W. Low and 
George S. Whyte. The entertainment programme 
will consist of theater parties on Wednesday night, 



WESTERN ELE( TRU 

visiting tl 

on I bur day night. 

Chicago Gas Inquiry. 

' . ' 

thi offei 

... 

nl .:...:. 

. 1,1, II, 

Edward 1 
, ,,,,,111.11, e that ga ould b 

' hi .'i 

total 1 " 1 of ' 11 1, tho 
tured l".' thi Pi 
of the 

divided thi 
as Ml.,- 

Colt 1 turinj 

Colt of d rib 

is pain, rem 

1 , , 1 • , • t 

fatal 

Prof. II. -mis thought ", 
I,,,, ni foi inti 1 . it and di ndend ii • 

1 1 , ' 1 , i" ii' did not think tli 

pany bad a right to colled re 

would p.". .1 i" 1 ' ' "i dh idend on the actual 
cosl of 11 plant thi pi ii 1 for which it co 
duplicated. "It is safe to say," he added, "that a 
reduction of 30 cents per thousand cubic fei 1 
in any large city in the country would not reduce 
ih, profits 15 cents; the increased consumption 
would make up the difference. I think it a need- 
less expense to require 24-candlepower. I be- 
lieve better results and reduced cost would follow 
if 18 candlepower were substituted. In Boston 
16 candlepower 1- used and in England as low as 
M-" 

E. G. Cowdery, general manager of the Laclede 
Gas Company of St. Louis, testified before the 
committee. lie considered 90 cents a thousand 
., reasonable price for gas in Chicago and thought 
the council should accept the offer of the People's 
company at that figure. He based his conclusions 
mi the following figures, being his estimate: 

Cost of manufacture $0.3000 

Cost of distribution -3/5 

Reserve fund 'ooo 

Interest on capitalization and dividends 2500 

Total S0.8S75 

Mr. Cowdery said the cost of gas fluctuates 
from five to 15 cents a thousand feet during a 
year. He said it costs more to establish a coal- 
gas than a water-gas plant, but the coal gas can 
be manufactured cheaper on account of the sale 
of by-products. He said the surplus set aside 
to meet contingencies ought to be at least 10 
per cent, above all profits and expenses. In large 
cities also the repair account was heavier "on 
account of the impairment of pipes through elec- 
trolysis," which also produces a loss by leakage. 
He placed the repair item at 2]/ 2 per cent. The 
average life of gas mains he put at 12 years, and 
of a meter 15 years, and of an entire plant at 25 
years. 

Illinois Central Electrification May Be 
Hastened. 

For years the Western Electrician has been call- 
ing attention to the desirability of "electrifying" 
the extensive suburban service of the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad Company in Chicago. It is a satisfac- 
tion, therefore, to print in full the following, which 
is the full text of a resolution introduced in the 
Chicago City Council on January 2d by Alderman 
Potter : 

Whereas, The right of way of the Illinois Central Rail- 
way within the city limits traverses almost exclusively a 
resilience district; and. 

Whereas, This railroad operates an unusually large num- 
ber of trains per day by reason of its extensive suburban 

Whereas, 'The people of Chicago are constructing at 
large expense an extensive park along the lake front, be- 
tween Twelfth and Randolph streets, which park is to con- 
tain the Field Museum and the Crerar Library, with their 
valuable collections; and, . ... 

Whereas The noise and smoke of the locomotives ot said 
railway are an intolerable nuisance to the residents along 
its rie'lit of way. and the smoke and dirt are most destruc- 
tive to personal and public property and will be most de- 
structive to the valuable collections ot the Field Museum 
and the Crerar Library, and to the lawns, shrubs and trees 
of the Lake Front Park; and, . 

Whereas, It has been amplv demonstrated that electricity 
is a practicable and economical motive power for the opera- 
tion of railways, as is witnessed by the elevated roads ot 
this citv and ' great numbers of intcrurban railways, and 
notably "by its. adoption bv the New York central and Penn- 
sylvania railways for their New York City terminals; now, 
therefore, be it , 

Resolved, That on and after three years trom the date of 
the adoption of this resolution the use of steam locomotives 
shall be forbidden to the Illinois Central Railway within 
the limits of the city of Chicago, or to any railway using 
the right-of-way and terminals of the Illinois Central Kail- 
way within the limits of the city of Chicago; and be it fur- 
Resolved, That the committee on local transportation be 
and it is herebv required to preoare an ordinance and 
submit same to this council requiring the Illinois Central 
Railway to conform to the terms of this resolution. 

The resolution was referred to the committee on 
local transportation. 






A "NlisninK Link" In Electru. Railroad- 
ing Supp 

Mich . 




ng like 70 I 

I mile- 
in Michigan, with a 
■ in- in Indiana, with a mile- 
age of 88 in Pennsylvania, with 
lines 75 miles long, making a total of 7,,~</> miles, 
without reference to citj 

To mark the completion of the line a golden 
spike was drawn by A. E. Aiken of Cleveland. 
Cddres by Walter Richcy and S. S. 

Wheeler of Lima and F. D. Carpenter. 

Arrangements have already been compli I 
the Wi Dayton and Troy and the 

Toledo, B 1 and Southern for the opera- 

tion of cars fr , .1. W, 

162 miles, the schedule time being live hours. The 
arrangements will probably be extended to Detroit. 
60 miles further, within a short time, on a seven- 
hour schedule. 

Fraction men from Ohio. Indiana. Michigan and 
other places attended the ceremonies at Findlay 
and the day was made a holiday. A special car 
from Cleveland and one from the Indiana 
Traction Company of Indianapolis siood on either 
side of the gap when the latter was being closed up. 



Mr. Arnold Elected President of the 
Western Society. 

Installation of officers and a banquet were held 
by the Western Society of Engineers on January 
2nd at the Sherman House in Chicago, this being 
the 36th annual meeting. The new officers, who 
had previously been elected by sealed ball 
in by the members of the society, are as follows: 

President, Bion J. Arnold ; first vice-president. 
YV. L. Abbott; second vice-president. Andrews Al- 
len: third vice-president. Prof. Dugald C. Jackson 
of Madison, Wis.: treasurer. A. Reichmann 
tee for three years. F. H. Bainbridge. The elec- 
tion was hotly contested for both president and 
first vice-president, Mr. Arnold securing his elec- 
tion by a margin of two votes and Mr. Abbott by 
12 votes. Mr. Arnold is the first electrical engi- 
neer to be elected president of the society. 

About 100 members were present at the banquet. 
Willard A. Smith was the toastmaster, and per- 
formed his duty admirably. The numbers on the 
programme included the address of the retiring 
president, E. C. Carter, and addresses by several 
of the members. L. E. Cooley spoke upon the 
'Ownership of Public Utilities." Isham Randolph 
talked upon "The Engineer in the Law." Onward 
Bates took for his subject "The Contracting Engi- 
neer.'' and Prof. D. C. Jackson the "Development 
of University-trained Engineers." Samuel G. Mc- 
Meen gave some interesting facts on "Electrical 
Communication," and the last speaker. Bion J. 
Arnold, took as his subject "Public Utilities." Mr. 
Arnold showed a number of views of the Xc-w 
York Central terminal work, and his talk was of 
special interest to Chicago people in view of the 
rapidly growing sentiment in favor of similar 
changes in the Illinois Central and other suburban 
systems. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



That 1905 was a prosperous year for the elec- 
trical and allied interests of the United States is 
amply shown by the following expressions of opin- 
ion on the subject. Without a dissenting voice, 
all the authorities agree that the business of the 
year was large in volume and satisfactory in char- 
acter. The outlook for 1906 is considered equally 
bright. It is therefore a pleasure to lay the fol- 
lowing symposium before the readers of the West- 
ern Electrician. 

Carbons. 

National Carbon Company, Cleveland (N. C. 

Cotabish, sales manager): Our business for the year 1905 
fully met with our expectations, and was about in line with 
my letter to you a year ago. The outlook for 1906 is prom- 
ising and I look for a year fully as prosperous as 1905. 

Cranes and Hoists. 
Pawling- & Harnischfeger, Milwaukee (F. P. 

Bieck): The volume of business for 1905 in the building 
of cranes and allied machinery has been very satisfactory, 
the output for the year being fully one-quarter more than 
for the previous years. The amount of business offered 
during the latter part of the year was very heavy and the 
indications present a very promising outlook for the year of 
engineering and building propositions are 



;,;.!, 



to operate the works nights to keep up with the orders- 
Shipments are not confined to anv particular locality or 
of the Union, which is an indication that all parts 
ntry are enjoying a prosperous era of business. 



of the 1 



Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, New 
York (C. W. Beaver): Our electric hoist sales have reached 
a very high figure during the last 12 months. We expect 
this business for the ensuing year to more than double that 
of the last 12 months in this line. These hoists are being 
adopted for every class of lifting. 

Dynamos., Motors, Electrical Machinery. 
Crocker-Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J. : 

Our most important achievement in the year 1905 was our 
successful entrance into the field of alternating-current 
manufacture. After 17 year's experience in the direct-cur- 
rent field (in which we hold an enviable position), we en- 
tered the market with a complete line of alternating current 
generators, motors, transformers, etc. In a short time, still 
holding our place in the direct-current field, we had estab- 
lished ourselves in the front rank of alternating-current 
manufacturers. 

Emerson Electric Manufacturing- Company, 

St. Louis (H. L. Parker, president): In our fan-motor de- 
partment we are largely dependent on weather, and last sea- 
son, while not generally considered a hot season, was nearer the 
ideal of rhe "poor fan man" than any since 1901, and from 
that fact and the great general prosperity of the country we 
can assuredly place the season of 1905 in our list as a good 
one. In the line <£ small power motors we received a por- 
tion of the grand "ivision of prcsperitv in the shape of a 
handsome increase of business. For the future we can see 
nothing but the best of prospects, and in all departments 
are increasing our facilities and force with a view to greater 
output and all possible improvements, believing that we can 
still keep our old position at the head of the procession. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 

(B. E. Sunny, western manager, Chicago): There has been 
a tremendous demand for a great variety of apparatus, in 
many cases necessitating special development, especially in 
the line of large machinery. More attention is being "paid 
to switchboard work than previously, and with the higher 
voltages now in general use, jnanv elaborate and expensive 



Gregory Electric Company, Chicago (A. O. 

Kuehmsted. vice-president) : The year 1905 has been a very 
good ;>nc tor the Gregory Electric Company, in fact the best 
year m its history. There is considerable difference in the 
.-•titlook for the coming year when compared with the outlook 
of a year ago. The latter part of 1904 particularly must 
have been a very unsatisfactory period for all people" in the 
L-ketncal business. Orders were scarce and prices were 
continually dropping, and manufacturers were making cut 
after cut in order to meet competition and in order to force 
business, which was slow in coming. The tide, however, 
turned early in 1905, confidence apparently being once more 
: then there has been a satisfactory increase, 
has developed into a "boom," 
sight. We consider the prices 



nd the last half of the 
ic end of which is not 1 

icnt abnormally low, when the high 



al and labor are considered, and predict higher prices for 
• d believe that a standard apparatus for jmme- 
premium. 



uld aln 






have been compelled 
warehouse and works at 
d have also just let addi- 



ivake to the possibilit 



to build a large addition 

Sixteenth and Lincoln stre 

tional contracts for largely increasing the office 

hope to have these improvements completed by March 1st. 

We believe 1906 will be a phenomenal year and that peoplt 



should prepare for 



od hu 



bobbins & Myers Company, Springfield, Ohio 
CW. YV Murama): We are glad to say that our business 
during the year 1905. exceeded any previous year. The trade 
in our motors has been exceptionally cood since the first of 
N-T'Umi" r. and Indications are that there will be an increased 
rather than a decreased demand for 1906. At least the 
outlook to us is promising. 

Sterling Electric Motor Company, Dayton, 
Ohio (T. A. Gauthier, president): The last year has been 
gratifying to us. We have managed a good" increase over 
utput. Our line is now from one-twelfth 
/e are also making 






E. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. (H. G. H. 

larr): The year 1905 will be memorable as marking the 



practical beginning of gas-engine installations in larce units 
111 tins country. There are now five or six builders who are 
prepared to install plants in units of 3,000 to 5,000 kilowatts 
in connection with producer gas. The largest under way 
now is one for San Francisco, where thev arc u*;iic cueing 
of 5,000 kilowatts. In the East probably the most interesting 
plant now building is that of the Boston Elevated railway 
consisting of three 500-horsepower gas engines with our 
water-seal pressure-type producers. This plant is designed 
for a coal economy of 1.6 pounds per kilowatt-hour at 85- 
per cent. load. The ultimate economy, so far as we can 
11 be obtained by the use of by-product producers 
ngine, and to 1906 we look for a practical 
of this. We are now building a Mond by 



and the ga 
demonstrati 
product pi; 



Detroit, which, unfortunately 
?5- i* xu as a power proposition during the coining year. 
With a credit of 75 pounds of sulphate of ammonia from 
one ton of coal and engine consuming only 1.6 pounds per 
kilowatt-hour, we shall have very cheap current, probably 
"~, eap as w "l ^ e attained in a good many vears to come 
I he gas engine and producer have passed the experimental 
stage and are now in straight competition with the perfected 



Fuses and Fuse Wise. 
American Electric Puse Company, Muskegon 

-Mich. (F G. Jones, president): The year 1905, especially 
in the later months, has been the most favorable year in 
point of activity in our line of business which we have 
experienced. Our customers seem to be planning big 
omething 



things for 1906 and are already letting „ 

about their requirements and placing orders ahead for future 
— hand at the present time a larger 



delivery. 



orders than 



every kind of goods. W- 

observable last year on the part of 
insistent upon the point of quality, in many 
regardless of the cost w- K.ll 
permanence in growth 
of the telephone industry. We predict for' ToWa business 
exceeding by as per cent, at least, the volume of any pre- 
vious year s business in the telephone and electrical business 
and barring the happening of some unfavorable event liable 
to affect national credit or finances, we believe that the com- 
ing year will be but the beginning of an era of greater pros- 
perity than this country has ever known. 



of bus; 



sizes lincl a good deal to do with the .... 
}~i,i: I '. , °'L " u 9 _° 6 "'Jj 1 . a 'i ,h . e hope Possible for heathens c. 

should 



the healthiest 



be disappointed. Business all around i< 
conditicn that we have ever seen. The crops 

going to elect any_ president. If we don't have 
imer" for everybody 

Engines, Gas and Steam. 
Harrisburg Foundry and Machine Works 

Harrisburg, Pa. (Robert S. Bcccher) : Our experience has 
been most gratifying. It is undoubtedly true that there has 
never been such activity in all lines o'f business, nor such 
,.V-'~'' ! ";' evidence of secure and permanent financial sta- 
bility during any previous year of this particular era of 
prosperity now being enjoyed by the people of this republic 
■•—•where, while ft is a striking and 
f steam engines in particular are 



Appleton Electric Company, Chicago (A I 

Appleton, manager) : We are pleased to state tbit our busi- 
ness tor this year has been exceedingly satisfactory, and 
unless something unforeseen occurs we believe that the year 
1906 will prove to be one of the best years for manufacturers 
and dealers in electrical and telephone supplies. 

Chicago Fuse Wire and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Chicago (W. W. Merrill, manager) : Our 

business during the year 1905 has shown a steady and sub- 
stantial increase, particularly in enclosed fuse material. We 
have every reason to expect that from present indications the 
same ratio of increase will be shown during 1906. 

Incandescent Lamps. 
Buckeye Electric Company, Cleveland (L P 

Sawyer, manager): It is with pleasure that I am able to 
state that this company during the year 1905 has had more 
than the normal increase of business. In fact, I am very 
much Pleased with the business we have done in the last 
year, and believe it is due largely to the general awakening 
"t the central-station men and consumers of current to the 
possibilities of electricity in general. Early last fall I pre- 
dieted that the incandescent-lamp business would show a very 
decided increase for the balance of 1905 over the same period 
for 1904. This prediction, I believe, has come true, and the 
lamp manufacturers, as well as all electrical manufacturers, 
are today looking forward to a still greater volume of busi- 
ness in 1906. I further believe that this volume of increase 
will be greater in proportion than in previous vears, owing 
to the activity of the electrical manufacturers in" pushing the 
electrical industry as a whole. It seems as though the cen- 
tral-station men and all users of electrical apparatus and 
current are just beginning to see the great possibilities of 
electricity in everyday life rather than as a luxury. I have 
just returned from a rather extended trip through the South 
and Southwest, and as an example cite the case of one large 
lighting company, which, up to November I, 1905, had in- 
stalled twice as many meters for those 10 months of this 
year as it had for the entire 12 months of 1904. This in- 
crease of business, so I was informed, was due almost 
to the company's development of a new-business 
department, whereby they make a house-to-house canvass and 
make it a point to show each and every possible consumer 
'Jlf ,., -T' way ? and rneans of using electrical current. 
Should it be possible for all of the electrical manufacturers 
to get together and act with the central-station men and con- 
along the lines of a new-busincss-ex-ninc scheme, I 
question that the year 1906 would 

Poles, Ties, Cross-arms. 
H M. Loud's Sons Company, Au Sable, Mich. 

(H. Kimball Loud): Regarding the cedar-pole market we 
may remark that we have had a very good year both as to 
demand and prices. The demand became so 'brisk the latter 
part of 1905 that we raised our prices, and find that we still 
receive orders We believe that next year will open with a 
strong demand for poles and a general level of prices ap- 
proximately 25 per cent, above the level of 1905. 



Duri 



January 6, 1906 



BUSINESS OF THE YEAR 1905 IN REVIEW. 



found in machinery 
and with due con- 
trolled by natural 
al prog- 






hecoming 

designed along definite Vnd nxeT'l: 
sideration to certain scientific principl. 
laws. It has been truthfully said that "The 
ress of the world hinges on the cost of power." What ^ 
marked contrast in power development is found in the ox- 
driven power machinery employed in Eastern countries cen- 
turies ago and the magnificent prime movers of the present 
day. We look with no small degree of pride upon our pres- 
ent attainments, and without being desirous of displ; " 
undue egotism, we feel that hundreds and thou 
tihcally designee power iinib, driving electric £,._., 
all types and found in perhaps 7 5 per cent, of the indus- 
trial establishments of this broad land, have much to di with 
the material progress of the present day. We look for a 
continuance of these conditions during the year to follow. 

^ Union Gas Engine Company, San Francisco, 

(O. H. Fisher): A large number of "Union" engines 

,, ' IR ' ~' A(i in th is country and in most of the principal foreign 
rouutnes during the last year for the purpose of driving 
generators. In addition a large number of vessels were 
equipped with electric-lighting olants. We are receiving 
many inquiries for generating sets at the present lime which 
leads us to believe that our business in tins line will be very 
much larger in 1906 than it was the last year. 

Watertown Engine Company, Watertown, 

~ *\, USI ^ ess \ n ou r Hne for the year 1905 has been 

the last five. So gtne 



the last year we have furnished over half a million cedar ties 
and i 100,000 poles, and the outlook for next vear is a 
The output last year was somewhat under the 
" shortage in several lengths occurred during 



and 



the fall, especially 



35-foot seven-inch tops. Thus far the 
favorable weather for getting 



out stock, and unless the weather for worki 

imnr.ves there will be quite a shortage. The demand for 

ceaar ties m [906 is going to be much larger than last vear, 

as there are inquiries, lor twice the number thus far. " \11 

are getting as large a stock of poles as they possibly 

vill just about carry 

getting 



1. Our stock of about 40,000 pole 
through until we get our new stock 
ne large orders in now. There is going to be _ . 
nd for short poles because of the large development 






elepho 



C. H. Worcester Company, Chicago (William 

. Louring, secretary): The year 1905 has been one of 

teady demand for our product— cedar poles. The end of 

pply, while 

"■ perhaps 



the year findL . 
stocks of poles ; 
better conditiun 






not large i._ __ 
this respect than they have 
same time. Much construction work has 
of the scarcity of standard poles. 



that will be started 



healthy demand 
orrespondingly firm, 
d in the production 
t what quantities of 

, for the output 



the woods work very largely." 

Storage Batteries. 



rvlin.. 



vhicb 



Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadel- 
phia (Charles Blizard, manager sales department): The sales 
or the "Chloride Accumulator" during the vear just closing 
have been the largest in the history of the industry. Many 
new applications for the use of storage batteries have been 
developed and the prospects are excellent for a continued 



expansion of the bus: 



during 



National Battery Company, Buffalo (Gaston 

Harbison): Our sales of storage batteries for central-enernv 
telephone systems have been very great during the last vear, 
as a result of the large improvements and extensions which 
are being carried on in that field. Our sales of National 
batteries tor electric vehicles and of sparking batteries for 
gasoline automobiles have shown a remarkable growth. 
Other departments of our business have shown a correspond- 
in? increase, and present indications are that our own busi- 
ness for the year 1906 will be greater in volume than ever 
history. There has been no over-production in the 
f electrical apparatus gener- 



electrical field. Manufactu: 

ally are rushed to keep u? with their orders!' 

the result of a boom. It is genuine demand 

rapid development in an industry' which is yet ir 



Tin- 



Central Electric Company, Chicago (George 

A. McKmlock, president) : The electrical supply business is 



[though in the early part of the 
afortunate disaster in the complete "destruction bv fire of 
.varehouse and offices. Outside of the physical change 
affect, except in a slight 



conditions, the fire did 



YV hile we have been very much cramped in our temporary 
quarters and have been doing business under difficulties, we 
are very much gratified to be able to say that our sales for 
the year exceed those of the previous vear. On January 1st 
we return to our old stand, a new modern mill-constructed 
building having been erected on the old site. Our facilities 
will be very much enlarged and increased, and we are looking 
forward to 1906 as a year of great activity and are making 
preparations to meet what we expect will be a heavy demand 
for electrical supplies. The great increase in the applied 
uses of electricity has stimulated a like demand for copper 
in its various forms, and we foresee a continuation of pres- 
ent prices for this metal. There does not seem to be any- 
thing^ in _ the conditions at home or abroad, in our opinion, 
that is likely to interfere with our growth and prosperity, 
although there is always the unexpected to be considered. 

Telegraph and Telephone Apparatus. 
Automatic Electric Company, Chicago (H. H. 

Y\ oodworth) : We are gratified to report a most prosper- 
ous year's business during 1905, with every prospect of 
greatly increasing it during 1906. The sentiment in favor 
of the automatic telephone is spreading rapidly. The public 
is learning that it is the ideal service. The operating com- 
panies are learning that it is not onlv the best but also the 
most profitable service to render. The greatest growth in 
automatic telephony during the coming year will probably 
be on the Pacific Coast, where several cities will have auto- 
matic exchanges, franchises having been granted to Inde- 
pendent companies in these cities, in which the automatic 
system is specified. At least a million dollars' worth of 
business is in sight in this territory alone. Among the 
developments of our system during the last vear which are 
notable are the party-line system and a new trunk selector 
switch. This latter development bids fair to revolutionize 
the telephone business. This switch takes up very much 



less space than the p 
us and will admit ol 
system consisting of __. 
hundred lines each, which car 
building, in the manhole of a 
any convenient place, leaving 



first selector 
nstallation of a mi 
d branch exchange: 
n be put in the coi 
nduit under the 



the 



ntral part of the to' 
system does away with at least So per 
lines and makes a proportionate saving 
tion and maintenance cost. Taking it 
1905 has been a gratifying one for the 
The growth has been a steady and su 
upon the principle that the automatic i 
service both as to quality and econ._. 
The public at large and practical telephom 
to see this more clearly every day. 



I exchange in the 
urposes. This new 
:ent of the outside 
n outside construc- 

II in all, the year 

one and is based 

the ideal telephone 

of production. 

len are coming 



J. H. 

Ghegan, pr 
output 



Bunnell & Co., New York (John J. 

;ident) : We are pleased to say that our business 
just closing has been quite satisfactorav and the 
high-grade telegraphic appliances much larger 



attribute this 



than the pi 

pally to the superior qualities of our product. 

to believe that the coming year will be at 1 






as fully successful as the past. 

Farr Telephone and Construction Supply 
Company, Chicago (C. W. Farr, president) : The 

year of 1905 certainly was a very prosperous year for every 
branch of the electrical trade. The telephone business has 
taken the lead, from East to West, there being an average 
of from 50 to 100 per cent, increase in telephone users. 
The construction of telephone lines in all states has made 
a tremendous demand for all kinds of telephone construction 
material. The prospects for the coming vear are better than 
ever before, and the demand for telephones and telephone 
material will far exceed any previous year. 

Waterwheels. 
Abner Doble Company, San Francisco (C. W. 

Whitney) : On the whole, our business in the waterwbeel 



January 6, i</>6 



H 

. , n | In hoi i po cm Irani- 

acted the preceding >'•", - Kourrw 

,| m mm- i', ■ ■ ' 

in,,- the tol .1 Foi 1004 

,, due in on* mi i tin to th ■ 

f... I rln.-.-l ...1 - 

• Include ilngli valet n hi 1 1 ■■■ hich will dc< 

■ !, |et oj iter. 

. 

in 

,,,.1, 1 . ■.',,■ hav< 1 is 1 

,1, lulic equtpmi nl 0. th< I hi lum H ill ilion In 



.■. i'i bi srcatly i 

Peltou Water Wheel Company, S.ui l 
itca (Edward f- Bray ton, m;in..K<--rj : Altln.m-li ■■•■• :.m- hm 
Mii.ilv in Mm- . I--. 11 1. il h' M. w. in i', 1 1 kin hip to 

il, in that our s|n-ci»ltv i* the ih.iniiI; i. m /. .. r < v. !,.■■ I 

.,[,,, 1 ,in ., h hii li 1 ■ now 10 1 lo u ly id< ntifi d wil 11 thi elei i 11 



business within the lasl few yean has been direct! 

. ociatcd with the el :al industry. Pcrhap the moat 

noteworthy feature of the year's dcvclopmenl is the pro- 

11- ;cd tendency toward high pci d and largi powci i i. 

This is no doubt dm- in 1 !.<■■■.■ «<• ■ " ""■ ■"'■' '" ",' 

,[„ team turbine, which is bo i mincntlj adapted to im h 

1 4. As a n-sult Hi«- ' I- ilm "1 m.Minf.y hm i . Ii..v. 

adopted standards -i ■ ■■!- - " •■ " -1 1 i.« . ■ ...i.., . n rarded 

.,.( bi yond the scope oi tin impul i wheel Foi ■ npje bul 



y. a 



■ lull. 



Vlu-L'l 



w r 



of i I., trie 

ird tendency in the price 
n'f that metal, it is likely that th- electrical manufacturers 
will be driven tn the adoption of still hi.-h-r sp. . .1 stan-lanls. 
In fact, at this writing we are reipiested to Submit tenders 
on similar units at a speed of 500 revolutions. 1 here seems 
l<> he an inercasinu demand for hydro-electric apparatus, and 

certainly as far as the Pacific ("oast is concerned the year 

urns will have to its credit a ejealc-r kilowatt capacity sold 
than any previous year. Judging from the interest I hat is 
evinced and the number of l.-irgt- enterprises that are on the 
tapis, it would seem that the coming year will be equally 
progressive, 

Wires and Cables. 

Eastern Electric Cable and Wire Company, 
Boston: The yeac 1905 has been an exceedingly busy one 
for us. We purchased of the receiver the plant for manu- 
facturing rubber-covered wire of the Eastern Electric Cable 
Company in lanuarv last. Wc had the usual trouble with 
help, which held us back considerably. This question was 
settled and some new machinery installed and a good busi- 
ness was done. In fact, we have not been able to accept 
all the business offered us. Wc have ordered more ma- 
chinery and arc looking for a much larger business during 

Standard Underground Cable Company, Pitts- 
burg (J. W. Marsh, vice-president) : Our business for the 
year 1905 has been very much larger than that of the year 
IQ04. This is all the more remarkable because of the very 
high prices that have obtained for all the classes of raw 
materials entering into our products. With regard to the 
outlook for the year 1906, it appears to us certain that it is 
going to be a big year unless serious financial troubles, 
amounting to a panic, should occur, and we see absolutely 
nothing to indicate that anything of this kind is impending 
or is likely to occur during the year. 

Miscellaneous. 
American District Steam Company, Lockport, 

N. Y. (H. C. Eddy, Chicago, district manager) : During the 
year 1905 the volume of business in our line — that of in- 
stalling underground steam mains for district heating sys- 
tems — was entirely without precedent in the last 2S years. 
Some of the more notable installations were made in Bir- 
mingham, Ala., Eastern, Pa., Baltimore, Md., Chatham, Ont., 
Detroit, Mich,, Springfield, Ohio, Cheyenne and Evanston, 
Wyo., together with a considerable number of plants in 
cities of lesser importance, and a number of extensions to 
plants already existing. Our merchandise business has been 
tar in excess of any previous year, both in amount and in 
geographical distribution. The outlook for 1906 is flattering 
in the extreme, a number of large installations being planned, 
for which the preliminary engineering work has already been 
done. The company has enlarged the selling force for 1906. 
and shortly after the first of the year expects to issue a 
new catalogue of merchandise far exceeding in size and 
number of articles listed any previous publication of this 
character. 

L. P. Brown & Co., Chicago (F. J. Holmes) : 

The year 1905, which was our pioneer year, has brought us 
very gratifying results. During the year our sales have 
consisted principally of electric soldering tools, and we find 
that they are meeting with quite general _ acceptance. 



other ways. The new year will find us considerably behind 
with our orders, but wo are planning such increases in our 
facilities that we hope soon to be able to make shipments 
promptly. 

Colonial Sign and Insulator Company, Akron, 

Ohio (C. R. Quine, secretary): While the year's business on 
the whole has been quite satisfactory, we suffered together 
with the other electrical porcelain manufacturers from 
ruinous price-cutting on standard goods. It is to be recretted 
that the manufacturers and jobbers did not stand together 
and maintain their organization. This association could have 
resulted in permanent benefit to all concerned. Our sign- 
letter department has enjoyed a very good year. Central- 
station managers in even the smaller towns are awakening 
to the opportunity for increased profit to be derived from 
having electric signs on their circuits^ and are making active 
campaigns for sign business. Electric signs are no longer 
considered a luxury or a novelty by advertisers, but as much 
a necessity as attractive show windows or newspaper adver- 
tising. A feature of the year's sign business is that the first 
cost of a sign is no longer the most important consideration. 
The purchaser insists upon durability, safety and economy 
of operation rather than low first cost. Many cities are modi- 
fying their citv ordinances so that electric signs may be hung 
over the sidewalk. The authorities are willing to do this on 
account of the benefit the city received from the light. The 
year 1905 was one of the best we have had and there is 
every indication that 1906 will be a banner year for the elec- 
tric sign and the porcelain business in general. 

Pass & Seymour, Inc., Solvay, N. Y. (J. W. 

Brooks, general sales manager) : On P. & S. material we 
■wish to say that the outlook has never been better. At 
the present time we are absolutely swamped with orders, and 
it is more a question of making shipments than of securing 
more orders. We arc at the present time making some addi- 
tions to our plant in order to take care of this increased 
business, and the prospects are that 
entire plant in the spring. 



i.i". ELECT 

W. H. Schott, Chicago: among 









two lamp* of 
which 



not true, 

I 

Ing year, and the 
eelicnt. 
United Iron Works, Oakland, Cal 
hi 1 



During thi 

. '-I ■!.! 












■ 1. . 11 1. ity. 

Xylotite Product Company, Cincinnal 
- - 1 1 .1 icneal I: During 

mill motor business itemed rather .lack. Bul 
number of large mi .'"T* were 10M throughout 

the country. During the fall the large businrss ■■ 

I ill' small-motor business das Incrctn 

niously. During th. I.' I ' " ks ol 

ton with 

pulleys. The tetldi I belted electrical 

machinery Minis to l»- to increase the b 

wc can tell from the fact tli.it we are supplying pulleyi which 

arc considerably larger in diametei ' 

ago for the same machines. This condition seems to apply 

particularly to the Middle Weal [t lo the outlook 

for 1906, we can only say that it 

nr at least the electrical manufacturers think so. I 

of them arc building large stock orders of small motors and 

many arc even building 75 and 100-horscpowcr motors in 

large numbers. 



"Poke Bonnet" Reflector for Window 
Lighting. 

Proper light for show windows has been a per- 
plexing problem, usually requiring special orders 
for fixtures to fit the window exactly. This diffi- 
culty has been done away with to some extent, and 
it is possible to buy from stock various types of 
window-lighting fixtures. A "poke-bonnet search- 
light" is what a manager of one of Chicago's largest 
department stores called a novel reflector, which is 
here illustrated. 

The "poke-bonnet" reflector, as shown by the 
accompanying illustration, is made by the National 



Chicago Street-railway Situation. 

week il 

viding I 

lucago 
will be taken up after the franchise ordinances, 
have bt 

1 on the ballot 
I 10 the 
• 
i In 
the ballot at the spring election had been prepared 
committee and were 
reported to the council; thi red de- 

ferred and ptibl 
Arguments in the '//-year case were scheduled to 
Supreme Court at Wash- 
1 I C., this week. Attorneys for the trac- 
•ind for the city arc at the national 
capital in full force, prepared to present the claims 
of their 

John i\i. Harlan, recently named by Judge Gross- 
cup as his special counsel in traction affairs, has 
I to the judge on the street-railway 
situation, dealing chiefly with the changes he would 
recommend, in the interest of the public, to the 
franchise ordinances drawn by the local transpor- 
tation committee. Mr. Harlan was a candidate for 
mayor in the last city election, and announced him- 
self as favoring municipal ownership, but not imme- 
diate municipal ownership. 



Richardson Lighting Outfit. 

The Richardson Engineering Company of Hart- 
ford, Conn., makes a complete line of standard 
electric-light outfits, adapted to the needs of resi- 




shall duplicate the 



X-ray Reflector Company of Chicago. It is a 
trough reflector, constructed in sections, each I ' 
inches in length and complete in itself. These 
units can be combined to give any desired length 
required, but the light from them is sufficient for 
them to be erected at intervals instead of being 
used as a continuous trough, thus making a saving 
of one or more lights every three feet. 

It is said for this reflector that it will give double 
the light with the same current, or as much light 
with half the current now used. Each section, 
being separate and independent, can be adjusted to 
any desired angle to throw the rays of light where 
they are most needed. When used in the window 
they can be placed in the front, back, top or end. 
Where only a few are needed, each reflector may 
be used as a separate lighting fixture and easily 
installed by anyone. The adjuster on the stem 
furnished with each reflector is such that any de- 
sired angle may be obtained. 

While these reflectors were intended primarily 
for window reflectors, they have met with favor 
for picture lighting and for illuminating art dis- 
plays. Where a considerable number are necessary 
for a large window or around the sides of an art 
room they are attached to one-inch tubing, through 
which the wires run. This tubing is suspended 
from the ceiling by chain supports or by a flange 
on the end attached to the wall. 

The reflector is made of heavy glass, with a 
spiral corrugated surface, plated with sterling silver. 
Sterling silver provides the highest reflective sur- 
face known on account of its whiteness and bril- 
liancy, superior even to quicksilver or German 
silver plating. The spiral corrugations break the 
rays of light and there is no shadow thrown by 
the filament of the lamp. 

Each "poke-bonnet" section is furnished with 



RICIIAKDSuN LIGHTING OUTFIT. 

dences, clubs and country estates, launches, yachts, 
etc. These equipments are complete with all of 
the necessary apparatus required ; they range from 
10 to 500 16-candlepower lights. But it is possible 
for a purchaser to use his own engine if pre- 
ferred. The sets are particularly well adapted for 
export trade. It is possible to buy the entire plant 
of one concern, which holds itself responsible for 
every detail of it. 

The company is prepared to furnish over 130 
standard equipments, ranging in price from $35 to 
$5.oco. Some of these equipments include a stor- 
age battery, giving the advantage of electric lights 
at any time during the 24 hours. Thus these equip- 
ments are of special interest to isolated places, 
such as residences, country estates, mountain and 
shore cottages, ranches, etc. The power used with 
these equipments is also available for pumping 
water, sawing wood, refrigeration, etc. 



Universal Space-telegraph Intercepter 
for Signal Service. 

According to the Brooklyn Eagle of December 
30th, General A. W. Greeley, chief signal officer of 
the United States Army, announces that the Signal 
Corps of the army has perfected the invention of 
space-telegraph receivers which will enable the 
army to intercept and read the messages of even' 
system of space-telegraphy in use. 

"The new army receivers," General Greely is re- 
ported to have said, "invented by the Signal Corps, 
intercept and record the messages of all known 
systems." Asked for further explanation of the 
inventions, General Greely dismissed his interviewer 
with the statement: "The Signal Corps system is 
absolutely secret, and will remain so." 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



Westinghouse 1 906 Electric Fans. 

For the season of 1906 the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric and Manufacturing Company presents a largely 
increased assortment of electric fans, designed with 
great care and embodying the results of skill and 
experience. The fans are simple to install, easy 
to operate, efficient in service, strong and reliable, 
and are constructed to sell at the lowest price 
compatible with high-grade workmanship. 'Ihey 
are made for both direct and alternating-current 
service, and in forms known as the desk type, the 
bracket type, the ceiling type, the floor-column 
type and the counter type. 

Desk and Bracket Fans.— The 1906 desk and 
bracket fans are substantially designed and are of 
attractive appearance. The body and base present 
smooth surfaces, which prevent the accumulation 
of dirt. They are finished in polished black enamel, 
with guards and fans of buffed and lacquered 
brass. The best material and workmanship is evi- 
denced in the construction of every part. 

The blades are a departure from the ordinary 
design formerly employed, and are the result of 
the careful study and investigation which have 
been given to this question by the Westinghouse 
company. They are constructed upon exact mathe- 
matical principles, and their angles are theoretically 
correct, with the result that the fan will give an 
even breeze across its entire front, as there is 
an absence of that tendency to project a hollow 
cone of air, which is found in all fans whose 
blades have not been correctly designed. The 
breeze is sent out from the fan in the shape of 
a solid cylinder of air, and there is little tendency 
to set up eddy currents, with their attendant losses. 
The determination of this correct blade angle has 
resulted in an extremely high air delivery, while 
the total watt consumption has been decreased, 
though the volume of air has been increased. 

The fan blades are protected by a guard of 
graceful design, pleasing appearance and substantial 
construction, which is secured in position by arms 
so rigid that the entire weight of the motor may 
be supported by the guard without injury. 

The motor is mounted upon trunnions whose 
line of support passes through its center of gravity 
and is therefore balanced at any angle. There is 
therefore no tendency to turn over when the 
thumb-screw is loosened, a point of great advan- 
tage. The motor is secured in any position by 
two thumb-screws; one holds at any angle in 
a horizontal plane and the other at any angle in 
a vertical plane. The thumb-screw which secures 
the motor in a vertical position passes through the 
trunnion support a little below the axis and bears 
against a boss on the side of the motor, affording 
a rigid and secure means of clamping the fan in 
any position. The thumb-screw which retains the 
fan at any angle in a horizontal plane is a recent 
modification, greatly superior to former methods, 
in which friction washers were employed. All fan 
motors have, when running, a tendency to shift 
from the position in which they are adjusted, but 
these clamping screws hold it secure when once 
adjustment has been made. 

But a small amount of power is consumed by 
this fan, as is illustrated by the fact that it costs 
only about three-fourths as much to run a 12-inch 
fan as to burn an ordinary 16-candlepower in- 
candescent lamp on the same circuit, while a 16- 




inch fan can , be operated at less than the cost of 
burning two such lamps. 

By means of a simple adapter, the 12 and 16- 
inch desk and bracket types of Westinghouse fans 
are interchangeable. This provision makes it un- 
necessary for dealers to carry two types in stock 
and also makes it possible for the user to attach 
the fan to the most convenient location without 
disconnecting lead wires, giving him all the ad- 
vantages of the two styles of mounting. 

Alternating-current Service. — The motor used in 
the alternating-current desk and bracket fans is 
of the induction type, with stationary primary and 
rotating secondary, and has a winding made up 
of solid rods of copper inserted through the par- 
tially closed slots of a laminated core and short- 
circuited by metallic end rings. There are no mov- 
ing contacts and no electrical connection between 



the rotating part and the outside line. The motor 
has accordingly no wearing parts except the bear- 
ings, and is durable and exceedingly simple both 
in construction and operation. The primary is 
wound for either no or 220 volts and for 7,200 
or 16,000 alternations per minute. 

The 7,200-aIternation motor is made with two 
bearings which are of ample dimensions and auto- 
matically lubricated. In the 16,000-alternation mo- 
tor the shaft carries the fan at one end, and the 
secondary of the motor at the other, the two parts 
nicely balancing each other on one bearing. 

Simple in design and substantial in construction 
is the switch employed. It is made of molded in- 
sulating material, of such form that it cannot easily 
be damaged or thrown out of alignment. The 
handle projects through a slot in the motor base 
at the most convenient and accessible point. 

One of the most important characteristics of the 
alternating-current fan is the ease and quickness 
with which it starts. The start is made as readily 
when the switch is in the slow position as it does 
when in the high-speed position, so that there is 
no danger of burnout because of failure and sud- 
den restoration of power when the switch is set 
on the slow-speed contact. These excellent start- 
ing qualities have been secured by careful design 
of the motor, combined with the use of a cen- 
trifugal device which cuts out the starting winding 
as soon as the fan has attained sufficient speed, and 
by means of which a large amount of energy is 
saved which would otherwise be wasted. 

The 1906 alternating-current fans are arranged 
for operation at two speeds of approximately 1,625 
and 1,300 revolutions per minute. The slow speed 
is obtained by the insertion of a choke coil con- 
nected to the switch contacts and in series with the 
motor — an ideal arrangement, as it eliminates un- 




T DESK FAN. 



necessary losses of energy, and complication of 
switch mechanism. 

Direct-current Service. — The field coils of the 
direct-current motor are rectangular in shape, are 
machine wound, and are insulated by special treat- 
ment which reduces to a minimum liability of 
breakdown. The armature is of the drum type 
with slotted laminated core and carefully insulated 
winding. The commutator is so constructed and 
protected that wear is inappreciable, and the troubles 
so often found in this, the most vulnerable portion 
of a fan motor, are practically eliminated. It is 
completely-* enclosed, but an easily removable dust 
shield makes inspection possible. The brushes are 
of carbon, of the highest quality, and do not 
"chatter" or cut the commutator. The brush hold- 
ers maintain an even pressure and perfect contact. 
The shaft is of the best Hardened steel and runs 
in bushings of fine bearing metal, which give a 
long service, but can be easily renewed. There are 
two bearings provided, with an automatic oil re- 
turn, which insures abundant lubrication at every 
point and prevents throwing of the oil. 

The switch is skilfully designed and strongly 
constructed, so that it will withstand considerable 
hard usage without getting out of alignment. A 
handle of insulating material molded to the end 
of the blade projects through the base. The 
switch and contacts are covered with an insulating 
disk which prevents danger of short circuit when 
the fan is placed on a radiator or any uneven 
conducting surface. The regulating resistance is 
made 01 wire of a low temperature coefficient 
wound on the outer edge of the enclosed porcelain 
switch base and afterward enameled — a construc- 
tion which gives a large radiating surface with 
consequent minimum rise in temperature. 

Three different positions of the switch handle 
give three different operating speeds, with a maxi- 
mum of 1,650 revolutions per minute, a medium of 
1,300 revolutions per minute and a minimu of 
1,000 revolutions per minute. 

Ceiling, Floor-column and Counter Fans. — The 
Westinghouse fans for 1006 for ceiling and floor 
mounting have many distinctive features of great 
value. The cases are of graceful design and orna- 
mental appearance, with a standard finish of black 



enamel and mottled copper, though other finishes 
may be furnished if desired. 

The fan is made with four blades, which are set 
at angles calculated to give the highest possible 
movement of air for the lowest possible consump- 
tion of energy. The blades are securely attached 
to the moving element by screws which effectually 
prevent them from turning from their normal posi- 
tion. The fans are designed for operation at three 
speeds, controlled by means of resistance wound 
about the bearing cup; 200, 150 and 100 revolutions 
per minute may be obtained. The switch is placed 
centrally on the under side of the fan body. As 




ALTERNATING-CURRENT CEILING FAN. 

there are no live parts outside of the case there is 
no danger of shock from handling or cleaning. 

Fans of this type are made for operation from 
either alternating-current, 60-cycle, or direct-cur- 
rent circuits. The alternating-current motor is of 
the single-phase induction tyne with stationary 
primary and short-circuited secondary, which has 
no connection with the outside line. It therefore 
. possesses no moving contacts or wearing parts 
except the bearings. 

The direct-current motor is substantially con- 
structed with rectangular field coils and a drum- 
type armature. The commutator is especially well 
made, embodying, as it does, all the high-grade 
features of other Westinghouse motors. The 
brushes are of the finest quality of carbon and 
are so mounted that perfect contact and good com- 
mutation are maintained at all times. These motors 
are strong and reliable and are noiseless in opera- 
tion. 

The rotating element is supported upon noiseless 
ball bearings which reduce friction to a minimum. 
A stationary shaft is provided with a spiral groove 
through which oil from the reservoir is forced 
upward by the rotation of the armature. 

Counter type fans are exactly similar to those 
designed for floor-column mounting, with the ex- 
ception that the shaft is made short. 

Following are tabulated data: 

Alternating-current Desk Fans. 

Watts 
Size Alter- Full 

of Fan. nations. Volts. Speed. Speed. 

12-inch.. 7,200 110—220 1,300 45 

1,625 
16-inch 7.200 no — 220 1,300 80 

12-inch 16,000 no — 220 1,300 65 

1,625 
16-inch 16,000 110—220 1,300 120 

Alternating-current Bracket Fans. 

Watts 
Size Alter- Full 

of Fan. nations. Volts. Speed. Speed. 

I2 " mC 2 ° 1,625 

16-inch 7,200 110—220 1,300 80 

1,625 
12-inch 16,000 110—220 1,300 65 

16-inch 16,000 110—220 1,300 120 






Counter Fans. 
Volts. Speed. Watts Full Speed. 



16- inch H5" 



rrent Ceiling, Floor-col 
Volts. Speed. 



and Counter Fans. 
Watts Full Speed. 



The steamer MTowera, which arrived at Victoria, 
B. C, a few days ago from Australia, reported that 
when it arrived at Fanning Islands the cable staff 
was without provisions and the . men were living 
on cocoanuts. 



Ja 



6, [906 



Heating and Lighting Hlant at Park- 
vllle, Mo. 
Park College, al Parkvillc, Mo., aboul 10 

h -I Kan 1 Citj ha 1 tiled a heating 

ui,l lighting plant, whii h ha t fev 

■. In< i, arc ill' re ull ol mi 1 ling pi 1 uliai 

. ,,1,'lih. I" l" I of tl - qtii| ,1 

\ plan v i' v- "i ili' ' ampu (Fig 
novi I ' heme in a carefully outlini 'I ysti m ol 

ti 1 hi id' "i a huge 1 1 mound, 

wiili iIh M ' i'i ' ba ■ rhi 

ol colli "' build . [2 in number, 1 i located upon 

iIh 1 iii 1 ,, - , and 1 • H 1 feel b 

,, 1 . 1 above power hou ic level V 
,,1. 1, , ,1 I,, , .inn 111 cc .11 1 i" bla 1 tin olid 

:nn ;, fool foi till Itl .111, hi ■■ pip Inn , 

ami there arc not a few instances where thi pipe 
lined upward al an angle ol 1 dcgrci to 

I, ai Ii the highi 1 tcrrac 

The system of heating here installed m 

1, id a regulated vacuum system, in whii h the 

condensation is returned by gravity to tin plant, 
exccpl from two buildings, which lie below the 
power house level. From thi ic building the con 
den .iiii.n is dropped into the sewer. 

Fig. j slmws a cross sccti i the pecial in 

sulation biiili up 1 commodate the return line. 

II, 11 of the corrosive actii 1 condensation 




V1LLE, MO. 

on wrought-iron pipe, when not always filled with 
water, it was decided to use cast-iron pipe on return 
lines. This is known as universal pipe, and is 
manufactured by the Central Foundry Company of 
New York. The steam lines are of standard 
wrought pipe, with all the necessary expansion 
joints and specials used in standard practice. The 
small line on the outside supplies 15 pounds of 
air for the operation of thermostats. 

Fig. 3 shows a general view of that part of the 
system which operates under vacuum. An auto- 
matic controlling valve at the steam inlet, a trap 
and check valve at the outlet and an automatic 






In- 1 

to plant. 

At the pi." ■ 



O — 




tank. Into 1 

water, whi hi ith a float valvi 

gh an 

automatii valve fi hi tank above. I hi 

I ti m : thu implicity, but 

to work automa 

["he ligl " fstem 

voll 1 tern, readil; 

system, if di red when additional generate 

lupin , ,| 

This plant, as in-i pni into 

stalled i"i 11 B Mc Vfce, bu im 1 

thi Pari 1 olli bj W. II. Sell 

well-known hi itin neci 

the Marquette Building 



Ohio and Indiana Interurban Associa- 
tions May Be Merged. 

Perhaps trie most interesting topic discu I at 

the monthly meeting of the Ohio [nterurban Rail 
way Association, held at Columbus on Decembei 
28th, was the question of merging the Ohio and 

Indiana associations. After discussing ihe matter 
the president appointed E. C. Spring, J. R. Har- 
rigan, F. D. Carpenter and J. O. Wilson as a com- 
mittee to lake up the matter with a committee of 
the Indiana association. A meeting of the joint 
committee will be held at Indianapolis on January 
10th and a report of the results will he made at 
■the annual meeting of the Ohio association in 
1 Jayton on January 25th. 

In case the merger is made it is thought that 
Columbus may be selected as the headquarters with 
a salaried secretary in charge of the business. 
Should this be done an effort would be made to 
have the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan and Kentucky come into the organization under 
the proposed name of the Central States Inter- 
urban Association. 

Other topics for addresses at the meeting were 
as follows: "The Proper Method of Advertising," 
"Shop Records" and "Transportation of Employes 
and Their Dependents." An invitation was ex- 
tended to the members to attend the ceremonies 
incident to the completion of the western Ohio 
extension at Findlay on Saturday, and an explana- 
tion of the importance of the event was made. 

It is expected that many of the foremost traction 
men of the country will attend the annual meeting 
and banquet of the Ohio association at Dayton on 
January 25th. Among them will be President 






Labor-Having Receptacle for Signs. 



the illu 

from thi 
metal, 







tion from the front. This porcelain ring not only 
f holding the receptacle in 

place, but gives 3 finished appearance to the front 
' iclc becoming. 
1 after the sign is up it may be readily 
1 and a new he turning of 

the receptacle after it is inserted is made impos- 
sible by tin providing of a key in the receptacle 
part proper, which serves as a locking device. 
The manufacturers say that they arc prepared to 
furnish at cost the die necessary for punching 
out the holes. 



Coming Exhibition of Balloons and 
Air Ships. 

An exhibition of spherical and other drifting bal- 
loons, dirigible airships, aeroplanes, parachutes. 
kites, etc., will be held under the auspices of the 
recently organized Aero Club of America in the 
Sixty-ninth Regiment Armory, New York city, on 
January 13th to 20th. in connection with the annual 
the Automobile Club of America. The main 
drill room floor of the Armory will be given over to 
the automobiles, but suspended overhead will be a 
number of large balloons, airships, aeroplanes 
while the gymnasium upstairs will he entirel 
voted to an exhibition of aeronautical models and 
appurtenances, signal systems, meteorological ap- 
paratus, files of periodicals, patents, liooks. photo- 
graphs, etc., relating to aeronautics. The exhibi- 
tion will have a scientific, an engineering, as well 
as a popular and sporting interest The following- 
named gentlemen have been invited to act in an 
advisory capacity to the club: Prof. S. P. Lang- 




air vent at the radiator tell the entire story. The 
result is that the average temperature in the radi- 
ator is, under normal conditions, reduced to about 
180 degrees, and thereby a considerable amount 
of the sensible heat in the condensation is ex- 
tracted. A closer regulation of temperature in the 
building is also secured, with its consequent saving 
of steam. Furthermore, from the facts that steam 
is being drawn into the building intermittently 
and that all the buildings never take steam at the 
same time, the capacity of the line is increased 
very materially. 



NECTIONS FOR HEATING SYSTEM AT 



Vreeland of the New York city lines. President 
Ely of the American Street and Interurban Railway 
Association and T. E. Mitten of the Chicago lines. 
The annual meeting of the Indiana Electric Rail- 
way Association will be held in the Claypool Hotel, 
Indianapolis, on January nth. On the programme 
are the annual address of President Henry, informal 
discussion of miscellaneous subjects, and the ques- 
tion box. In the evening there will be a banquet. 
On January 10th the committee from the Ohio asso- 
ciation, headed by E. C. Spring, and the com- 
mittee from the Indiana association, headed by 




with Cooling Coil and Drain. 



ley. Thomas A. Edison. Prof. Alexander Graham 
Bell and Peter Cooper Hewitt. 

A remarkable collection of aeronautical pictures 
will be shown, embracing several private collections. 
the largest of which, numbering about 150 subjects, 
will be loaned by William J. Hammer, the well- 
known consulting electrical engineer of New York 
city. Nearly all his pictures consist of photo- 
graphs taken by himself while abroad of various 
notable ascents, together with photographs pre- 
sented to him by Prof. Langley. Sir Hiram Maxim, 
Santos-Dumom and others. Mr. Hammer will 



24 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



also contribute some material relating to signaling 
from war balloons. 

A system of signaling from war balloons by 
means of colored incandescent lamps attached to 
captive balloons, with the code signals operated 
from a keyboard, will also be demonstrated, this 
being the first system of the kind, it having been 
devised by Mr. Hammer in 1880 at Mr. Edison's 
laboratory at Menlo Park, N. J. This system is 
the substantial basis of the methods which have 
been employed on war balloons and on shipboard 
subsequently both here and abroad. 



" International " Switchboard Instru- 
ments and Their Makers. 

The "International" switchboard instrument, which 
the accompanying cuts well illustrate, is the im- 
proved type of the instrument which, although 
manufactured but a few years, has been received 
with a degree of favor flattering to the manufac- 
turer. It is manufactured by the International 
Electric Meter Company of Chicago, and makes 
use of the well-known principle developed by the 
noted pioneers, Deprez and d'Arsonval, and is 
said to be the first gravity meter making practical 
application of this principle. 

The salient features in this type of instrument 
are the evenly divided scale and the positive "dead- 
beat" action of the moving parts. These effects 
are, attained by the use of a very light coil and 
metal frame, mounted on a suitable suspension, 
which is free to turn in the uniform field of a 
strong permanent magnet. 

These general and primary facts are well known 
to all versed in the electrical field. This funda- 
mental principle has been applied to a varietv of 
mechanical designs, which were developed in the 
following order: 

Originally the coil was suspended on ordinary 
torsional filar supports, which served the purpose 
of opposing the electromotive force of the coil and 
also to convey the current through the coil. Later, 
the torsional springs were replaced by spiral 
springs and pivots, which are essential for portable 
instruments, but not necessary for instruments that 
are mounted permanently in a certain position, as 
is the case with switchboard apparatus. 

The latest and best instrument for use on switch- 
boards is the "Gravity" type, so named because 
of the use of small weights, properly adjusted to 
control the movement of the coil. It is, of course, 
evident that when the weights are properly se- 
cured, the resisting force will always be the same 
and zero trouble will be eliminated. Zero trouble, 
that is, the trouble due to setting of the springs, 
when heated, causing the index to point in a posi- 
tion other than on the zero mark, is often expe- 
rienced by users of the spring-type instruments. 
When this occurs it is necessary to recalibrate the 
instrument. The advantage of the gravity type of 
meter is its constancy; it is only necessary to 
place the instrument in such a position that the 
index points, at zero, and the readings will be and 
will always remain correct. 

There are many details in the construction of 
the International meter which are new and seem 
to be improvements over the usual construction. 
Prominent among these is the riveting of the 
jewel stud or pivot directly into the aluminum-coil 
frame, making the construction both rigid and 
permanent, and the winding of the coil upon the 
inside of the frame, which acts as a protection 
to the coil. The usual method is to wind the 




Tungsten steel of the best grade is used in the 
magnets, and the best kind of imported sapphire 
jewels are used in the bearings. All parts, except 
those actually necessary to carry current, are 
"dead." The voltmeters are high in resistance, and 
can be used for ground-resistance readings. The 
ammeters are used in connection with a shunt of 
low temperature coefficient, and are operated on 
0.04 of a volt. The shunt is composed of a metal 
which has the lowest possible temperature coffi- 
cient and is of a design which is most convenient 
for switchboard use. It is clamped to the surface 
of the bus-bar, eliminating the fitting of the bus-bar 
into slots. All sizes of shunts are rigid and self- 
contained and do not need a block of wood to 
support them. 

As will be noted, these instruments are of the 
round-pattern design, and are made in two sizes, 
measuring in diameter g^i and 7% inches, re- 



Mayor Dunne's Views on Pending 
Municipal Problems. 

In a sort of New Year's message Mayor Dunne 
reviews the municipal situation in Chicago from 
his own point of view. Here is part of what he 
says about traction, lighting and telephone inter- 
ests: 

I _ am confident that the people will vote this 
April as decisively in favor of municipalization of 
the street-car lines as they did last April. I have 
done everything in my power to carry out the 
will of the people of Chicago in the way of 
bringing about municipal ownership of the city's 
traction lines, but the members of the City Coun- 
cil, in the face of the expression of the people's 
will, have voted by an overwhelming majority 
against any move in that direction that I have 
made. As a consequence the wheels of legislation 




W. W, Cheney, jr.. Preside 



tary. John M. Lea, Electrical Engineer. Julian S. Jacks. 
ATIONAL ELECTRIC METER COMPANY. 



spectively, in both flush and standard mounting 
and in all standard capacities and finishes. The 
case is composed of cast iron, and acts as "a shield 
to the meter in case it is placed in a magnetic 
field. All instruments carried in stock are as- 
sembled, but not calibrated. The meter is cali- 
brated just before shipment, to insure a more ac- 
curate product. 

The International Electric Meter Company is a 
corporation organized under the laws of the state 
of Illinois, with headquarters in Chicago. The 
present management, of which Mr. W. W. Cheney, 
Jr., is president and treasurer, took charge of the 
business about a year ago, and since that time 
the company has made material advances. Mr. 
Cheney is a native of Chicago, and was educated 
at the St. John's Military School of Manlius, N. Y. 
While devoting his time largely to the interests 
of this company, he is also interested in several 
other successful enterprises, to which he gives his 
attention. 

Mr. August Benson accepted the secretaryship 



for the time being are effectively blocked. It is 
for the people to determine whether my course or 
that of the council shall be apnroved and sustained. 
This question the people will face at the polls next 
April. Their will must stand supreme, and I am 
not doubtful of what will be their verdict. 

With other citizens who believe that the existing 
gas companies of Chicago have been charging ex- 
orbitant rates for gas, I went to Springfield shortly 
after my election and urged upon the General 
Assembly the passage of an act enabling the City 
Council of the city of Chicago to fix reasonable 
rates for gas and electric light. The State Legis- 
lature passed such an act in response to this de- 
mand, and the same has been adopted by the citi- 
zens of Chicago upon a referendum vote. 

Immediately upon the adoption of this act, by 
referendum last November, I addressed a message 
to the City Council calling the attention of that 
body to this fact and urging the council to pass an 
ordinance, which I submitted, fixing the price to be 
charged for gas at 75 cents per 1,000 cubic feet. 



Complete Instrument. 



wire upon the frame and stick the pivots to the 
outside of the wire. 

The construction of the needle and its support. 
is of the highest grade of mechanical design. It 
is rigid and strong and of minimum weight. The 
needle is a solid aluminum wire, instead of a 
fragile tubing, and, although having sufficient stiff- 
ness, can be severely deformed without breaking. 

On account of the unavoidable variance in the 
machining of the pole-pieces and core, it is said 
to be impossible for any meter manufacturer to 
obtain a perfect air gap between these parts, and 
unless extreme care is applied to the balancing or 
poising of the needle and coil, a scale drawn in 
perfectly even divisions is unsatisfactory, as a me- 
ter adjusted to full-scale reading on an evenly 
printed scale is likely not to give true intermediate 
readings. The method used by the International 
company is to "step off" the main divisions with 
the current and draw in the lines by hand. This 
method, it is declared, should always be used 
where accuracy is essential. 






of this company at the time M'r. Cheney secured 
control. He has been connected with several of 
the large commercial houses of Chicago, in dif- 
ferent capacities, and this gives him the necessary 
business experience to perform the duties of his 
office most acceptably. 

Mr. John M. Lea, who is the electrical engineer 
of the company, is an engineering graduate of the 
University of Wisconsin. He has had several years 
of experience in the different departments of the 
Western Electric Company, and to him should be 
given the credit for the excellent instruments the 
company has placed upon the market. 

Mr. Julian S. Jackson, sales manager, was con- 
nected for several years with the sales department 
of the Western Electric Company, and was later 
sales agent at Chicago for Pass & Seymour, dur- 
ing which time he traveled the larger portion of 
the United States. This wide acquaintance in the 
electrical field, and a pleasing personality, will 
prove, of much value in advancing the interests of 
his company. 



This price, in my judgment, is a reasonable one, 
in view of the fact that gas has been sold within 
recent years in the city of Chicago by one of the 
present constituent corporate members of the Peo- 
ples Gas Light and Coke Company for 75 cents 
per 1,000 cubic feet, and in view of the further fact 
that gas now is sold in several American cities for 
75 cents and less. The matter of my message has 
been referred to the council committee on gas, oil 
and electric light. I earnestly hope that that com- 
mittee soon will recommend to the City Council 
for passage an ordinance fixing the price of gas 
in this city at 75 cents per 1,000 cubic feet. 

It is my intention at an early date, as soon as I 
procure sufficient reliable data, to recommend to 
the City Council the passage of an ordinance ma- 
terially reducing the price of electric light in this 
city, as I am confident that the present rates 
charged by private companies are both exorbitant 
and unjustly discriminative between different 
classes of citizens. 

I have communicated and held several interviews 



January 6, i'/<<> 



ELE< TRK 



v.iil, ihc officials ol th< I hii ago I ■ li phom l on 

panj i and havi urgi 'I upon this • orporal the 

adoption "f a more n a onabli i I" dul 

it, i telephone lervicc. In re pon - to the ic sug- 

je n, ,11 ili,' , ompany ha - addn iscd a i ommi 

M,,i, i,i i Ik- mayor and the ' il v I ouni il req 

ih, opening ol negotiation! with rcl to thi 

future dealing ol the • ompan; I thi i ity and 

. hi/, ii ol I I"' I I in ii ation, too 

been refei red to the coum il i oi I •• 

.-mil electric light, where the matti i now i pending, 

I am pleased to state thai the ofl I the tell 

phone company have in! I mi thai thi . an 

prepared to consider : 

i \ I, -I mi u .: i ni i barge i to ti lepl u icr 

2, 'l In- incorporation in any agreement that may 
l,f made with the municipality of a provision under 
which the city of Chicago shall In- empowered to 

take over and operate the telephone pla I thi i 

ompan] a i a munii ipal plant when thi tati Legi 
l.iiurf enacts a law enabling the city io to do. 



New Stromberg-Carlson Transmitter. 

Telephone apparatus capable of being used in 
discriminate^/ over long or short distances lias bc- 
come almost a necessity. One of tin: most difficult 
parts ni' the apparatus to adjust to this condition 
is the transmitter, which should lov .ofl and picas 
ing transmission over the shorl disl :es ana still 




be capable of transmitting speech over long lines 
with the least possible exertion on the part of the 
speaker. The volume of transmission depends upon 
the change of distance between the electrodes, 
brought about by the vibration of the diaphragm. 
In the usual form of transmitter one electrode takes 
up the same amplitude of vibration as the central 
point of the diaphragm. In a new form of the 
Stromberg-Carlson transmitter, however, both elec- 
trodes are attached to the central point of the dia- 
phragm, thus producing a variation of distance 
between the electrodes of twice the amplitude of 
vibration of the central point of the main dia- 
phragm. 

The mechanical construction of the transmitter 



•villi (hi 

• up 'Ii imounti fl ivitl 
cup with thi 

I 

' ai i ■ i 

mill, i i 

olden fl i" ii no cting 

■ ili' i ■ m but 

high 
i thi 'Km nun, i pai king and prevenl arcing. 
The company al o m inul granular 

- ml 

The diaphragi ird aluminum 
and is carefullj traighl I in a powerful ma- 
chine. It i pi i''l l 

auxiliary diaphragm for sealing thi 

iv made oi ielci ted India mica can full] 

to thiekni o thai 

and ii is ei ui i Ij hi Id in pta e by the 

ring. I lie minor pans of thi 

constructed « ith partii ulai can and fi om 

selected material. 

Each transmitl i b ■ erial nui 




either by the letter C or the letter L, C being for 
central-energy transmitters and L for local-battery 
transmitters. Each transmitter is accurately meas- 
ured for resistance and given a practical test on 
both short and long lines in comparison with other 
instruments, thus assuring that each has been prop- 
erly assembled and received an accurate adjustment 
by the manufacturer, the Stromberg-Carlson Tele- 
phone Manufacturing Company of Rochester, N. Y. 
A cardholder of neat design, held in place by 
two of the transmitter mounting screws, is fur- 



UENERAL TELEPHONE :;twb 

I 

I h( -»ph Company 

with a 

■ A Telegraph 
) , hat be?: 

•'/ The 
• 'iui A. 

Amorq 

Bath-Hammoi 

Valley 
I elephi -fprings 

field II Tcnn. ; 

I hilton 

Medo Telephone Company, Medo, Minn. 

N. Y. : Ri 

Jersey I 

Company. Ringwood, ' 

i lompan Kan , Penmar Tel 

Company, Peru, Kan. 



MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS. 

The Swedish-American Telephom I 

i'.-.rk. Chicago. 
which is it-, address for mail and express. Freight 
shipments should be made to Summerdale, 111. 

' ii much value to the practical telephone man 
is the new bulletin of the Stromberg-Carlson 

Telephone Manufacturing Company of Rochester, 
X Y.. upon private-branch telephone exchanges. 
All the details of the apparatus are first described 
in the bulletin after which the various -' 
switchboards arc illustrated. A few pages are also 
ited to the power board and its accessories. 
The bulletin is built upon the loose-leaf principle, 
the cover being of a simple but appropriate design. 

The }Vcstcrn Electric Company of Chicago and 
other large cities has taken over the supply de- 
partment of the Central Union Telephone Corn- 
pans- at Indianapolis and has established a branch 
house at that place for the sale of telephone 
apparatus and supplies. Mr. Edward S. Holmes 
of Chicago has been appointed manager. The 
former employes of the Central Union Telephone 
Company's supply department have been taken 
over by the Western Electric Company. It is 
understood that the Indianapolis branch will not 





PARTS OF STROM 



CONNECTORS 



SEW STROMBERO CAR.LSON TRANSMITTER. 



follows out the practice that has been found to be 
the most satisfactory for high-class anoaratus — 
that is, the use of highly polished carbon elec- 
trodes and irregularly formed carbon granules 
enclosed in a practically moisture-proof case, using 
no absorbent material whatever, so that the trans- 
mitter when once assembled should be entirely 
free from any bad effects due to atmospheric 
changes, and should be equally as efficient in any 
climate. The transmitter is made more durable, 
particularly in damp climates, by the use of an 
auxiliary moisture-proof diaphragm over the main 
diaphragm, thus preventing any chemical action of 
the main diaphragm, due to moisture or alkali from 
the breath. 

Figs. I, 2 and 3 clearly show the construction 
of the instrument. What corresponds to the front 
electrode in the ordinary transmitter is divided 
into two halves, each forming a terminal. The 
back disk with highly polished carbon is used only 
as an electrical connection between the two halves 
of the transmitter. Fig. 4 shows the diaphragm 



nished with each instrument. It is provided with a 
transparent celluloid disk and white-paper back, on 
which may be printed the telephone number. 

Attention is called to the fact that no metal what- 
ever is used in the construction of this transmitter 
excepting brass, thus insuring sufficient weight and 
freedom from warping, which is more than liable 
to occur if any composition parts are used, as it is 
evident that the slightest movement on the part 
of the framework would throw the transmitter 
completely out of adjustment and render it prac- 
tically worthless. Neither is any exposed part of 
the transmitter connected with the telephone cir- 
cuit, thus insuring the subscriber freedom from 
any disagreeable shocks or injury. 



City Electrician Carroll, before the committee 
investigating the cost of gas in Chicago, was asked 
as to the damage done to pipes by electrolysis in 
Chicago. He replied that while it was considerable 
it could not be measured. It was greater to water 
than to gas pipes. 



attempt to do any manufacturing but will depend 
for its source of supply on the company's large 
factories at Chicago and New York. 

The Automatic Electric Company of Chicago is 
well pleased with its yeear's work, as the list of 
exchanges, which it has equipped in the last 12 
months is a long one. Twenty-one public ex- 
changes were installed aggregating about 25.000 
lines. The largest of these was the Citizens' Tele- 
phone Company's exchange at Columbus. 
with S.000 lines. West Exchange of the Home 
Telephone Company of Los Angeles. Cal., coming 
second with 4,000 lines. Private exchanges ag- 
gregating 413 lines were installed during the year, 
the'largest being for the Brooklyn Heights Railway 
Company. Additions to 15 public exchanges and 
six private exchanges were made. At the begin- 
ning of the year the company had on hand con- 
tracts for nine public exchanges aggregating 19,800 
lines, and for three private exchanges, some of 
which have already been partially built. 



26 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Great Britain. 

London, December 20.— I have previously men- 
tioned that in all likelihood the contract for the 
electrical equipment of a portion of the London, 
Brighton and South Coast Railway Company s sub- 
urban lines on the single-phase system would go 
to Germany. It is now definitely announced that 
the contract has been given to the Allgemeine Llek- 
tricitats- Gesellschaft of Berlin, but that consider- 
able subletting will be done, and in this a number 
of British firms will participate. The line to be 
converted runs from Victoria in the southwest of 
London out to several suburban neighborhoods in 
the south, and, taking the shape of a semicircle 
returns to London Bridge in the city. It is stated 
that the Winter-Eichberg system will be adopted 
and that the German firm has secured the contract 
by virtue of higher guarantees. In view of the 
proposals to supply electric power in London it is 
interesting to note that the railway company does 
not intend to erect a generating station, being ap- 
parently convinced that, there being so many com- 
petitors, suitable terms will be easy to obtain. 

With the natural progress of engineering, greater 
attention is being paid to the economical burning 
of fuel in generating stations. Closely allied with 
this, of course, is the question of smoke abatement, 
and' the general motto in large works nowadays is. 
More steam and less smoke. In the past one of 
the nightmares of the central-station and factory 
-ngineer was the "outlooks" of the Smoke Abate- 
ment Society, a body formed with the very laudable 
object of enforcing the law in the interests of 
public health, with the object of bringing home 
to factory and other owners the commercial as well 
as the hygienic advantages arising from the smoke- 
less combustion of fuel. Identified with the society 
are many well-known engineers, and the result has 
been a binding together of the society and the fuel 
burners, so that there will undoubtedly be greater 
co-operation in the future than in the past. A 
proposal is on foot to organize some department 
whose function it should be to hire out skilled 
advice on the question of scientific stoking, etc. 
One of the biggest drawbacks which the society 
encounters is the fact that government factories are 
exempt from the general law relating to the ques- 
tion, and curiously enough they set the exceedingly 
bad example of, apparently, emitting the maximum 
quantity of black smoke that their furnaces are 
capable of. 

A few further details are now available regard- 
ing the London County Council's electric power 
scheme. At the meeting last week a resolution 
that a bill be promoted was carried, and so the 
council stands committed. The total area of supply 
is 117 square miles inside London and 270 square 
miles outside. Powers are sought to supply only 
to authorized distributors and to railways, tram- 
ways and the like. In addition to the large trac- 
tion power house at Greenwich a new station will 
be erected further up the River Thames at Bat- 
tersea. Roughly, power will be asked for at first 
to borrow $12,500,000, spread over seven years. 
Of this it is estimated that nearly $7,500,000 will 
be expended during the years 1907, 1908 and 1909. 
Through it all the finance committee repeatedly 
warns the council of the insecure character of the 
business and of the fact that a loss is inevitable 
during the first years. 

The National Telephone Company and the Swan- 
sea corporation are still fighting in the law courts 
as to the rights which the latter claims to have 
concerning intercommunication between the munici- 
pal telephone system and that of the company under 
the terms of the Telegraph Act of 1899. Already 
the case has been tried in the lower courts and the 
verdict went against the company. It is now in the 
Apoeal Court and the contention of the company 
is that, while under the act in question it cannot 
refuse to grant intercommunication, it required a 
clear definition of the law as to the extent of the 
intercommunication. Its contention was that the 
scheme of the Swansea corporation was imprac- 
ticable, inasmuch as it did not provide for a go 
and return line between all the sub-exchanges on 
the two systems. If this were not done the service 
would be dislocated Eventually the case was ad- 
journed for the court to send down an independ- 
ent expert to report upon the amount of intercom- 
munication demanded by the exigencies of the two. 
services. 

The makers of the Nernst lamp have announced 
that in consequence of the continued rise in the 
raw materials used in the manufacture of their 
goods an extra charge of five per cent, is neces- 
sary on the list prices upon most orders received 
in the future. 

A company called the Egyptian Engineering 
Company has recently been formed, having for its 
function the representation in Egypt of a large 
number of British electrical and other engineering 
firms. G. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

Hearst, that the ballots should be recounted has 
not been acceded to, but the revised returns reduce 
the plurality to 3,472 votes. The Hearst lawyers 
will' probably continue the fight by initiating quo- 
warranto proceedings, when the mayor will be 
called upon to justify his position. 

Mayor M'cClellan has appointed William B. Elli- 
son as commissioner of water supply, gas and elec- 
tricity. 

An official inspection of the subway extension 
to Kingsbridge was made this afternoon, and the 
line will be opened for passenger traffic at midnight, 
January 1st. This completes the Manhattan por- 
tion of the subway scheme. 

Following the merging of the subway, elevated 
and surface lines the traction representatives have 
given out a statement relative to the financial side 
of the amalgamation and announce the formation 
of a new company with a capital of $222,000,000 to 
hold the shares and stocks of the various companies 
as detailed in the Western Electrician last week. 
Traction stock declined several points on this 
announcement, for the scheme provides for the 
replacing of the seven-per cent, guaranteed Metro- 
politan stock with new five-per cent, cumulative 
preferred stock. The Rapid Transit Commission, 
which supervises the electric traction of Greater 
New York, has discussed the combination, and 
individual members expressed the view that the 
Belmont financiers would ultimately have to come 
to terms with the city. Controller Edward H. 
Grout immediately prophesied that within a few 
weeks competition would be forthcoming for the 
construction of new subways, and this morning it 
was made public that a new $100,000,000 syndicate 
was being formed by J. Edward Swanstrom, who 
was president of the borough of Brooklyn under 
Mayor Low. The syndicate proposes to bid for 
the Brooklyn subway extensions. 

The employes of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company — that is, the subway and elevated guards, 
conductors and switchmen — will receive increases 
of pay as from January 1st, and the trainmen, 
clerks and starters who work 12 hours a day will 
be allowed two days off each month, with pay. 
This is the second increase of wages since the strike 
of last spring and affects about 10,000 men. 

The Kings County Electric Light and Power 
Company will increase its capital from $5,000,000 to 
$S,200,ooo, and is planning to spend the additional 
money on a scheme of extensions calculated to 
meet the needs of several years to come. 

A criminal charge for installing devices for tam- 
pering with electric meters has been heard this 
week, when the New York Edison Company failed 
to prove its case. To assist the court an exhibit 
consisting of a switchboard, meters, cut-offs and 
lamps was produced in evidence. 

At the new Wanamaker store on Broadway an 
electrically operated floor-polishing machine is to 
be seen in operation. This is in the form of a 
miniature road-roller, with additional rollers re- 
volving at a high speed to poiish the flooring. 
The mechanism is operated by a small Crocker- 
Wheeler motor and power is supplied from the 
nearest available lamp circuit. 

The Western Electric Company has leased for a 
long term of years a building at 17 Murray Street. 
William H. Houston and associates of Washing- 
ton, N. J., have incorporated the Washington Elec- 
tric Company with a capital of $50,000. 

Fire-alarm telegraph devices are to be installed 
in a number of public schools in Brooklyn. The 
whole work must be done on one contract in 60 
days, and bids are receivable at the Board of 
Education till the morning of January 8th. 

D. W. W. 



January 6, 1906 

operation for many years and furnishes all the 
electric light used by the city, and power is also 
furnished manufacturers. The power house is situ- 
ated on the Batiscan River, 18 miles from the city. 
The city gave this company the exclusive right 
for 20 years to furnish electric light and power 
to Three Rivers. Ten years of the franchise have 
expired. The Shawinigan company will bring its 
power from Shawinigan Falls, about 21 miles dis- 
tant. W. 



New York. 



New York city, December 30. — Colonel George 
B. McClellan was officially declared to be elected 
mayor of Greater New York on Wednesday and 
has" taken the oath of office. The demand of the 
municipal-ownership candidate, William Randolph 



Dominion of Canada. 

Ottawa, Ont, December 30. — It is believed that 
the United States government will appoint three 
commissioners from Maine to act with the Cana- 
dian commissioners in the adjustment of the dis- 
pute as to the diversion of water from the river 
St. John, N. B. Upon the return of the minister 
of public works to Ottawa the Dominion govern- 
ment will probably decide upon the subject of co- 
operation with the United States authorities in the 
protection of Niagara Falls. 

The Citv Council of St. John, New Brunswick, 
will place at the disposal of an expert engineer a 
sufficient sum of money to investigate the subject 
of the development of power at the Reversible 
Falls at the mouth of the river St. John. It is esti- 
mated that 20,000 horsepower, now going to waste, 
could be developed at these falls. 

Dr. Haanel, Dominion superintendent of mines, 
has received a sample of the first pig iron turned 
out at the government's experimental electric 
smelter at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. The iron is of 
a very superior quality. The object of the experi- 
ments now being made is to determine whether 
the electric process is applicable to the economical 
smelting of Canadian hematite ores. 

T. W. McKenzie of the Canadian Pacific railway 
has perfected an automatic device for calling tele- 
graph offices in railway work, which, it is said, will 
do the work of a man. 

The North Shore Power Company of Three 

Rivers, Que., has sold out its electric power plant 

and privileges to the Shawinigan Power Company. 

The consideration for this valuable franchise is 

$300,000. The North Shore Company has been ii 



Pacific Slope. 

San Francisco, December 29. — The Oro Water, 
Light and Power Company's stockholders held a 
special meeting in San Francisco on December 
28th and authorized the increase of the bonded 
indebtedness by $150,000, making a total of 
$750,000. The machinery which is being installed 
for a 20-mile transmission to Oroville, Cal., was 
purchased by the proceeds of the original bond 
issue of $6co,ooo. About 4,000 horsepower will 
be developed, most of which will be used for com- 
mercial lighting and operating gold dredges. 

The City Council of Alameda, Cal., has rejected 
all of the bids for additional generators for the 
municipal electric-light plant. The city clerk w^as 
ordered to readvertise, as the bids were considered 
too high. 

The Pacific Portland Cement Company of San 
Francisco has closed contracts for two additional 
Westinghouse 400-kilowatt induction motors for its I 
new plant at Cement, Cal. 

The Wave Power and Electric Company, incor- 
porated under the laws of Arizona, has filed a 
copy of its papers in San Francisco, with the inten- 
tion of manufacturing and installing the motors. 
The principal place of business is Phcenix Ariz 
Fred Starr, John C. Beach and W. T. Ha'shagan 
are interested. 

The Miller-Cahoon Company has taken the Utah ' 
agency for the Pope-Waverley electric automobile. 
A large building will be erected in Salt Lake City 
■ to be used as a garage and charging station. The 
company contemplates installing charging stations 
also in Ogden, Murray, Garfield, American Fork, 
Springville, Provo and other towns. 

The North Shore Railroad Company has awarded 
the complete contract for the enlargement of the 
electric power nouse at Alto to Hunt, Mirk & Co. 
of San Francisco. A 1,000-kilowatt Westinghouse- 
Parsons turbo-generator, Keeler water-tube boilers, 
condensing plant and auxiliaries are included. 

I. N. Enright and Raymond Benjamin have 
asked the Board of Trustees of St. Helena, Cal., 
for a franchise for an electric-light and power sys- 
tem. Bids for the franchise will be opened in 
February. 

The Northern Electric Company, which is build- 
ing an electric road from Chico to Oroville, Cal 
and contemplates building on to Sacramento, pro- 
poses to issue $6,000,000 bonds for the purpose of 
construction. Henry A. Butters of San Francisco 
is president of the company. 

An interurban electric-railway scheme, backed by 
the Canadian Pacific railway, embracing a continu- 
ous line from Seattle to Portland, Ore., making 
Olympia the upper Sound central point, with opera- 
tion of a local street-car system, is reported from 
railway news sources on the Sound. The plan also 
contemplates taking over the power plant and 
street-car and lighting systems of the Olvmpia 
Light and Power Company. It is designed to 
connect all principal cities of the Sound and along 
the route to Portland. 

.The town trustees of San Diego, Cal., have sold 
an electric-light franchise to Hugh T. Duff for 
$25. He will immediately commence the erection 
of a $30,000 plant. It is stated that the proposition 
may mean power for an electric line later on. 

The Los Angeles and Redondo electric line is to 
be made a four-track road as part of the Hunting- 
ton system. 

The Shasta Power Company, which is construct- 
ing an electric power plant near Hot Creek, Shasta 
County, Cal., has closed a contract with the Allis- 
Chalmers Company of two 750-kilowatt three-phase 
60-cycle generators, which are to be direct con- 
nected to two Doble impulse wdieels. Power will 
be transmitted to mines and smelters. The pipe 
line has been completed. A. 



Ohio. 

Cleveland, December 30. — Within a short time a 
new gasoline motor car will be completed at the 
Kuhlman shops at Collinwood for the Lake Shore 
Railroad Company, with which experiments will be 
made in the way of doing a suburban business. 

It is said that Dan R. Hanna has made a propo- 
sition to the Northern Ohio Traction and Light 
Company that if it will extend its Akron and 
Ravenna line east to Warren he will pay for the 
construction of the 2V2 miles between Ravenna 
and his farm, known as Cottage Hill farm. 

The Erie Railway Company, it is said, is plan- 
ning to inaugurate some kind of suburban service 
between Cleveland and Youngstown and that a 
third track may be built for the purpose. It is 
also said that plans have been thought over for a 
service of the same kind east of Alamanca. 

The Wheeling Traction Company has obtained 
the right-of-way for the extension of its track up 



January <■, 1906 



River in lli'- 



1 oi Porl nd, thi 



I hi 1 in Easti in Ini' i"i i"n ' Minpan h 

grant 'I a fram hi 1 I ei Mai ion '1 1" 

11 .■. ill "i" rati wiili ga olim i ai . il i lid 

I in Springfield, Soulli ( harli Ion, Wa hing 

('. II. and I lull lie line wa ■ i ha i 'I al 

,1 . ialc 11 few days ago l>y a yndii ate hi adi -I b 

E, W. 1 I -I 1 li vi land [01 $66, 1 hi 

1 ri ditoi i of the i ompanj ha< n i 'I to i il i gold 

I Is heii indchtedm li i tin intci 

to complete tin road ; ling to th ginal 

|J. 11 

A mortgage fur $3,000,000 in (:r 01 "1 1 In I moll 

I hi ,i < i "i Pill burg Im been fill d b tin 

In i Liverpool I raction < ompanj i r< in 

i , I 20 year I ds of thai al i I hi 

money from the sale of $600,000 ol tin c bonds, 

which will be disposed of as needed, will 1 1 

to future acquisitions and bettci menti I he offi 

1 the company arc as follow Pn idi nl 

Van Horn Ely, Buffalo ; vice president, 1 \ mitli 
East Liverpool ; secretary and treasurer, I dwai d 
Mil lonald. 

Some fears arc entertained thai the Lcgi laturc 
mm make an attack upon the use of the third rail. 
One bill has been prepared prohibiting the use of 
ih, 1 item, il is said, and another providi thai 
guards shall be used the entire distance 

Superintendent Wilcox of the municipal light 
plant al Columbus has informed the board of serv- 
ice that the plain is being overworked and thai a 
new turbo-generator will be needed to bring it up 
to proper condition. This would necessitate the oul 
lav of $N,yX)0. 

The Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company has 
made a bid of $69.72 per are light to the city for 
the ensuing year. The price the lasl year was 

$73-56- 

The Cincinnati and Columbus I raction Coin 
party is completing the survey from Hillshoro to 
Chillicothe. 

It is said that a bill will lie introduced in the 
Legislature this winter making the capital stock 
of steam and electric railways taxable, as well as 
the physical property, and raising the valuation 
from 20 to 50 per cent. 

Samuel F. George of Dayton in an interview a 
few days ago said that he had arranged for the 
financing of the Cincinnati, Dayton and Fort Wayne 
Traction Company by English and French capital- 
ists. It will cost about $12,500,000 to construct the 
road. It will be built on the steam-road basis, and 
will be operated on the third-rail system. The line 
will be 192 miles long. The Brighton steam road 
may be purchased to gain an entrance to Cincin- 
nati. 

The Cleveland Electric Railway Company has 
given notice that the Central Avenue franchise case 
will be appealed from the United States District 
Court to the United States Supreme Court. Judge 
Taylor decided that the company's franchise ex- 
pired last spring, and the company contends that 
it does not expire until 1914. 

The receivership of the Miami and Eric Canal 
Transportation Company has been transferred from 
the Superior Court at Cincinnati to the Common 
Pleas Court. W. Kelsey Schoepf withdrew as re- 
ceiver and W. C. Shephard of Dayton was ap- 
pointed in his place. The receivers have realized 
$51,608.57 from the sale of some of the chattels, 
and the fees for attorneys, receivers and the ex- 
penses amount to $38,972. 

The Coshocton council has granted a franchise 
to the Zanesville, Coshocton and New Philadelphia 
Traction Company. O. M. C. 



PERSONAL 



George W. Lloyd has been appointed superin- 
tendent of the second district, southern division, 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company, in 
place of J. M. Stephens, who has resigned. 

Henry V. Miller of Bloomington, 111., died on 
December 27th in Chicago. He was for 15 years 
superintendent of telegraphs for the Chicago and 
Alton railroad, and recently retired to promote an 
electric block signal of which he was the inventor. 

J. D. Flynn, well known in telegraphic circles 
through his connection with the Baltimore & Ohio, 
and the Western Union Telegraph Companies, died 
at his home in Pittsburg on December 25th. Mr. 
Flynn was born in Cleveland on December 25, 1S46. 
For twelve years he was superintendent of the 
Western Union in the Pittsburg district, but for the 
past two years had been president of the Pittsburg 
Stock Quotation Company. 

The Chicago Daily Tribune of January 1st con- 
tained the following: "S. Frank. 4740 Calumet 
Avenue, is seeking his son, Samuel J. Frank, who 
disappeared last Thursday afternoon. The father 
is a member of the firm of M. J. Berkson & Co., 
wholesale clothing merchants, 235 Jackson Boule- 
vard. S. J. Frank is 32 years of age. For two 
years he was general manager of the Mexican 
Telephone Company with headquarters in Mexico 
City." 

J. C. Barclay of New York, assistant general 
manager, Theodore P. Cook of Chicago, general 
superintendent of western division, and Charles 
H. Bristol of New York, general superintendent of 



l.l". El 



p in 1 peel 

in Indianapol 

and hcadquartci in that 

city. 

I 1 , Pp 

a pi 1 itioi 

way and 1 

i' ha been with the ' 1 

with a • gold 

watch, chain and 1 hai n 

1 mphi 

W, G. William . who fi 1 rcpre 

nti d thi t Lamp apany in Penn 

and othci tcrriloi fa 

previous); 

Supply < ' impany of New Voi 

po lil ion ■■ ill il" Columb ' Lamp 

* ■ 11 1 ip.i 1 1 ,. ..I Si 1 11 . and vill 
mid Philadelpl 

thai com] 1 . covci ing northern P inia and 

tati 

John I 1 lili in 1 1 1 gncd h 

general contracl agent of thi 1 

pan) i" bee a istant to the president of the 

1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 '. \l 1 . ' iill I" 1 I I 

as well a- a busim man ol fii t-rati 1 tpai ity, and 
Mr. Iiisiill, thi president, 011s and 

broad-gauged policy has done so much to bring the 
1 ompanj to its pn icnl 1 mini nee, will find in him a 
worthj helper in overseeing the details incident 
to the responsibilities and cares of the executive 
office. 

Vinton A. Scars of Boston, Mass., who some 
months ago resigned from the various automatic 
telephone companies in Massachusetts, has moved 
to the Sears Building. Boston, where lie will con- 
imi'.c 10 be interested ill Independent telephone work 
and securities. Mr. Scars organized the automatic 
telephone companies at New Bedford and Fall 
River, Mass.. which were the first to demonstrate 
the practicability of the automatic system. He is 
the author of a well-known book, "Telephone De- 
velopment: Scope and Effect of Competition." 

Henry C. Ebert, assistant to the third vice-presi- 
dent of the Westinghousc Electric and Manufac- 
turing Company of Pittsburg, Pa., has 1 
his position to become the president of the Cin- 
cinnati Car Company and vice-president of the 
Ohio Traction Company. Mr. Ebert's connection 
with the Westinghouse company dates back about 
15 years. After having been promoted to the 
position of superintendent of construction, which 
he occupied for some years, he was made chief 
of the correspondence department, later assistant 
to the manager of works, and lastly assistant to 
the third vice-president. It was while Mr. Ebert 
occupied the position of superintendent of con- 
struction that the 10 5,000-horsepowcr revolving- 
field generators made by the Westinghouse com- 
pany were installed and put in operation in the 
power plant of the Niagara Falls Power Company. 
The officers of the Westinghouse company gave a 
dinner in his honor at the Hotel Schenlcy just 
before he left, and as a token of the esteem in 
which he had been held during his long association 
with the company he was presented a beautiful 
bronze electric stand lamp. 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING 

A new electric plant is being installed in the 
Mt. Carmel Academy at Wichita, Kan. 

The Grand Island (Neb.) Electric Light Com- 
pany is about to put in an entirely new plant. 

The Colorado Salt Company of Colorado. Tex., 
will install a small electric light equipment in its 
plant. 

The capacity of the local electric-light plant at 
Atoka, I. T.. is to be increased and new machinery 
installed. 

The Forrest City Ice and Power Company of 
Forrest City. Ark., will enlarge its plant and 
install machinery. 

W. M. Dunn has purchased the business of the 
Canadian Valley Electric and Refrigerator Company 
at Holdenville, I. T. 

The Citizens' Electric Light. Power and Manu- 
facturing Company will erect an electric-light plant 
in Fort Collins, Colo. 

A building to cost $16,000 is to be erected and 
equipped for furnishing light and power to the 
Brazos Hotel in Houston, Tex. 

The New Century Hotel Company of Dawson 
Springs. Ky.. will enlarge its electric-light plant 
and furnish the town with lights, both arc and 
incandescent. 

The Algiers Railway and Lighting Company of 
New Orleans has absorbed the interests of the 
Algiers Waterworks and Electric Company of 
Algiers, La., and will arrange at once for making 
extensive improvements to electric-light and power 



I he U 

, Shore 
pany in ll.m.i 

1 ongn appropriate 

trie IikIu plain I 
Point, tin- lo 

can be driven fn 

O'Neil Luc" 

works and an electric-light plant in 

til Jan- 
uary 15th by C J. Humphri 
Improvement, Argenta, 

ipening at Kirbyville, 

for the installation oi an electric-light plant. 

in has a population rmation 

will be given b lerritt, industrial com- 

1 ipeka and Santa Fe 

Railway, 9 Jackosn Boulevard. Cln> 

The city of South Pittsburg, linn., ha 
affirmatively on the proposed $31000 bond i 

1 the plant of ih.- South Pittsburg 

Electric Light and I'nwer Company 
111.1 it - will be made at once for making the ncccs- 
1 11. 1 placing the plant in operation. 



tLECTRIC RAILWAYS 
Traffic on the new electric railway between Gales- 
liurg and Monmouth, 111., has been opened by the 
Galesburg, Monmouth and Rock Islam! Railway 
Company. 

Materials for usi on the Elgin-Belviderc (III. 1 
electric railway are being shipped to Belvidere by 
the carload. Seven cars of horses, and grading 
equipments have already been received there and 
other material is arriving in frequent shipments. 

An ordinance granting the Chicago and Southern 
Electric Traction Company a 35-year franc 
operate a street railway in Blue Island. III., has 
been passed by the council. The North Shore Elec- 
tric Company will furnish the current for the 
operation^ of the cars pending a decision by the 
railway company as to the location of a powerhouse. 

The bridge at Berrien Springs. Mich., owned by 
the South Bend and Southern Michigan Railway 
Company, is probably the largest and most costly 
bridge devoted to intern rban traffic in the state. 
It is 1.200 feet long and cost about $45,000. There- 
are eight spans, each of which is 150 feet long. 
Four of these spans cross the river itself, but 
the building of a new dam will overflow the river, 
so that the others are necessary. The road ex- 
lends from South Bend. Ind., to Niles, Mich., 
and is being extended to St. Joseph. 22*2 miles, at 
a cost of $550,00p. 



PUBLICATIONS. 



The Schott Specialty Company of Chicago is 
sending out some attractive wall calendars. W. H. 
Schott. engineer of the Schott systems, Marquette 
Building, Chicago, is also distributing some beau- 
tiful calendars. 

A tasteful calendar for the month of January' 
has been issued by the Madison Gas and Electric 
Company of Madison, Wis. »It bears a pretty 
picture of one of the most picturesque spots along 
the Yahara River, south of Madison. 

A quantity of revised bulletins prepared for filing 
purposes by the Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing 
Company of Milwaukee, relate to rheostats, drums, 
machine-tool controllers and resistances. They are 
numbered 24. 25. 67. 75. 76. 77. 7$ and 79. and 
give descriptions, dimensions, prices arid other in- 
formation about the various appliances, besides a 
number of illustrations. 

Fans, blowers and exhausters for heating and 
ventilating, mechanical draft and other purposes 
are described in a booklet issued by the Green 
Fuel Economizer Company of Matteawan. N. Y. 
This company has for many years installed fans 
and exhausters for mechanical draft in connec- 
tion with the Green fuel economizer and has long 
been aware that important improvements could be 
introduced in air-moving apparatus. The Green 
company does not contract for the engineering of 
plants nor for the installation of heating and 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



ventilating plants in competition with the heat- 
ing and ventilating contractors. It has recently 
added large shops to its plant at Matteawan to 
handle this branch of the business. 

The new catalogue of the International Electric 
Meter Company of 330 West Randolph Street, 
Chicago, has just been distributed, and it illus- 
trates and describes comprehensively, and in con- 
cise terms, the leading facts concerning Inter- 
national meters, described elsewhere. Dimensions 
and drilling data for both meters and external 
shunts are contained in the catalogue and will 
prove useful in mounting the instruments. 

A neat little booklet with a pretty winter scene 
on the cover gives details of construction, prices, 
and instructions for using Westinghouse pipe- 
thawing apparatus. It is designated as folder No. 
4051 and will be of interest to central-station men 
and others. Circular No. 1107, also from the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, gives illustrations, descriptions and full in- 
formation about the various types and styles of 
Westinghouse circuit breakers. 

"Industrial Opportunities Not Yet Realized in 
Massachusetts" is the title of Part IV of the 
annual report of the Massachusetts Bureau of 
Statistics, of which Mr. Charles F. Pidgin is 
chief. The report takes up one by one the towns 
and cities of Massachusetts and points out the 
chances for new industries. Not a few of these 
opportunities are afforded by undeveloped water- 
powers which migbt be turned to good advantage 
in the production of electrical power. 

In commenoration of the victory which it won 
at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the Abner 
Doble Company of San Francisco, is sending to its 
friends a fine photogravure which bears a figure 
typifying Victory poised upon a Doble waterwheel. 
The figure is a photographic reproduction of a 
bronze by Mr. Debut, the original being in the 
private office of Mr. William A. Doble. The com- 
pany has refrained from putting any printing on 
the face of the photogravure, so that it is suitable 
for framing. 

C. R. Underhill, electromagnet specialist, 55 Lib- 
erty Street, New York, has issued a new illustrated 
catalogue showing the various types of plunger 
electromagnets, solenoids and other coils designed 
and supplied by him, and he has also revised and 
published a new edition of his booklet, "Facts 
About Electromagnets." This little booklet gives 
much information regarding electromagnets and 
solenoids and contains an interesting table of mag- 
net windings. Both the catalogue and booklet 
will be sent free to any address upon request. 

Everybody interested in alternating-current gen- 
trators will find Bulletin No. 147, issued by the 
Stanley-G. I. Electric Manufacturing Company, 
Pittsfield, Mass., entitled "The Inductor Alternator," 
not only of interest, but of value. The S. K. C. 
inductor alternator was, it is declared, the first suc- 
cessful and commercial revolving-field machine 
built. Its field consists of a revolving spider carry- 
ing the poles, which are energized by a single 
stationary field coil. As the armature is also sta- 
tionary there are absolutely no revolving wires, 
collector rings or brushes, the revolving element 
being merely a mass of metal. The machine needs 
a minimum amount of attention in operation. The 
Chicago office of the company in the Monadnock 
Block reports a steadily increasing demand for the 
S. K. C. inductor alternator in the Middle West. 
Central-station managers and consulting engineers 
will find this bulletin, which can be obtained from 
the Chicago or other offices, an acquisition to their 
technical library. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Mr. F. E. Bell has been appointed assistant gen- 
eral passenger agent of the Chicago, .Burlington 
and Quincy Railway Company, with offices in the 
passenger-department headquarters at Chicago. 
Mr. H. A. Cherrier has been appointed city pas- 
senger agent at Chicago, with headquarters at 211 
Clark Street, to succeed Mr. F. E. Bell. These 
changes took effect on January 1st. 

The Chicago electrical show, to be held in the 
Coliseum from January 15th to 27th, promises to 
be a most interesting and successful affair. There 
will be the most complete and varied display ever 
put together, it is said. The leading electrical con- 
cerns and many of the smaller ones will have ex- 
hibits, and besides there will be unique and spec- 
tacular features. During the show there will be 



special days for telephone men, for technical classes 
nf schools and colleges, Ben Franklin day, etc. 

The performance of the turbine engines on the 
new Cunard steamer Carmania has attracted wide 
attention. The turbine is of the Parsons marine 
type, which has recently been adopted by the British 
Admiralty. The rights to build Parsons marine 
turbines in the United States are held by the AlHs- 
Chalmers Company of Milwaukee, William Cramp 
& Sons of Philadelphia, the W. A. Fletcher Com- 
pany of Hoboken, N. J., the Quintard Iron Works 
of New York and the Bath Iron Works of Bath, 
Maine. The Allis-Chalmers Company is not only 
licensee under the Parsons marine-turbine patents, 
but also holds the rights for manufacturing the 
Parsons turbine blowers and compressors, and has 
recently formed an alliance with Hon. Charles A. 
Parsons, the eminent turbine inventor, for a full 
co-operation and interchange of data on steam 
turbines for land operations. It is at the present 
time practically doubling its large plant at West 
Allis, Milwaukee, Wis., the greater part of the 
new shops being intended for an extension of the 
steam-turbine work and the electric generators to 
be driven by them. 



TRADE NEWS 



The Woods Electric Company of Houston. Tex., 
has been incorporated to deal in electric supplies. 
R. C. Woods, D. F. Woods and F. C. Jones com- 
prise the new firm. 

The Robb-Mumford Boiler Company, successor 
to Edward Kendall & Sons, has moved from Cam- 
bridge, Mass., to its new plant at South Framing- 
ham, Mass., which will be its address in the future. 

The J. W. Smith Electric Company of Norfolk, 
Va., has been incorporated with $10,000 capital 
stock to engage in a general electric construction 
business. J. W. Smith is president and ( R. N. 
Scott, secretary-treasurer. 

The Haller Machine Company of Chicago is 
turning out of its sign works a lot of electric signs 
for the electrical exhibition which will be opened 
in the Coliseum on January 15th. Bulletin No. 15, 
issued by the company, gives information about its 
signs and electric metal letters, and illustrates some 
of the signs which it has installed for hundreds of 
merchants. 

The electrical fraternity will be interested to 
learn that the Central Electric Company, Chicago, 
will again be housed in its old location at 264- 
266-26S and 270 Fifth Avenue, where it will have 
twice as much floor space as at any previous time 
in its history. It will be remembered that the 
company's offices and salesrooms were totally 
destroyed by fire last January, since which time 
it has been located at 207 and 209 East Jackson 
Boulevard. 

Oscar Claussen, Edward P. Burch and Charles 
L. Pillsbury have entered into a partnership under 
the firm name of Claussen, Burch & Pillsbury, 
with headquarters at 1208-10 Guaranty Building, 
Minneapolis, Minn., and 514-15 German American 
Bank Building, St. Paul. They will do a hy- 
draulic, steam and electrical engineering business, 
and are prepared to make reports, tests and ex- 
aminations on the management and operation of 
power plants, and also to plan and supervise their 
construction. 

Sealed proposals are being invited by the Bureau 
of Supplies and Accounts, Navy Department, until 
January 16th, for furnishing eastern navy yards 
with the following supplies: Schedule 303, arc 
lamps, - panel board, conduit, cable, miscellaneous 
electrical supplies; schedule 306, electric hoist. On 
January 23d the bureau will open bids for furnish- 
ing southern naval stations with arc-lamp carbons, 
incandescent lamps, wire and electrical supolies, 
embraced in schedule 309. Proposal blanks can be 
obtained upon application to the bureau and to the 
navy pay office in New York for eastern yards. 

The Standard Underground Cable Company has 
leased the exclusive use of an all-copper line to 
connect its general office and factories at Pittsburg, 
branch offices at New York and Philadelphia and 
its eastern factories at Perth Amboy, N. J. This 
private line will be available for either telegraph or 
telephone service. There could be no better evi- 
dence of the large aggregate volume of business and 
the growing condition of this important manufac- 
turing company, for, so far as known, this will be 
the longest exclusive wire owned or operated by 
any company confining itself to the manufacture 
of copper wire and cables. The service was put in 



effect January 1, 1906, and while without doubt of 
great convenience and value to the company in 
facilitating . communication between its offices and 
factories and the important market centers of 
New York, Philadelphia and Pittsburg, it is in- 
stalled primarily to enable it to place itself in 
closer touch with its customers and to give these 
customers the same quick service that would be 
possible if its general offices were located in each 
of these cities instead of in one. 

A. Eugene Michel has recently entered the em- 
ployment of the George H. Gibson Company, ad- 
vertising engineers of New York city, having re- 
signed as assistant advertising manager of the 
Standard Paint Company. Mr. Michel is a gradu- 
ate of Rose Polytechnic Institute and his profes- 
sional experience includes two years in the engi- 
neering department of the Diamond Chain Works 
of the Federal Manufacturing Company, charge 
of the testing department of the Ewart Manufac- 
turing Company and assistant managership of 
the department of publicity of the International 
Steam Pump Company under Mr. Gibson. 

Among the important manufacturing enterprises 
beginning their existence in the new year, the 
officers of the Standard Electrical Manufacturing 
Company of Niles, Ohio, announce the organization 
of a new company, the Star Electric Company. The 
Star Electric Company will be located in Niles, 
Ohio, and it is the intention to finance this com- 
pany by the stockholders of the Standard Electrical 
Manufacturing Company. Mr. James P. Gilbert, 
who is secretary of the Standard company, will 
occupy a like position with the new organization. 
Mr. H. H. Albert, sales manager of the Standard 
company, will also occupy a like position with the 
Star Electric Company. It is the intention of the 
new concern to engage in the manufacture of dry 
batteries and fan motors. After spending several 
years in experimenting, Mr. Gilbert has perfected 
a dry battery which, it is thought, will soon com- 
mand a leading position in the market. With the 
assemblage of especially high-grade ingredients 
heretofore unused in work of this kind and the 
employing of the celebrated Henrion carbon, a 
battery of exceptionally long life, high amperage 
and recuperative powers has been perfected. It is 
intended that two types will be put on the market, 
one for gas engines and automobiles and the other 
for telephone and bell work. Exhaustive tests have 
demonstrated, it is said, that the Star Electric 
Company will be able "to deliver the goods." The 
fan-motor line will consist of the regular type of 
direct-current motors. A swivel, swivel and trun- 
nion and oscillating fan in 12-inch and 16-inch 
sizes will be marketed. 



BUSINESS. 



The Columbia Battery Company of Milwaukee 
has already experienced such a large demand for 
its goods that it is unable to meet it. This bat- 
tery is expected to give twice the mileage that the 
ordinary batteries now on the market give, and the 
outlook for the coming season is bright, so much 
so that the company is making great preparations 
to meet the demands that may be made upon it. 
The company's specialty is manufacturing batteries 
for electric vehicles and trucks. 

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company has recently renewed an annual contract 
covering the requirements of the Moline Elevator 
Company of Moline, 111., so far as its motor needs 
are concerned. Highly satisfactory performance 
by these elevator motors under the most trying 
conditions are reported. The Westinghouse com- 
pany is also finding an extensive field for its motor 
equipments in the marble-finishing industry. It 
lately completed the equipment of a large marble 
yard in the South. The operation of this plant 
by means of electric drive has been entirely satis- 
factory both as to convenience and operating cost. 

The Peru Electric Manufacturing Company of 
Peru, Ind., reports one of the most successful years 
in its history, the demand for Peru goods having 
been greater than ever before. Within the last 
year this company has placed on the market a 
new line of National Electrical Code standard 
specialties embodying a number of new and novel 
features, and the success of this material, the 
company says, has been gratifying. With a num- 
ber of new articles just added to its line the 
Peru company will start the new year with a full 
line of standard porcelain and National Code wir- 
ing devices. 



ILLUSTRATED ELECTRICAL PATENT RECORD. 



Issued (United States Patent 



:ej December 26, 1905 



8,064. Commutator Motor. Engelbert Arnold, 
Karlsruhe, Germany, and Jens L. la Cour, Ed- 
inburgh, Scotland. Application filed December 
16, 1904. 

A compensated single-phase alternating-current commu- 
tator motor with three brushes, in a bi-polar scheme, 
which are set relatively to each other at angles of 120 
degrees and of which three brushes two short-circuited 
brushes are used for introducing and the third brush 
for taking off the magnetizing current. 



S,o65. Electric Switch. Samuel H. Beck, New 
York, N. Y. Application filed April 22, 1905. 

The combination, with stationary electrodes, consists 
of a movable member pivoted at one end, a reciprocating 
fluid-actuated member, a bell crank for operating the 
movable member loosely pivoted, a spring 



of the movable member, pins on the bell crank 
pin carried by the fluid-actuated member adapted t 
tact with the pins on the bell crank to move it. 



808,066. Process for the Production of Metallic Cal- 
cium. Wilhelm Borchers and Lorenz Stockem, 
Aachen, Germany. Application filed October 24, 
1902. 

A process for the production of metallic calcium con- 
sists in the fusion of anhydrous calcium salts, elec- 
trolyzing the salts and maintaining the small cathode 



January 6, 1906 

808,08; 
N 



,085. Electric Glow Lamp Gu tavi R Hartung, 
"rw York, N. Y. Application filed Mai 
1904. 

An clccti leal glow lamp hai ■ nbi i 

giving clcmcnlB of ■ 1 1 1 1 

Sin mi ■ urn trollirifl di io 01 I In r. I i 

common healer and an electrical refill tti 

giving clci ,. I [ion with th. ■ 

and iln to al in ■ p u Ivi liq lid th< rmi 

out, otlapti 'I i" i" ai tuati -l b) i ni i ■■ , di ■ lip ited I 

Ill'' I' HI .1.1111 '" I'M I llllim' "«il III." I1r.1t. 1 IJj.OH 1 hi n, I 

turity -.I a ici ondai , luctor. I '■ i ■ ■ 

HoK.oHf). I hriiiin <■)>■< trir .'.all. iy, All.rn In I I- il, 

Frankforl on thi Main, Germany, assignor to A. 
Wolf, Jr., & 1 o., Frankfort on the Main, Gcr- 
many. Application filed October 31, 1904, 

in ,-i iliri him . l< ■( ii n iiiit. 1, n- combined a beating 

plate arranged to be heated from the • ol heal and 

having a projecting end, .1 th 1 nple com* 

prittinv: .1 positive rod-shaped 1 1 1 and 1 negatlvi 

win shaped component, who* tvai n Ii arc united 

with the projecting end oi tbe bci ■ plati In narrow 

or small contacl foci 1, 

808,087. Electric Signaling Apparatus Circuit. Felix 

Ii. I Iri/..;;, |<'.il\var<l 1'. I I'.jil.Mr, .llhl < I I |< 

Herrmann, New York, N. Y. ; said Herrmann 
and Hopkins assignors to said Herzog. Appli- 
cation filed August 8, 1888. 

iM are provided in it Btrect signal box for con- 
trolling the main circuit to a "> ti n by an 

operator at the box; adjuncts al the box also control the 

in. mi circuit fr .1 substation. I In r with or 

more points of connection i" the main circuit adapted 
and arranged i<> 1"' used with the adjuncts and for the 
sub-atiii ion control only. There is a sub-stntion line 
entirely distinct from the main line. 

808,095. Manufacture of Organic Gniipnitnds by 
Oxidation. Walther Lang, Salbke-on-the-Elbe, 
Germany. Application filed August 28, 1902. 



oxidizing inanganous oxide salts by elec- 
trolysis, so as to obtain manganic oxide salts find caus- 
ing the latter to act on the organic substance to be 
oxidized. 

808.096. Detachable Electrical Connection. Augus- 
tine N. Lawrence, Jr., New York, N. Y. Ap- 
plication filed October 3, 1903. 

En combination are a plug of insulating material 
adapted to enter a socket, and a soring member project- 
ing beyond the outer surface of the plug and compres- 
sible toward the surface thereof and adapted to engage 
the inside of a socket and having helically arranged con- 
tact surfaces whereby the helically arranged contact sur- 
faces may be rotated within a socket or longitudinally 
withdrawn therefrom. A central contact upon the mem- 
ber forms one terminal and the contact surface an- 
other terminal. 

508.097. Detachable Electrical Connection. Augus- 
tine N. Lawrence, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. Ap- 
plication filed April 15, 1905. 



on being provided with 

nctal in the recess and normally projecting t 
portion formed to engage 



There is a central 
nected to the contact 
to the resilient piece. 



threads, 
second terminal connected 



1,103. Art of Galvanizing Metals. Guy L. 
Meaker, Evan st on, 111., assignor to the Ameri- 
can Steel and Wire Company of New Jersey. 
Application filed June 18, 1902. 



This method consists in subje 


cting the metal to the 


action of an electric current in 


an electroplating appa- 
ctrolyte composed of a 


ratus in the presence of an ele 


combined solution of zjnc chlo 


ide, zinc sulphate and 


a small proportion of a vegetable 


acid. 



18,115. Electrical Meter. Henry W. Sayles, Pe- 
oria, 111., assignor to the Diamond Meter Com- 
pany, Peoria, 111. Application filed March 13, 
1905. 

The combination, with an armature secured to a spin- 
dle, consists of a scries field for the armature, a damp- 
ing disk secured to the spindle, an electromagnetic damp- 
ing magnet for the disk, the windings on the electro- 
magnet being included serially in circuit with the arma- 
ture windings, and a permanent magnet associated with 
the electromagnet. The combined effect of the damping 
and electromagnets is to cause the speed of rotation of 
the spindle to be proportional to current changes inde- 
pendent of pressure changes. 

>8,i39. Electric Trolley Head. John T. Cherry 
and Edward H. Give, Plymouth, England. Ap- 
plication filed March 28, 1905. 

Details are described. 

8,159. Electric Signal for Railways. Burton A. f 
Karr, Omaha, Neb. Application filed August* 
28, 1905. 

An electrical railway signal comprises a battery, an 
alarm bell, two contacting members having electrically 
conducting surfaces and non-conducting electrical sur- 
faces, a rock bar adapted to have a radial movement 
and two arms, the arms being radially mounted and 
making contact with the contacting members. 

8.162. Electric Trolley Wheel. John Miller, Jr., 
Amesbury, Mass., assignor to William E. Bid- 
die, Amesbury, Mass. Application filed March 
17, 1005- 

A trolley wheel comprising a stationary axle and a 
stationary hollow perforate hub-like bearing is adapted to 
contain a lubricant. 

8.163. Trolley Harp for Electric Railways. John 
Miller, Jr., Amesbury, Mass., assignor to Will- 
iam E. Biddle, Amesbury, Mass. Application 
filed April 10, 1905. 



walls extending out laterally in opposite dii 

8,182. Electric Signal System for Electric Cars. 
Edwin J. Adams, Waco, Texas. Application 
filed March 6. 1905. 

The combination, with a feed conductor, a return con- 
ductor and a signal conductor, consists of cars each hav- 



ELECTRICIAN 



lamin, : , N. V. Ajm- 

April 27, 1903. 

1 icrl 

1 

8o8,ig 

I" 1 ' on, Lou Angel. 

ipplii ition fill -I Fi bi 

l'"l' 'till an ml- rn.ill , -.upporl- 

■nd operated liy a quick movi >.. ■ Kuvern- 

ina tl ■' "•:: mean n thi fi .-iiurci. 

808,200. Fuse, John E. Graybill, York, Pa. Ap- 
plication filed March 22, 1005. 
Detalll in di cribed 
808,213. Contact Shoe for I hii ic Rail- 

ivays. Willi. 'in l: Potter, .Schenectady, N. Y., 

assignor to th ' Ii m 1 'I El np my, New 

York, N. Y. Applical filed Jul) 1 

A collector ihoi 1. mad one or more thin scrap 

ing runners set u|ion edge on the uppei faa ol tbe third 

rail and approximately in Hie pla Means 

for maintaining the runners yieldingly in contacl 
the rail are provided' 

808,220. Power-transmission Mechanism for Auto- 
mobiles. Charles G. Simonds, Schenectady, 
N. Y., assignor to the General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed June 
22, 1904. 



first. 



ith the 



5.222. Third-rail Insulator. Samuel B. Stewart, 
Jr., Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to the General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Appli- 
cation filed July 23, 1903. 

A rail insulator comprises a cap composed of two 
integral parts, each of which consists of a rail retaining 
car and a plug portion and an insulating support hav- 
ing a socket for receiving the plug portions. 

5.223. Railway Signaling. Samuel D. Strohm, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Application filed August 29, 



an elect: 
ground t 



ith a railroad switch or drawbridge arc 
tell 111 circuit with a contact plate and a 
lion, station magnetic devices, partial cir- 
platcs and an engine or train having 



including magnetic devices and 
tacts, power-controlling mechanism, operating means 
therefor and appliances in engagement with the contacts 
automatically actuated by tile forward-and-backw anl 
movement of the engine or train for changing the posi- 
tion of the engine contacts. 

808,226. Controller for Magnetic Clutches. Edward 
H. Anderson, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to 
the General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N. Y. Application filed July 20, 1004. 
With a variable-speed transmission mechanism, com- 
prising a number of electromagnetic clutches, are com- 
bined a controller for the clutches, having a number of 
running positions arranged to connect the clutches for 
the several speeds, and intermediate positions arranged 

clutch when breaking the circuit connections in passing 
from one running position to another. (Sec cut on next 
page.) 

808,232. Electrolytic Meter. Alvarado L. R. Ellis, 
Lynn, Mass., assignor to the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed 
June 22, 1904. 

An electrolytic meter has an anode, a cathode, a recep- 
tacle for the electrodeposited material having a small 
opening at the lower end thereof, a second receptacle 
below the opening and means to indicate the amount of 
electrodeposited material in each of the receptacles. 

808,237. Tachometer. Caryl D. Haskins, Brook- 
line, Mass., assignor to the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed 
March 29, 1900. 

A magnetic speed indicator comprises a field magnet, 
a movable armature and a movable low-resistance part in 
separated parts of the field of force of the magnet, one 
of the movable elements being revoluble and the other 
being oscillatory but biased to a normal position of rest. 

So8,24i. End Connection for Dynamo-electric Ma- 
chines. Frank H. Jeannin, Schenectady, N. Y., 
assignor to the General Electric Company, 
Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed May 25, 
1904. 

In a dynamo-electric machine are conductors slotted at 
their ends, rivets adapted to enter the slots, and end 
for the conductors engaged by the rivets. 



808,258. Method of Making Switch Clips. Walter 
J. Rickey. Schenectady, N. Y.. assignor to the 
"General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Application filed November 2S, 1902. 

The method of making switch clips consists in cutting 
off sections of an I-bar and cutting the web of each 
section transversely and longitudinally in opposite direc- 
tions from the ends of the transverse cut. 

S0S.263. Power - transmitting Mechanism. Elihu 
Thomson. Swampscott. Mass.. assignor to tin- 
General Electric Company, Schenectady. N, Y. 
Application filed November 26, 1902. Renewed 
August 22, 1904. 



E. Cat*. 

mpany, Schenectady, . 

IiI<:<1 June 24, I'/n 

v --.tb the 
ll« and the n. ' 

. -.U'ltr. 

808,273. Apparatus for Exploding Mine I 

- 

-. ..ralu. cn.i.t. of the combination mm. 
!',unl mcchaniimt, eaci. 
number of lets of contacts arranged in at. 
•crie«. of a revoluble contact arm for engaging the 
conlact., a mourcc of energy I DrM of 

the circuit clo.ing mechanism., mean, for connecting 
final get of circuit closer, of the fir.t mechani.ni to 
the circuit-closer, of the second mechanism, and working 
circuits leading outward from both mechanism*, the 
working circuits being also connected to tbe . 

808,277. Electric Bell or Gong. George E. Dunton, 
York, N. Y. Application filed March 15, 

1904. 

Details arc described. 
808,279. Multi-rate Meter. Walter C Fish, Lynn, 
Mass., assignor to the General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed June 
23, 1904. 
A multi rate meter ha? a clock mechanism to effect the 
change from one rate to another. Means are provided 
lor causing the meter to operate at the high rate on fail- 
ure to rewind the mechanism. 

808.350. Apparatus for Purifving and Filtering 
« iter Leon Dion, New York, N. Y., assignor 
to the Americus Electrohermetic Company, 
Wilkcsbarrc, Pa. Application filed Ju: 
1904. 

The combination, with a closed tank or reservoir, corn- 
chambers mounted upon it and connected with 
- "iilating lining arranged within one of 
'.«fc '""»'«'> and made up from independent sections 
nd parts, and a filler arranged within the other of 
_uch chambers. A group of electrodes is arranged 
within the compartment formed by such insulating lining. 
There are means hy which a current of electricity may be 
supplied to these electrodes, means by which water or 
other liquid may be supplied to and the purified portion 
thereof withdrawn from the apparatus, and devices by 
wlnch this flow of water or other liquid to and from 
the apparatus may be controlled. 

808.351. Device for Controlling the Flow of Fluids 
and Other Materials. Leon Dion, Wilkesbarrc. 
Pa., assignor to the Americus Electrohermetic 
Company. Wilkesbarre, Pa. Application filed 
March 25, 1905. 

A device for controlling the flow of fluids and electric 
currents consists of a casing which is provided with a 
number of pairs of co-operating induction and eduction 
ports, a movable member arranged in connection with 
the casing and provided with ports that are adapted 
to be brought one after another into. and. in a reverse 
order,, carried one after another out of operative rela- 
tionship to the ports in the casing as the movable member 
is moved m the required direction, and an electric cir- 
cuit maker and breaker arranged in connection with the 
casing and the movable member, whereby to permit of 
both the flow of the fluid or other material and of the 
electric current through the device and of the interrup- 
tion of the now as may be desired. 

808,364. Electric Switch. William S. Horn-. Ni- 
agara Falls, N. Y. Application filed March 20, 
1905. 

In combination are a main circuit containing an in- 
ductance a shunt circuit containing an electrolytic cell, 
the anode of the cell consisting of a material which 
otters an abnormally high resistance to the flow of cur- 
"vcly open the 



but directly close the 

S.366. Telegraph Transmitter. Beniyman P. Hayes 
and Sigel H. Gill, Topeka, Kan. Application 
filed June 17, 1905. 

In a telegraph transmitter are included a driving 
shaft and a symbol disk, friction brushes on opposite 
sides of the disk and secured to the shaft and a kev 
and key lever for controlling the disk. 

S.371. Protective Shunt for Electric Circuits of 
High Inductance. William S. Horn-. Niagara 
Falls. N. Y. Application filed January 26. 1905. 



808.3S1. Electric Lamp-shade Holder. Theodore H. 
Joseph and James J. Ehrenreich. New York. 
N. Y. Application filed March 8, 1904. 
Details are described. 

808,383. Recording Apparatus for Measured Tele- 
phone Sen-ice. James A. Kenny. Chicago. 111. 
Application filed March 1. 1902. 

A recording apparatus comprises a registering device 
I 'C ited at an outlying station upon which temporary 
records are adapted to be severallv made. An electricallv 
actuated recording device is located at a central station. 



30 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 6, 1906 



and electrical connections between the registering and 
recording devices, which are set in operation solely from 
the central station to transfer all of the temporary rec- 
ords from the outlying register to the recording device 
at the central station. 

8,386. Telephony. Isidor Kitsee, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Application filed October 14, 1905. 

A line of transmission, a series of stations connected- J^g 

to the line in multiple arc. each station provided with a : 

Ukgrapliic transmittinc key, a telegraphic receiver, a 
switching device, a source of current and telephonic 
transmitting and receiving device?, the source of current 
of the different stations connected normally in opposition 
as to each other, and means whereby, through the switch- 
ing device, the source of current of the station calling 



ranged one above tthe other, a set of circuit closers 
mounted on the lower arms, each arranged to have the 
thread pass through it from below to a point above 
and to operate by a break in the yarn, and a second set 
of circuit-closers mounted on the upper arms and ar- 

anged to hold a loop of the yarn coming from the 



on the 









by 






of 



of the 



808,392. Electric Switch. William W. Lathrop, 
Bridgeport, Conn. Application filed August 31, 
1904. 

Mechanical features are described. 



,25. Electric Water Heater. James P. Erie, 
Los Angeles, Cal., assignor to Benjamin Stern. 
Application filed September 8, 1898. 

A casing having inlet and outlet water pipes, a tor- 
tuous water pipe comprising duplicate sections having a 
connecting chamber between the adjacent ends of the 
sections and extending through the casing, one section 
connecting the inlet and another the outlet pipes, a sec- 
tional water heater within the casing, the sections of the 
heater being connected and arranged intermediate the 
adjacent walls of the waterpipe, ana means for directing 
37i electric current through the heater, are the features. 

,532. Induction Meter. Alphonse J. Frager, 
Paris, France, assignor to Compagnie pour la 
Fabrication des Compteurs and Materiel d'Usines 
a Gaz, Paris, France. Application filed October 
3i. 1903- 

The combination with an alternating-current circuit 
suring the true energy therein, 
comprising a coil connected in shunt, and a coil con- 
nected in series with the circuit having a secondary 
coil in inductive relation therewith and co-operating to 
produce a number of dephased fluxes, and a rotating 
member arranged within the influence of the shunt and 
;. (See cut.) 

,545 Electric Railway System. William G. Kee- 
ler, Philadelphia, Pa. Application filed June 
June 16, 1905. 

electric-railway t system are a series of contacts 
equal distance apart, the 



and a dissymmetric inductor rotor having such form that 
the waves of the alternating current generated, which 
have a magnetizing effect on the permanent magnet field,* 



3,562. Electric W r ater Meter. Richard H. Milton! 
Reidsville, N. C. Application filed February 
14, 1905. 

A water meter comprising an electrically operated- 
register located at a distance from the water taker is < 
combined with circuit wires, an electric generator, a 
circuit closer and a hydraulic moving device for the J 
circuit closer consisting of a casing with an enlarged 
end arranged in the water-supply pipe of the water 
taker and a longitudinally moving rod with differential 
rranged in the case and operated automatically 



through the 



I'V 




8,571. Electric Signaling System. Charles G. I 
Otwell and Ira H. Melvin, Laurel, Del. Ap- 
plication filed February 24, 1905. 
In the system are track rails arranged in blocks, a 
conductor rail separate from the track rails, a switch, 
the terminals of which are electrically connected with 
track rails composing a block, an electricallv operated 
device in series with the switch, a telephone and a" circuit 
controller in series with each other and electrically con- 
nected with the conductor rail and one of the track rails 
composing the block, and a movable mounted member 
arranged for operation by the electricallv operated de- 
vice, the two constituting an index or indicator. 

8,589. Trolley Finder. James Wilhelm, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Application filed June 20, 1905. 

Two bars are arranged one on each side and pivoted 
intermediate of their ends upon the same pivot as the 
trolley wheel, the lower portion of the bars being heavier 
than the upper portion, so that the tendency of the bars 






NO. 808,085. — GLOW LAMP. 



8,416. Electric Stop-motion Mechanism for Looms. 
Joseph B. Whitney, Brooklyn, N. Y. Applica- 
tion filed February 28, 1905. 
In a loom are combined means for maintaining a lease 
in the warp, an electric circuit and circuit-closing 
having the moving part thereof projecting intt 
transversely of the space occupied by the lease. 

'8,417. Electric Stop-motion Mechanism for Looms. 
Joseph B. Whitney, Brooklyn, N. Y. Applica- 
tion filed February 28, 1905. 

A faller for stop-motion mechanisms for textile ma- 
chinery having a thread aperture formed therein, the 
aperture having its surface at one side thereof and in 
the thread-line inclined to one face of the faller where 
it proxiraates the latter. 

18,418. Electric Stop-motion Mechanism for 
Looms. Joseph B. Whitney, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Application filed February 28, 1905. 
In an electric stop-motion mechanism for textile ma- 
chinery are two sets of terminals representing different 
poles in the circuit, the terminals being taut attenuated 
devices, circuit-closers movable to bridge terminals of 
both sets, and detached means, interposed between the 
sets of terminals, intermediate their ends, for maintain- 
ing the terminals of one set in fixed relation to those 
of the other. 

18,438. Telephony. Albert G. Davis, Washington, 
D. C. Application filed April 22, 1897. 
A multiplex telephone system includes a number _ of 
sources of alternating current of different frequencies, 
a number of tuned circuits, including capacity and in- 
ductance, the inductance of each circuit being provided 
by a variable-inductance transmitter, and a number of re- 
ceiving circuits each adapted to respond to its own trans- 

)8,45i. Signaling System. Maynard W. Hamblin. 
New York, N. Y., assignor to the American 
District Telegraph Company, New York, N. Y. 
Application filed May 31, I9°4- 

The combination with a normally closed circuit com- 
prises metallic outgoing and return lines and a number 
of signaling devices having contact mechanism for con- 
trolling the circuit and also for connecting it to ground, 
and means for supplving current. There are a number 
of signal-receiving devices and a switch comprising a 
single operating device and contact members operated 
thereby, the switch interposed between one of the lines, 
and means for supplving current and adapted when op- 
erated to produce separate ground return circuits inde- 
pendently connected to means for supplying current. 

>8,454. Telephone Attachment. Paul Kammerer, 
Pittsburg, Pa. Application filed February 24, 
1905. 

Combined are a standard having a substantially in- 
verted U-shaped bracket at its lower end adapted to be 
clamped to a part of a telephone, a casing adapted to 
close a registerinc mechanism and having exterior lugs 
red to the standard and provided with interior lugs 



MAGNETIC CLUTCHES. 




NO. 808.263. — pow 



endless metallic cable or belt arranged underneath each 
car and passing over pulleys journaled at each end of 
the car, the lower run of the cable or belt adapted to lie 
upon the contacts by its own weight and remain station- 
ary with the contacts as the car travels forward, and a 



guide for the cable. 

8oS,55i. Ignition Device. Leon J. Le Pontois, New 
Rochelle, N. Y., assignor to the Polyphase Ig- 
nition System Company of New York. Appli- 
cation filed November 7, 1903. 

A sparking system comprises two or more insulated 
electrodes located in the ignition chamber of an internal- 
combustion engin:, ground connections for the electrodes 
and means to simultaneously disconnect the electrodes 
from their ground connections so that the respective 
circuits of a polyphase-current generator leading to the 
electrodes may be simultaneously interrupted. 

808.552. Magneto Alternator. Leon J. Le Pontois, 
New Rochelle, N. Y., assignor to the Polyphase 
Ignition System Company of New York. Ap- 
plication filed September 24, 1904. 

A polyphase alternator comprises a rotor consisting 
of a permanent magnet having a number of separately 
magnetized steel laminae substantially annular in shape 
and so magnetized that two consequent poles are formed 
at opposite ends of the same diameter. 

805. 553. Method of Igniting Combustible Mixtures. 
Leon J. Le Pontois, New Rochelle, N. Y., as- 
signor to the Polyphase Ignition System Com- 
pany of New York. Application filed Septem- 
ber 24, 1904. 

The method of producing sparks suitable for igniting 
combustible mixtures consisting in continuously convert- 
ing two alternating currents differing in phase from 
each other by 90 degrees, into interrupted alternating 
currents having at all times a sufficient intensity to ig- 
nite a combustible mixture by short-circuiting one of 
the currents near the period of its minimum intensity 
and simultaneously rapidly interrupting the other of the 
currents at or near the period of its maximum intensity. 

508.554. Apparatus for Generating and Utilizing 
Polyphase Alternating Currents for the Igni- 
tion of Explosive Mixtures. Leon J. Le Pon- 
tois, New Rochelle, N. Y., assignor to the Poly- 
phase Ignition System Company of New York. 
Application filed October 7, 1904. 

A system for igniting combustible mixtures in inter- 
nal-combustion engines comprises a polyphase alternating- 
current generator having its rotor driven at a speed pro 
portional to that of the 
varying the 



808,532. — INDUCTION METER 



8,594. Apparatus for the Transmission of Energy 
Through Space. Alessandro Artom, Turin, 
Italy. Application filed February 20, 1905. 

In an apparatus for transmitting electrical energy_ the 
combination with a suitable main electric circuit, a 
source of electric current and a circuit-breaker therein 
consists of a discharge circuit in inductive relation to 
the main circuit, discharge conductors therein and a 
branch circuit therefrom. Means are provided in the 
branch circuit to throw the current therein out of phase 
with that in the discharge circuit, and grounded aerials 
are in inductive relation to the branch circuit. 

8,6oo. Telephony. Albert G. Davis, Schenectady, 
N. Y. Original application filed April 22, 1897. 
Divided and this application filed May 15, 1903. 

Creating a telephonic current is accomplished by im- 
pressing an alternating electromotive force on a circuit 
and varying the reactance of the circuit around a point 
near but not at the resonance point in substantial ac- 
cordance with the sound to be transmitted. 

8,602. Desk Bracket. Alan R. Fergusson, New 
York, N. Y., assignor to the Warren Ball Bear- 
ing Fixture Company, New York, N. Y. Ap- 
plication filed March 3, 1903. Renewed No- 
vember 15, 1905. 

Mechanical features of a bracket for adjusting the 
position of electric lamps are described. 



PATENTS THAT HAVE EXPIRED. 

Following is a list of electrical patents (issued 
by the United States Patent Office) that expired 
on January 1, 1906. 

395.315- Electric Signaling Apparatus. Tohn P. Coleman, 

Swissvale, Pa. 
395.317- Sign for Electric Lights. Edward A. Dubey, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
395,421. Safety Device for Use in Electric Circuits. 

Arthur C. Cockburn, London. England. 
395.442. Conduit Electric Railway. Byron Jennings, San 



Jo 



Cal. 



the 



____ shaft, 

. f operation of the sparking device 

connect electrically the device to the 

f generation of either of the 



nding through 



to which the registering mechanis 

lever for actuating the mechanir- 
slot in the wall of the casing. 

>8,475. Electric Stop-motion for Knitting Ma- 
chines. Arthur L. Patterson, Albemarle. N. C. 
Application filed February 10, 1905. 



808,555. Self-exciting Alternator. Leon J. Le 
Pointois, New Rochelle, N. Y., assignor to Poly- 
phase Ignition System Company of New York. 
Application filed February 3, 1905. 

A partially self-exciting alternator of the inductor type 
comprises a permanent magnet field, polar projections 
adjacent to the magnetic poles developed by the field, 
stationary windings surrounding the polar projections, 



395,546. Electric Cable. William A. Conner, Pittsburg, Pa. 
395,375- Electromagnetic Rock Drill. Harry N. Marvin, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
395. 5S4. Conduit for Electric Wires or Cables. Edward 

H. Phiops, New Haven, Conn. 
19 ^,609. Electrical Switch. Paul H. Brangs, Newark, 

N. J. 
395,613. Electroharmonic Telegraphv. Mark W. Dewev, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
^95,622. Dvnamo-electric Machine. Tohn F. Kcllev, New 

York, N. Y. 
395.667. Electric-railway Signal. Daniel S. Smith, Poca- 

tello, Idaho. 
395.377- 395-3 ?S. 395>379- Secondary Battery Charging. 

Charles F. Brush, Cleveland, O. 
395,427. Automatic Telegraphy. Patrick B. Delany, New 

York, N. Y. 
395,4/6- Speaking Telephone. Francis Blake, Weston, 

195o°S, io;.^oq. ^oi.ii". Multiplex Telegraphy. Francis 

J. Patten; New York, N. Y. 
395.532. Automatic Safety Cut-out for Electric Circuits. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



EVERY SATURDAY 



Vol. XXXVIII. 



CHICAG( ). JANUARY 13, 1906 






Three-conductor Direct-current Rail- 
way In Bohemia. 
By C. Smith, 

,\n interesting direi 1 currenl 1 li cti ii railway 
which possesses some feature which arc radically 

l,ti Mm from \mcrii an prai tii - ha rei entlj I 

m tailed between Tabor and Bo bin, in Bohi mia, 

by the well known electrical 

establishment of F. Krizik of 

Prag Karolini nthal. The line 

is 24.24 kilometers in length 

:iikI has five stations, those of 

Tabor, Slapy, Malsice, Sudo- 

mcrige and Bechin. The road 

i , fairly level, (he steepcsl 

grade being 3.5 per cenl , and 

Inn one river, the Luschnitz, 

is crossed, being spanned by 

a bridge 174 meters in length. 

Steel rails weighing 21.75 
kilograms per meter are laid on 
pine ties one meter apart. 'I he- 
trains consist of two or three 
motor cars which travel at from 
15 kilometers per hour on the 
steepest grades to 30 kilome- 
ters per hour on the level. 

The power-generating sta- 
tion, which is seen in the ac- 
companying illustration, Fig. 1, 
is located near Tabor, on the 
Luschnitz River at one end 
of the line, and generates di- 
rect current at 1,400 volts 
pressure, also supplying the 
city of Tabor with light and 
electric power. The station 
contains three Tischbein boil- 
ers of 80 square meters heat- 
ing surface, constructed for a 
pressure of II atmospheres, 
superheaters being provided 
for raising the temperature of 
the steam to 300° C. 

Three steam engines are the 
prime movers in this station, 
and they are of the compound 
condensing type, developing 
120 horsepower each. They are 
connected by belting to direct- 
current generators, as seen in 
Fig. 3, which shows the inte- 
rior of the power house. Two 
of the engines run at 180 rev- 
olutions per minute, while the 
third, which, together with the 
storage battery, is able to op- 
erate two 50-ton trains, has a 
speed of 220 revolutions per 
minute. Two belt-driven boost- 
ers have also been installed, 
as well as other sets to be used 
in case of emergency. 

The storage battery consists 
of 700 Tudor elements, having 
a capacity of 123 ampere-hours 
at a discharge rate of one 
hour, and 171 ampere-hours 
at a discharge rate of three 
hours. 

A three-wire system has been 
installed, with 700 volts on 
each side, and the rails as a 
neutral. In this respect the 
system is unique, and it po- 
sesses some advantages. With 
this system, under no circum- 
stances can a motor receive 
more than 700 volts, this being 
an important advantage over 

a straight line. Two bow collectors are used for 
taking the current, and this is said to be a great 
advantage, especially in winter, when the rails are 
covered with sleet. The two overhead conductors 
consist of copper wire, eight millimeters in diam- 
eter, placed 5.5 meters above the rails and 1.2 
meters apart. Fig 2 is an illustration showing a 
car with bow trolleys, and the line construction. 



1 !ai ii 1: cl four quadri- 

polar mot 

1 nli' 1 'i .'• in parallel, and 1 

peed "i " i' -!n':'.'! pi 1 minute, with 
j I'he gcai 75, and 

I 91 I) 

Ill aril 

1 he cai . '.< hii h an 




Power House on Luschnitz River near Tabor. 
Showing Bow Trolleys and Overhead Constructs 
: Generators in Power House. 



:hree-condlctor DIRECT-CURRENT RAILWAY IN BOHEMIA. 

divided into two compartments of the second and 
third class, and bold in all 40 passengers. The 
general outlines are well shown in Fig. 2. 

This novel system has been in operation since 
June and has given excellent satisfaction. It is 
stated that F. Krizik proposes to install a new 
and similar line operating at a pressure of 3,000 
volts and utilizing Sco-horsepower motor cars. 



Electric Light and Power Service In 
Chicago and Vicinity. 

[hi and power 

Shore 
■nent». 

central portion 

Surrounding tie 
extending to the cirj 

•1th company 
the field, and in the 

territory forming a 
around the city and • 
ing into many of the 
the North Shore company di-- 
tributcs its light and p 

Eleven years ago the Chi- 
cago Edison Company had 
connected a light and power 
load equivalent to 23K 
candlepower lamps. On March 
3Ii 1005. its light and power 
output was equivalent to 1.475.- 
699 16-candlcpowcr lamps. In 
the last four years the busi- 
ness of the company has al- 
most doubled. During the 
year just closed the company 
has added to its list of cus- 
tomers several of the large 
State Street department stores. 
Sub-stations have been in- 
stalled in several new build- 
ings and one was built in 
Plymouth Place. The plant 
represented an investment on 
March 31, 1905, of $18,532,- 
753 

The Commonwealth Electric 
Company has developed, and 
is still adding to, one of the 
most interesting central-sta- 
tion plants in the world. The 
Fisk Street station of this 
company, with its large steam 
turbines, and contemplated ul- 
timate capacity of 156,000 kilo- 
watts, was illustrated and de- 
scribed in detail in the West- 
ern Electrician of last week. 
The connected business of this 
company on March 31, 1905, 
was the equivalent of 727.075 
16-candlepower lamps. Among 
the notable additions to the 
company's service in 1005 may 
be mentioned its contract with 
the Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany to supply current for 
operating cars. This, with 
s i m i 1 a r service for other 
s t r e e t-railway and elevated 
lines, makes a demand up- 
on the company for 20.000 
horsepower. 

The North Shore Electric 
Company in 1002 began a light 
and power service for the 
towns along the North Shore 
of Lake Michigan, acquir- 
ing the lighting plants at 
Waukegan and Highland Park. 
Its territory- now extends clear 
around Chicago to the south. 
More than thirty cities and villages are served 
by the company. A number of independent 
and municipal plants have been bought by the 
company, and in 1905 it acquired the Calumet 
Lighting Company, which served towns south and 
southwest of the city." including Chicago Heights 
and Harvey. The business of the North Shore 
company has been largely lighting, but arrange- 



3^ 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 13. 1906 



merits are being made for an extensive power 
business. A power house in course of construc- 
tion in the Blue Island district will furnish the 
current for the Chicago and Southern Traction 
Company and also to factories in the district. 
Stations are also being constructed at May wood 
and Waukegan, with transmission lines to sub- 
stations intervening. 



Single-phase Locomotives for Sarnia 
Tunnel. 

After about two years' study and investigation 
of the problem, the Grand Trunk Railway Com- 
pany has awarded the contract for the electrification 
of the Sarnia tunnel, and, on the recommendation 
of its consulting and supervising electrical engineer, 
Mr. Bion J. Arnold, has chosen the single-phase 



end of the tunnel, and the total distance to be 
electrically equipped is 19,348 feet from terminal 
to terminal. The accompanying drawing is a gen- 
eral map and profile. Specially designed steam 
locomotives have been used to haul both freight 
and passenger trains through the tunnel, freight 
trains being usually divided. 

The new electric power house will be placed on 
the surface of the ground on the American bank 
of the river, over the tunnel, to which cables will 
run down a shaft. The locomotive load will be 
variable, requiring 1,200 kilowatts during the seven 
or eight minutes required to pull the train up 
grade and practically nothing during the remaining 
six or seven minutes of the proposed 15-minute 
run. There will also be a lighting load and a 
pumping load, so that the maximum load will be 
something like 2,oco kilowatts, for which three 



through the tunnel by the electrical equipment 
other than that imposed by the limited mechanical 
strength of the coupling from car to car. 

These locomotives are of the rigid-frame type, 
with driving axle boxes and draft gear mounted 
on the same frame. Each unit will have three 
pairs of 62-inch driving wheels with a motor on 
each axle connected with a gear reduction of 18 
to 95. It will weigh approximately 62 tons, all 
of which is on the driving wheels. Equalizer 
beams similar to those used in standard steam- 
locomotive practice will distribute the weight among 
the six drivers. The frames will be made of cast- 
steel and will be placed outside the wheels. The 
locomotives will be equipped with the Westinghouse 
friction draft gear. 

The power equipment of each unit comprises 
three 250-horsepower single-phase series-wound mo- 




locomotive system, placing the order for the whole 
equipment with the Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company. Mr. Arnold was retained 
by the railroad company in April of last year. His 
first impression was in favor of direct current for 
the tunnel equipment, but, after a thorough analy- 
sis, he decided that the single-phase motor would 
meet the conditions encountered in this installation 
better than the direct-current motor, owing to the 
elimination of the third rail from the extensive 
yards at each end of the tunnel, the better speed 
characteristics and more uniform drawbar pull of 
the single-phase motor, and the probable saving in 
first cost and operating expenses. 

Mr. E. H. Fitzhugh of Montreal, third vice- 
president of the Grand Trunk, handled the matter 
for the railroad company, and received the various 
proposals which were submitted. Mr. Frank H. 
Shepard was active in the matter on behalf of the 
Westinghouse interests. 

The Sarnia or St. Clair tunnel of the Grand 
Trunk railroad extends between Port Huron, Mich., 
and Sarnia, Ont, under the St. Clair River, con- 
necting the Canadian and American portions of 
the railroad. The tunnel proper is 6,032 feet long, 
1,718 feet of which is under the river, with two 
per cent, grades on each side. It is of iron, cir- 
cular in shape, with space for a single track. As 
has been said, there are extensive yards at each 



8co-kilowatt/ 3,300-volt three-phase 25-cycle turbo- 
generators will be installed. The contract also 
provides for the power station itself and the boil- 
ers, stokers, coal and ash-handling machinery, feed 
pumps, feed-water heaters, condensers, water sup- 
ply, fire protection and heating systems, piping, 
electric crane, engine-driven exciting- unit, motor- 
driven exciting unit, switchboard, feeder and dis- 
tributing system, bridge and pole lines for catenary 
trolley construction, overhead work, bonding, trans- 
formers for power and light, light and power dis- 
tributing systems, lightning protective apparatus, 
arc and incandescent lamps, roundhouse motors, 
motor-driven pumps, drainage and sewer systems 
for buildings and yards and electric locomo- 
tives. 

Interest centers in the locomotives, which are to 
be equipped with the series-wound single-phase 
motors developed by the Westinghouse company. 
There are to be six single or three double loco- 
motive units, designed to meet the requirements 
of the tunnel service of the Grand Trunk Railway, 
Each single unit will exert a drawbar pull of 
25,000 pounds on a two per cent, grade at a speed 
of 10 miles an hour. The locomotives may be op- 
erated from either end, and two or more may 
be coupled together and controlled in multiple 
from a single unit, so that there is practically no 
limit to the size of train which may be taken 



tors of the same general type as those recently 
adopted by the New York, New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad for its terminal operations in New 
York. Pneumatically operated trolleys of the pan- 
tagraph type will collect the current from the over- 
head-trolley line outside the tunnel. In the tunnel 
itself side contacts will probably be used. 

Alternating current at 25 cycles and 3,000 to 
3,300 volts will be delivered to the locomotives. 
Outside the tunnel the current will be fed through 
a No. 0000 grooved trolley wire and trolley to 
the locomotive equipment. The trolley wire will 
be hung by a catenary suspension from steel towers 
which span the track, or from bracket arms mounted 
on lattice-work poles of steel. 

Tunnel operations are conspicuous fields for the 
electrical propulsion of heavy trains, avoiding the 
smoke and gases of steam locomotives, and the ap- 
plication of the single-phase alternating-current sys- 
tem to the St. Clair problem provides a most 
effective solution of the difficulties encountered. 
By its adoption the tunnel companj' is enabled to 
utilize the safe and simple catenary line construc- 
tion rather than the third rail, to eliminate elec- 
trolytic troubles and to secure a close and efficient 
speed control, with economical starting and rapid 
acceleration. It is expected that the electric loco- 
motives will greatly relieve the present congestion 
at the terminal yards. 



January 13, 1906 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



M 



Northwestern Electrical Convention. 

'I in' 1 onvi ni 1. .11 of the N01 
Association will bi hi Id in 1 G 
I [otel mi January 171I1 and t8th, and I ' 

the 1H1I1 ha 1 bci n 1 1 a ide b 1 1 an 1 

ill.- Elei 11 H 'I radcs E po il ion a ; toi th 

I'.lll ll il III \ III Mill, II I III , 

An unusually promising literary programn 

in 1 1 ipared for the 1 onvi ntion and im ludi 

following papers : " 1 he Propi 1 1 Candling ol I on 
Burners' Meters," by George 1 1 Bai rett ; 

1 ndi 1 [round I ' 11 lion," by V. 1 1. Bufoi '1 . 

"Suggestions fur Increasing the Power Output of 
1 mi ■ Stations," by P. 1 1. Korsl ; "Govei nrm nl 
Tests of Fuel," by C. J David on; "The Organiza 
li.m .-uiil I levclopmenl of Ni w Bu ine Deparl 
ments," by George Williams; "Successful Applies 
tions of New Business Methods," by John 
Allen; "The Economics of Combined Railwaj and 
Power Plants," liy I''.. ( iun/riiliarli ; "111. 
of Load Factor on Station Costs," by R. N 
ball. 

On the night of the 1N1I1 the delegates of the 
Northwestern association will vi^ii the Electrical 
Show in a body, after which a banquet will be 
Riven. The president of the association is E. II. 
Williams of Lacrosse, Wis., and Thomas R Mer 
cein is the secretary and treasurer. 



The Chicago Electrical Show. 

trical 1 1 

', Samuel li 
1 lharli E. G nd Ell worth B 

1 



Generous Contributions to Engineering 
Building Fund. 

In view of the importance and utility of the 
United Engineering Building, as a home and cen- 
ter for the engineering professions and arts, the 
General Electric Company has made a contribution 
of $25,000 to the land and building fund of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Presi- 
dent C. A. Coffin, who takes a warm personal in- 
terest in the matter, lias also sent his own check 
for $5,000. The committee, which has already re- 
ceived gifts and pledges amounting to nearly 
$70,000, is greatly encouraged by this generous 
support of its work. The fund is now, with other 
new contributions, well over $100,000, and with 
renewed energy tbe committee has begun its can- 
vass of the field, with the object of securing the 
second necessary $100,000. About 600 members 
have already subscribed to the fund, and the com- 
mittee expects to have no difficulty in at least 
doubling this number. It has just issued to the 
whole membership a handsome pamphlet, illustrating 
and describing the new building in course of erec- 
tion in New York city, and detailing the steps 
that have been taken by the associated engineering 
bodies to give effect to Mr. Carnegie's original gift. 




American Electrical Salesmen's Con- 
vention. 

The first regular meeting of the American Elec- 
trical Salesmen's Association will be held in the 
Grand Pacific Hotel January 20th. The president 
of the new association is Vincent Gray and the 
secretary is R. A. Cavanaugh, Masonic Temple, 
Chicago. A comprehensive programme has been 
prepared, including the following papers and ad- 
dresses : "Our Purpose," by President Gray ; 
"Illustrated Address," by J. Robert Crouse; "Mod- 
ern American Meter Practice," by R. C. Lamphier ; 



POSTER FOR THE CHICAGO ELECTRICAL SHOW. 

Spalding; general manager, Thomas R. Mercein. 
The directors are Mr. Insull, Mr. Overshiner, Mr. 
Spalding, Mr. Gregory. T. P. Gaylord, James Wolff, 
A. L. Waterbury, H. B. McMeal. C. E. Mitchell, 
Homer E. Niesz, G. H. Atkin, G. Edward Kohler 
and George B. Foster. 

The exposition company has issued a handsome 
poster advertising the show, which by its appro- 
priate design and pleasing colors is attracting no 
little attention. The poster was designed by Mr. 
Edward A. Wilson, a student at the Art institute 
in Chicago, and not unknown to the electrical 
fraternity. One of the accompanying illustrations 



world) alio used at the St Lo 

tbe Lite building there mill 

. 

.nd all of II - 

i the electrical show. Purdue, Mini 

to nuke exhibits, and 
Purdue will tend a bun- 
students to Chicago 

uy of Illinois will tend the 

Class of the department of electrical engi- 
neering to Chicago at the time of the exj. 
Each '/i the paces allotted to ti.'.- univei ncs will 

rated in the college colors, and will be made 

uig headquarters for tbe alumni 
institutions. 
On the opening night the leading men in the 
electrical field will be present by invitation, and 
the show will at the same time be formally opened 
to the public. It has been definitely settled that 
President Roosevelt will send his greetings in a 
wireless telegram on the opening night of the 
show. Dr. Ue Forest of the be Forest \. 
1 elegraph Company of America arrived in Chicago 
from Washington a few days ago, where he had 
made complete arrangements for the flashing oi 
the message to the Coliseum. 

The man or woman who wishes to keep in- 
formed on the subject of electricity in the house- 
hold will find much of interest in this department 
of the exhibition. Complete kitchen equipments, 
including every variety of electrically heated utensil 
from a teakettle to a griddle, will be shown. The 
Chicago Edison Company and the Simplex Electric 
Heating Company will exhibit complete cooking 
outfits, with which demonstrations will be made 
for the benefit of the public. The Simplex com- 
pany will do much of the cooking for the res- 
taurant, as well as the larger part of the laundry 
work for this department The household devices 
also cover a great number of novelties, ranging 
from sad irons, milk warmers and curling irons to 
electric heating pads, which are used in place of 
hot-water bags. In contrast to these heating de- 
vices may be mentioned the small ice-making plants 
which are operated by electric motors. They are 
suitable for small stores which carry perishable 
goods. Medical appliances will be shown, such as 
vibrators and the like. 




E. B. Overshiner, 
Vice-president, 

THREE OF THE 




Thomas R. Mercein. 
General Manager. 
HUSTLERS" FOR THE ELECT 



also five-minute addresses by members present on 
salesmanship. 

Two questions of importance will be discussed at 
the meeting — as to whether the association shall 
publish an official paper of its own, and as to what 
shall be done toward establishing headquarters for 
the association. 

Delegates to the convention will take the oppor- 
tunity presented by this gathering to visit the Elec- 
trical Show, and on the evening of the 20th they 
will meet at the Coliseum, where the ladies' tea- 
room will be placed at their disposal. 



is a reproduction of the poster, the picture, how- 
ever, lacking the delicate tints, which is one of the 
striking features of the original. 

The electrical show promises to be a success, and 
the various attractions offered by the management, 
such as excellent music, together with the inter- 
esting nature of the exhibits themselves, will no 
doubt prove enjoyable and instructive not only to 
those directly interested in electrical things, but 
to the general public as well. 

One of the unique exhibits will be the electric 
clock, nearly eight feet in height, and made of 15,000 



The Chicago Edison Company will print a daily 
edition of The Electric City in the building 
throughout the exposition. 

Among the most interesting of the many demon- 
strations to be made will be the "stunts" that 
G. H. Thordarson of Chicago will produce with 
600,000 volts of electricity, producing an electric 
spark nearly 10 feet long. For these experiments 
Mr. Thordarson has had specially made a sheet 
of plate glass weighing 700 pounds. 

During the two weeks of the Electrical Show 
there will be three conventions in Chicago of 



34 



associations in the electrical field. These are the 
Northwestern Electrical Association, January 17th 
and 18th; the American Electrical Salesmen's As- 
sociation, January 20th, and the Allied Electrical 
Trades Association. 

Wednesday, January 17th, will be known as 
"Benjamin Franklin Day" and some special elec- 
• trical feature is contemplated for that occasion, 
although definite arrangements have not yet been 
made. On that day bronze medallions will be dis- 
tributed as souvenirs of the occasion. 

January 22d, 23d and 24th will be of more spe- 
. cial interest to telephone men, and a day will 
also be set aside for the different colleges, many 
of which will send delegations to the show. 

Weil's band of St. Louis will give afternoon 
and evening conceits. It has never before been 
heard in Chicago, although many will remember it 
as one of the bands at the St. Louis Exposition. 

The accompanying plan shows the arrangement 
of the exhibit spaces on the main floor of the 
Coliseum, and the list of exhibits indicates the 
location of each by section letter and number. 

Ackerman & Eoland Company, C 3. 
Acorn Reflector Company, E 23. 
Ailams-Bagnall Electric Company, A 4. 
Allis-Chalmers Company, D 5, 6. 
American Circular Loom Company, F 6. 
American Conduit Company, I 3. 

Electric Fuse Company, J 1. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



Gorman & Co., Sam J., C 16. 

Grier, Thomas G., J s. 

Guarantee Electric Company, A 11. 

Iialler Machine Company, J. 6. 

llnlcombe & Co., D 16. 

India Rubber and Gutta Pcrcha Insulating Company, C 7. 

Indiana Rubber and Insulated Wire Company, E 16, 8. 

Krantz Manufacturing Company, F 3. 

Lang Electric Company, J., A 6. 

Larsen-Bakcr Ice Machine Cuinpany, F zz. 

Lincoln Electric Manufacturing Company, E 15. 

Manhattan Electric Supply Company, C 15. 

Mark Manufacturing Company, F 8. 

Metropolitan Electric Supply Company, C 3. 

Miller Anchor Company, H 5. 

Monarch Electric and Wire Company, C 24. 

McRoy Clay Works, C 4. 

McFell Electric Company, C 5. 

National Carbon Company, C 14. 

National Wire Corporation Company, D 22. 

New York and Ohio Company, E 16, 8. 

New York Insulated Wire Company, T 4. 

Niagara Tachometer and Instrument Company, J 5. 

North Shore Electric Company, F 11. 

Nungesser Electric Battery Company, J 5. 



Overbagh & Aye: 

Packard Electric Company, E 16, 8. 

Paiste Compuany, H. T., J 4. 

Peabody Coal Company, C 22. 

Peru Electric Manufacturing Company, J 3. 

Peterson Mfg. Co., H., A 9. 

Phillips Insulated Wire Company, E 16, 8. 

Phoenix Glass Company, E 23. 

Porter & Berg, A 4. 

Purdue University, G I. 

Reynolds Dull Flasher Company, J 6, 7. 

Reynolds Electric Flasher Manufacturing Company, E 23. 

Rock Island Battery Company, B 2. 

Roeblings Sons Company, John A., B 4. 

Roth Bros. & Co., D 24. 



it- 



January 13, 1906 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

In the Western Electrician last week a synopsis 
was given of the proceedings of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 
New Orleans. The concluding sessions were held 
on January 1st, 2d, 3d and 4th, and the importance 
of the meeting grew on each succeeding day. 

Delegates to the convention enjoyed themselves 
in various ways, on Sunday, the 31st, taking ad- 
vantage of the many pleasure trips which may be 
enjoyed in the vicinity of New Orleans during 
this season of the year. 

One of the interesting papers read before the 
engineering section on Monday was by Prof. F. W. 
McNair, vice-president of the section and head 
of the Michigan College of Mines at Houghton. 
He described some experiments performed in a 
deep mine shaft to prove the theory of the diurnal 
rotation of the earth. 

On Monday evening, at the general session, the 
officers for the ensuing year were chosen, and the 
following-named gentlemen were honored by elec- 
tion to office: 

President, Dr. William H. Welch of Johns- 
Hopkins; vice-presidents, mathematics and astron- 
omy, Edward Kasner, Columbia, physics, W. S. 
Sabine, Harvard, chemistry, Clifford Richardson, 
New York city, mechanical science and engineer- 
ing, W. R. Warner, Cleveland geology and geogra- 
phy, A. C. Lane, Lansing, zoology, E. G. Conklin, 

-h- 








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T SP.V.ES R)l< KLKCTKH'AI. SHuW. 



Electrical Novelty Company, E u. 
American Electric Sign Company, I o. 
American Electric Supply Company, G 7. 
American Steel and Wire Company, D 17 and : 
American Telephone Journal, B 8. 
Ansonia Electrical Company, E 16, 8. 
Armour Institute, G 4, 5. 
Arthur, Adam, I 6. 
Austin & Co., M. B., D 22. 
Automatic Electric Company, C 20. 
Belden MaufacUiriim Company, E 21. 
Benedict & Burnham, D 22. 

Benjamin Electric Manufacturing Company, J 1 
Bennett, I. A., E 7. 
Bryan-Marsh Company, C 23. 
Camp Company, H. B., E 24. 
Central Electric Company, D 9. 
Central Electric Manufacturing Company, C 6. 
Chicago Battery Company, B 3. 
Chicago Compound Battery Company, I 00. 
Chicago Edison Company, F 1, s, 3, 4, 9. 
Chicago Lamp and Reflector Company, F 24. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, F 10. 
Chicago Solder Company, H 4. 
Chicago Telephone Company, D 11, 19. 
Colonial Electric Company, C 24. 
Conover, G. W., & Co., B 2. 
Cook, Frank B., E 4. 
Crane Company, D 1. 

Crescent Insulated Wire Company, C 24. 
Crockett Company, William P., A 3. 
Crocker-Wlicckr < 'ompany, C 21. 
De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company, D 2. 
Edwards Headlight Company, A 1. 
Electric Appliance Company, E 8, 16. 
Electric Clock Company, H 4. 
Electro-Dynamic Company, F 5. 
Electric Storage Battery Company, D 21. 
En gince ring World, I 1. 
Federal Electric Company, F 12, 
Fort Wayne Electric Works, C 13. 
Freed, A. L., _C 4. 

General Electric Company, F 17, 18, 19, 20, A 2 
General Incandescent Lamp Company, D 22. 
General Storage Battery Company, C 8. 



Safety Armorite Company, Jj 22. 

Safety Insulated Wire Company, D 22. 

Sangamo Electric Company, E 16, 8. 

Selk-iilel Company, W., B 5. 

Schott, W. H., A 7, 8. 

Schurcman Company, T. L., B 1. 

Simplex Electric Heating Company, F 21. 

Sound Waves, B 9. 

Stanley G.-I. Electric Manufacturing Company, F 16. 

Stromberg- Carlson Telephone Manufacturing Co., E 13, 5. 

Swedish-American Telephone Company, E 12. 

Sturtevant Company, B. F., C 1. 

Telephony Publishing Company, B 6. 

Thomas-Betts Company, D 22. 

Thorardson, G. H., I 4, 5. 

Universal Electric Storage Battery Company, D 13. 

University of Colorado, G 2. 

University of Illinois, G 3. 

University of Wisconsin, G 6, 7. 

Vesta Accumulator Company, A 10. 

Western Electric Company, D 12, 20. 

Western Electrician, B 7. 

Western Union Telegraph Company, H 3. 

Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., D 3, 4. 

Whitney Electrical Instrument Company," E 16, 8. 



Chicago Gas Inquiry. 

Alexander C. Humphreys, president of Stevens 
Institute of Technology, Hoboken, r^ - . J., said be- 
fore the investigating committee that it would not 
be practicable to sell gas at 75 cents in Chicago. 
The company that undertakes it, he said, would be 
bankrupt in a short time. Mr. Humphreys is a 
member of the firm of Humphreys & Glasgow, 
manufacturers of gas-making apparatus. In his 
opinion the People's Gas Light and Coke Company 
should charge 95.53 cents per thousand feet for 
its product to earn a fair profit, provide for de- 
preciation, and meet all possible contingencies. 



University of Pennsylvania, botany, Daniel T. 
MacDougal, Carnegie Institute, anthropology, Hugo 
Munsterberg, Harvard, social and economic science, 
C. A. Conant, New York, physiology and experi- 
mental medicine, Simon Flexner, Rockefeller In- 
stitute; general secretary, John F. Hayford, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; secretary of the council, Frank W. 
McNair, Michigan College of Mines. 

The permanent secretary, Dr. L. O. Howard, and 
the secretaries of the sections were elected for 
five-year terms at the Philadelphia meeting. Dr. 
Howard is serving his second term now. 

The special summer meeting will be held in 
Ithaca, N. Y.. on June 28th, and the regular winter 
meeting in New York on December 27th 

Of particular interest to engineers was the paper 
by Prof. W. R. Warner on the Panama Canal. 
Professor Warner is convinced that the sea-level 
canal is the only one that should be built. He said 
in part: 

"Twenty-five years ago the control of the Chagres 
River was considered the difficult problem, but in 
accordance with the information I have gained 
from several of the best authorities, this river is 
now considered only 10 or 15 per cent, of the 
problem. 

"When we consider that the maximum height at 
the beginning was less than the height of some of 
our modern buildings, and that the French com- 
pany reduced that height to 150 feet above sea 
level, which is practically the height of our nine 
or 10-story buildings, and, further, that this height 
extends only for less than 10 miles, I am confident 
that if the present Congress does not direct a 



January I.;, i 1 > 

. ., i. el i anal to bi built, thai tl I "nc will, 

for "in gOVCI mil' hi l n"i g 01 ! in Hi" i- 1 I 

have ""I been c luctcd on thi pennj wise-and- 

pound foolish plan, 

"( inc othci ■'" .'.'mi' hi "iii'lii i" i" mi rationed, and 

thai is thai will I i - epl hi ■ 

v.ni I . i-i iln i'"' ' "i i" "' i- i ha ' proven 

gi |vi . too small and too limiti 'I 'hi i illu 
(rated by the Soo ( lanal, the firsl loci 

were discarded ycat i and I II ■" i I""' 1 

.■..in. h i ii i" i" " plai 'i '. ". 

If the Panama < lanal i i bu ill on the i a level plan, 
ii can !«■ enlarged without inti i Fi i ing ■■■■ ith traffii 

.- 1 1 ■ < ] without difficult) On tl thei hand, if a 

Nick system ia used, ii is limited and cai ' I"' 

enlarged withoul being n buill 

Professor Fullcrton Waldo .'I o poke U] the 

ubjei t of the canal and gavi fig i to 

the in hi "I work already accomplished. 

iiii Wednesday most of the sections had con- 
cluded their work and the day was largely given 
over to pleasure and sightseeing The chemical 
section visited il" 1 Kcnilworth plantation The en 
gineering section, under the auspices "f the Sewer 

and Water Board, visited ■ ic of the pumping 

plants, and a portion nf the party also visited the 
central power plant. Several social entertainments 
were given in the evening. 

The meeting of the associatiotf was brought to 
a close on Thursday forenoon at the general ses- 
sion held in Gibson Hall, which was little more 
than a formality and but few members wire present. 



[•ERN ELECTR1 

able fi 

speed in limited 






New Massie Space-telegraph System. 

The United States government is installing a 
chain of spacc-telcgraph stations along the coast 
and is preparing to send out weather reports, 
storm warnings and time signals, and it is stated 
that commercial messages are also to be sent and 
received, so that one of the most necessary equip- 
ments of every sea-going vessel is a space- 
telegraph installation. The accompanying illustra- 
tions show the details of construction and the elec- 
trical apparatus of the Massie system of space 
telegraphy to be used by the government, including 





FIG. I. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF PORTABLE MASSIE SPACE-TELEGRAPH SET 

the oscillaphone, the bell-alarm and switch-con- 
trolling devices. 

This apparatus was designed by Walter W. 
Massie of the Massie Wireless Telegraph Company 
of Providence, R. I. For transmitting signals up 
to ioo miles with this system a special type of 
induction coil or transformer is employed to change 
the low potential of the lighting circuit to the 
high-potential current required to charge the 



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Kill. 3. M \ssil- si'\. I -i 111'.,!' \lll Hi ' 

tanccs of over 100 miles, the amount of power 
required being, it is stated, approximately in pro- 
portion to the square of the distance. If it takes 
one-quarter of a horsepower to cover 100 miles, it 
will be necessary to use four horsepower, or 16 
times the former amount to cover 400 miles, ac- 
cording to the observations made by Mr. Massie 
in the practical application of his system. 

Fig 1 shows the electrical 
connections of the transmit- 
ters, receivers, etc., as well 
as the bell alarm, which is a 
prominent feature of the Mas- 
sie system. This bell alarm 
is in circuit when the wireless 
installation is not in operation 
and is ready to respond to 
any signal received, thus noti- 
fying the operator when 
called, and by its use the op- 
erator is relieved of the strain 
1 ifrj» I 1 and confining task of "listen- 

T P _» '" s " to t ' le te ' e Ph°ne receivers. 

The oscillaphone, as shown 
in Fig. 2, is used as a re- 
ceiver for the Massie system, 
and is a form of microphone 
used to detect the oscillatory 
current set up in the vertical 
wire by the passing ether 
wave. There are two knife-edge terminals made 
of a carbon compound, which are held in place 
by two resilient metal-conducting strips, bridged 
with a small steel needle. The needle is held in 
place against two stops by magnetism to counteract 
the motion of the boat. Vibrations of the engines 
on board ship are overcome by placing the box 
containing the instruments on a pneumatic cushion. 
It is stated that the entire system is controlled 
and operated by a single switching device arranged 
so that a single motion is all that is required to 
change the connection for sending or receiving, 
and in this manner it is asserted that the speed 
in operating is as rapid as that of the land tele- 
graph in making the change from receiving to send- 
ing, or vice-versa. Fig. 3 shows the recording de- 
vice. 

Transmission of wireless signals is due accord- 
ing to Mr. Massie, to a wave-like disturbance in 
the magnetic forces of the earth, and he is not 
an advocate of the free inter-wave theory, having 
claimed to have discovered the discrepancy between 
the accepted theory and the results brought out 
by practical work. P. 



FIG. I. MASSIE OSCILLAPHONE RECEIVER, SWITCH CON- 
TROLLING DEVICE AND ALARM BELL. 

Leyden jars, the oscillatory discharge of which 
passes across a spark-gap and through an adjust- 
able inductance. The connecting link between the 
ground and the vertical wires is this inductance, 
and it is used to adjust the discharge of the Ley- 
den jars to the natural frequency of the vertical 
system. A suitable muffler is utilized to enclose 
the spark-gap to deaden the sound of the discharge, 



At the recent convention of the International Broth- 
erhood of Electrical Workers, held in Louisville, 
Ky., the question of moving the headquarters from 
Washington, D. C, to a more central location was 
discussed, and it was decided to choose a location 
by referendum vote. Twelve cities were nomi- 
nated and Springfield, 111., was selected by a vote 
of 5,769 against 3.317 for Indianapolis, "the next 
highest competitor. W. N. Chiles, assistant city 
electrician of Springfield, assisted by the Business 
Men's Association and city officials, was instru- 
mental in locating the headquarters. 






Thomson's Power-transmitting Device. 

through 

Klihu J 

the prii 
trolling 

erator; but ti. tefully 

into mechanical cnerr 
main driving niacin:- 

Furthermore, the electric o .trolled 

by varying the rclati. 

machines, thereby varying tl - ■ , nc per 

ampere of current flowing through them. By this 
lie arrangement, thi |ue of 

prime mover and driven member may be controlled 
so that the power delivered by the prime mover 
may be transmitted to the dr: ith the 

speed-torque factors altered in any desired manner 
— that is, with increased torque and lowered speed, 
or vice versa. This result is accomplished without 
the use of batteries or other external sources of 
motive force or current whatever. 

The accompanying illustration is a diagram of 
the connections of one form of the device, the 
generator and motor being coupled together. 

When the apparatus is in operation, a variation 




of the field strength of motor occasioned by manip- 
ulation of the rheostat varies the counter-electro- 
motive force of the motor, and this electromotive 
force being developed in a circuit in series with 
the generator varies the current developed by the 
generator. If the counter-electromotive force be 
increased by strengthening the field of the motor, 
the current flowing in the generator circuit is de- 
creased, thereby decreasing the torque exerted be- 
tween the two members of the generator. The 
torque exeerted upon and the speed transmitted 
to the driven mechanism through the sprocket chain 
therefore decrease. On the other hand, if the field 
strength of the motor be weakened by diverting 
current from the field winding or otherewise, more 
current flows in the generator circuit, thereby in- 
creasing the torque between the members of the 
generator. This may result in a speeding up of 
the mechanism driven through the sprocket chain 
or other power-transmitting device, the power de- 
veloped in the generator in the form of electrical 
energy through the medium of which the torque 
is transmitted to the driven mechanism being 
returned to the power-supply system through the 
instrumentality of the motor. The mechanism 
is in condition for transmitting maximum torque 
when the short-circuiting switch is closed, 
thereby short-circuiting the generator directly upon 
itself. The short-circuiting of the motor has no 
effect, since as soon as it commences to develop 
current the direction of the current is such as to 
reduce the field magnetism to zero, thus 
diately preventing the generation of current. 



At St. Paul, Minn., an ordinance has just been 
adopted by the City Council requiring that electric- 
light and power wires in churches, theaters and 
other places used for public gatherings, also wires 
in unfinished basements, to be placed in suitable 
metal conduits. 



36 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



PUBLICATION OFFICES." 

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CORRESPONDENCE relating to electricity or any of its 
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.local newspaper clippings, 



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general electrical paper published In the West— thoroughly 
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CAN BE MADE BY NO OTHER ELECTRICAL JOURNAL IN THE 

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CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Three-conductor Direct-current Railway in Bohemia. By 

C. Smith. Illustrated 31 

Electric Light and Power Service in Chicago and Vicinity. .31, 32 

Single-phase Locomotives for Sarnia Tunnel. Illustrated 32 

Northwestern Electi ical Convention 33 

Generous Contributions to Engineer inn Building Fund 33 

American Electrical Sales men's Convention 33 

The Chicago Electrical Show. Illustrated 33, 34 

Chicago Gas Inquiry 34 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (Con- 
clusion of report of New Orleans meeting.) 34, 35 

New Massif Space telegraph System. Illustrated 35 

Thomson's Power-transmitting Device. Illustrated 35 

Editorial 36 

Possible Municipal Uses of Drainage Canal Power 37, 38 

A Wireless Printing Telegraph 38 

Waterpower Development at Sewalls Falls, N. H. Illustrated. 38 

Books Received 38 

Electricity in a Large Paper Mill. By F. M. Feikcr. Illus- 
trated 39 

Chicago Street -rail way Situation 39. 40 

Westirigtaouse Electrostatic Voltmeter. Illustrated 40 

The "Hold- fast" Lamp Guard. Illustrated 40 

Inter-pole Variable-speed Motor for Machine-tool Work. Il- 
lustrated 41 

Dinner to Indiana Traction Men 41 

Michigan Traction Consolidation 41 

Yerkes' Successors Named 41 

Efficiencies, By James Swinburne. Illustrated 42 

California Electric Power Consolidation Completed 42 

Growth of the Wright Demand Indicator Business in the 

United States. Illustrated 43 

The New Philadelphia Subway 43 

Engineering Features of the Jhelum Power Installation in 

Oscillographic Kr-earche^ on Snruini; in High-tension Lines. 

By C. David. Illustrated 43, 44 

Central 1 11 i :■■ •;:- I in It- pen dent Teh-phone Meeting 44 

Telephone Men 44 

Indiana Telephone Items 45 

Telephone News from the Northwest 45 

Ohio Telephone Notes 45 

Indiana District Telephone; Meeting 45 

Modern Telephone Kxchangc foi Manila 45 

General Telephone News 45 

DEPARTMENTS. 

Correspondence 46, 47 

Great Britain 46 

Dominion of Canada 46 

New York 46 

Ohio 46, 47 

Indiana *-> 

Southeastern States 47 

Northwestern States 47 

Pacific Slope 47 

Personal 47, 48 

Electric Lighting 48 

Electric Railways 48 

Publications 48 

Societies and Schools 48 

Miscellaneous 48, 49 

Trade News 49 

Illustrated Electrical Patent Record 49. 50 

DATES AHEAD. 

Chicago Electrical Show (first annual exhibition of Elec- 
trical Tradea Exposition Company), Coliseum, Chicago, Jan- 
uary 15th to 27th. 

Northwestern Electrical Association (annual convention), 
Great Northern Hotel, Chicago, January 17th and 18th. 

American Electrical Salesmen's Association (first annual 
meeting). Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago. January 20th, 9 a. m. 

Nebraska Independent Telephone Association (annual con- 
vention), Lindell Hotel, Lincoln, Neb-, January 23d and 
24th. 

Ohio Interurban Railway Association (annual meeting), 
Algonquin Hotel, Dayton, Ohio, January 25th. 



In a recent issue of one of our contempo- 
raries there appears a description of what is as- 
serted to be the largest private electric-light plant 
in the world. The plant described is that in the 
Mutual Life Building in New York city, having 
four 350-kilowatt generators, or a total rated ca- 
pacity of 1400 kilowatts. The writer of this ar- 
ticle, however, is somewhat in error on the point 
of its being the largest private plant in the world. 
As a matter of fact, the New York plant falls 
considerably short of being a record-breaker in 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

size. The private electric plant in Chicago which 
furnishes current for the Auditorium and Audi- 
torium Annex hotels contains seven units, having 
an aggregate rated capacity of 2,000 kilowatts. 
We do not recall any other private lighting plant 
as large in size as that at the Auditorium, and it 
is possible that it holds the record as to size. 
It at least considerably outstrips the one described 
in New York. 



In view of the recent controversy that has 
arisen over the relative merits of direct and alter- 
nating currents for traction purposes, additional 
interest is attached to the article which appears 
elsewhere in this issue under the title "Three-con- 
ductor Direct-current Railway System in Bohemia." 
The system described makes use of direct current 
generated at 1,400 volts and distributed on the 
three-wire system, with the rails for the neutral, 
and 700 volts between them and each of the two 
overhead conductors. This system of operation 
has been suggested, but has never met with favor 
in this country, or elsewhere for that matter, and 
it will be interesting to note what the outcome 
will be. Mr. Frank J. Sprague, who is an advo- 
cate of direct-current operation, believes that the 
working voltage of direct-current railways may be 
as high as 1,500 volts or more, with attendant ad- 
vantages. In the Bohemian railway under con- 
sideration we are able to discern a tendency in 
this direction. Of course in this case only 700-volt 
motors are used, which are connected in parallel 
between the neutral and the two outside conduct- 
ors, or in series between the outside conductors, 
but still 700 volts is a distinct rise in motor volt- 
age over the 500 or 550 volts now customary in 
direct-current railway practice. 



Alderman Potter of the Sixth Ward, Chicago — 
may his tribe increase ! — deserves credit and thanks 
for his resolution in the City Council demanding 
the electrification of the suburban service of the 
Illinois Central Railroad in Chicago, even if nothing 
further comes of it. What a pleasing morsel of 
truth is this, one of Mr. Potter's "whereases" : 
"The noise and smoke of the locomotives of said 
railway are an intolerable nuisance to the residents 
along its right-of-way, and the smoke and dirt 
are most destructive to personal and public prop- 
erty and will be most destructive to the valuable 
collections of the Field Museum and the Crerar 
Library, and to the lawns, shrubs and trees at the 
Lake Front Park." The man who has struggled 
along an Illinois Central platform in a cloud of 
smoke and cinders, with an energetic live coal 
nestling between his neck and his shirt-collar will 
indorse this from the bottom of his heart. And 
the next "whereas," how true : "It has been amply 
demonstrated that electricity is a practicable and 
economical motive power for the operation of rail- 
ways, as is witnessed by the elevated roads of this 
city and great numbers of interurban railways, and 
notably by its adoption by the New York Central 
and Pennsylvania railways for their New York 
city terminals." 

Of course the suburban service of the Illinois 
Central should be electrified. It is entirely prac- 
ticable, as the Western Electrician has faithfully 
borne witness on former occasions. It is obviously 
equally practicable to electrically equip the sub- 
urban services of all other steam-railroad com- 
panies doing this class of business in Chicago. 
But the case of the Illinois Central is more glar- 
ing, because it happens that ill no other instance 
are the steam locomotives such a nuisance as here. 
Perhaps the company is delaying in making the 
change on the score of expense, but it has been 
demonstrated that the electrically equipped trains 
can be operated at least as cheaply and with 
recent improvements probably considerably cheaper 
than the steam locomotive. The improvement is 
bound to come some time, and the sooner the rail- 
road company takes a step which is inevitable the 
greater will be its credit. 



Some interesting comparisons between the stand- 
ards observed in the East and in the West for 
inside wiring were made recently by an electrical 
inspector for the Western Association of Fire Un- 
derwriters. The inspector visited some of the best 
municipal electrical inspection departments in east- 
ern cities during a recent trip, and from the 



January 13, 1906 

general character of the work open for inspection 
at that time he concludes that the standard for 
inside wiring maintained by the average municipal 
department in the West is fully up to the best 
eastern requirements. 

Eastern departments, he reports, maintain more 
complete records of work done and are more 
aggressive in supervising outside wiring than the 
average department in the West. This was found 
particularly true in Massachusetts, where the stat- 
utes require each municipality to regulate both 
inside and outside wiring. It is thought, on the 
other hand, that municipal departments in the 
western territory have made greater progress in 
securing improvements in old and defective wiring. 
It is always to be remembered that inspectors 
for the underwriters are employed for the purpose 
of making the insurance business more remuner- 
ative, not to advance electrical interests as such. 
But, wmle some of their criticisms are academic 
rather than practical, it is of couse true that 
electrical apparatus should be installed and main- 
tained with careful regard for the fire hazard. It 
is to be noted, however, that this hazard is greatly 
overrated by the general public, due, largely, to the 
carelessness of daily newspapers in giving currency 
to the well-worn phrases, "The fire was due to 
crossed wires," or "The fire was apparently of 
electrical origin." In nearly all cases where "in- 
vestigation is possible, it is shown that the elec- 
trical equipment was not at fault. But sometimes 
the men in charge of the equipment become care- 
less or impatient or indifferent, and there is trouble. 
More rarely, the contractor skimped the job in 
the first instance, neglecting to install the work 
properly, to make a little more money. Correctly 
installed, we think that all are agreed that elec- 
trical devices for generating, transmitting and 
utilizing power are the safest known. 

In a recent report Mr. Frank Daniel, electrical 
inspector for the Indiana State Board of Fire 
Underwriters, makes some interesting observations 
on this important subject. He says that in the 
smaller cities in that state the electrical conditions 
are the outcome of a haphazard development. Only 
in rare cases have the electric-light and power 
systems in these cities had the advantage of in- 
telligent direction from the start, with provision 
for growth, expansion and betterment. This is 
probably true, but it doesn't necessarily follow 
that the fire risk is greater. Mr. Daniel has most 
fault to find, however, with honest but unskilled 
workmen, "to whom the National Electrical Code 
is all Greek." He cites some "horrible examples." 
In one town he visited a dry-goods store where 
the conditions were particularly bad. "By all the 
rules of the game," he says, "this place should 
have burned out at least 10 times a day" — but it 
didn't. Electrical construction, even at its worst, 
has a way of muddling through somehow that 
elicits a degree of admiration, even if it does 
not command respect. But it is safest not to take 
chances. 

Mr. Daniel's main point is that better workmen 
are needed. The gist of what he says may be 
stated as follows: "Conditions which are com- 
mon in Indiana and many other states show con- 
clusively that most of the defects in wiring are 
due to ignorance on the part of local workmen. 
Where faults are called to the attention of the 
insured, it is generally the case that they are as 
anxious as the insurance companies to have them 
corrected. The trouble comes in making correc- 
tions, for when the property owner turns the mat- 
ter over to local workmen, it is often the case 
that they are unacquainted with the National Code 
requirements. There is need for more technical 
knowledge among electrical inspectors and workers 
to bring conditions up to standard. Those who 
are engaged in the work are anxious to improve 
their knowledge in the majority of cases and are 
making use of such opportunities as come their 
way." The last sentence shows, what apparently 
Mr. Daniel does not say directly, that the standard 
of electrical construction work everywhere is con- 
stantly being improved, in some places more rap- 
idly than in others, but in all places to some ex- 
tent. It is true that there are incompetent elec- 
trical workmen, but often, where defective work 
exists, the owner is at fault in insisting on a low- 
priced job at any cost. 



January 13, [906 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



37 



Possible Municipal Uses of Drainage 
Canal Power. 

William Carroll, eity electrician; John Ericion, 

riiy engineer, anil Joseph M I'attei , oumm-. 

sioncr of public: works, have prepared iointly a 
reporl lo thi mayor and City Council of Chicago 
mi the mosl advantageous municipal usea of power 
from the hyilro-clcctric development of the Chicago 
Drainage Canal, for which construction work is 
now in progress. 'I his powci 1 l>- intc developed 
by the Sanitary District (a territory largely made 
lip of the city of Chicago), anil an influential 
parly believes that the enerev should he used for 

nicipal purposes, at cost, inasmuch as the Drain 

age Canal was built with public 

After reciting the council order for the making 
of the report, its authors continue: 

Power Development. 

The watcrpowcr now being developed by the 
Sanitary Districl below I.ockport, 111., is expected 
lo lie partially available on or before January, 1907. 
With the first installment of the plant and with the 
present allowable flow through the Chicago River, 
in addition to the flow that in the near future is 
to be delivered through the Thirty-ninth Street con- 
duit, it is estimated there will be generated suffi- 
cient power to make available at a proposed ter- 
minal station to be located somewhere near Forty- 
eighth Avenue and the Drainage Canal, after losses 
in watcrwhcels, generators, transformers, transmis- 
sion lines, etc., shall have been deducted, about 
15,730 horsepower. From this should he deducted 
a further loss of an average of five per cent, in 
transmission from the terminal station to points 
of application, leaving a net number of horsepower 
for actual use of about 15.000. 

Having been unable to obtain definite data from 
which to determine this probable available power, 
we have for the purpose of this report accepted 
the estimate as furnished us by officials of the 
Sanitary District, without either approving or re- 
jecting the same. 

After the proposed Calumet District Channel 
shall have been completed, which no doubt will 
require quite a number of years, the available 
commercial power at the terminal station referred 
to will probably be increased to 21,000 or 22,000 
horsepower at low lake level. This estimate is 
somewhat of an approximation until more definite 
data as regards the hydraulic elements of the Sani- 
tary District Canal can ,be obtained. 

The Santary District also has waterpower rights 
south of Joliet, which, when developed, will add 
considerably to the above estimate'. 

Utilization of This Power for Municipal 
Purposes. 

The municipal purposes for which power is re- 
quired are principally as follows: 

Electric lighting. 

Waterworks. 

Sewage pumping stations. 

Bridges. 

Street railways (when municipally operated). 

Miscellaneous. 

Under the most favorable conditions water- 
driven electric power plants have a great advan- 
tage over steam-driven, especially in their low op- 
erating cost. 

If the investment per horsepower developed is 
high and the power thus generated has to be 
transmitted long distances, this advantage disap- 
pears, however, especially where the cost of fuel 
is low. The improvements that in the last few 
years have been made in the construction and 
operation of steam-driven plants, make it necessary 
to carefully consider all phases of the subject of 
power, before determining whether the water- 
driven or the steam-driven power is the most 
economical and desirable 

We have given the matter considerable attention 
in connection with a consideration of the uses 
to which the Lockport power may be put for 
municipal purposes. 

The cost at which the power developed by the 
Sanitary District may be obtained by the city of 
Chicago has not been ascertained. If the city can 
obtain this power at cost of development and 
transmission, including all charges, there will be 
a saving to the city in its utilization for municipal 
purposes. 

Electric Lighting. 

There are at present about 6,700 electric street 
lamps in the city of Chicago, and as soon as neces- 
sary power is obtained it is contemplated to place 
a lamp at practically every street intersection and 
in the middle of very long blocks in the city. 
This would add about 22,000 lamps, making a total 
of some 29,000 lamps. 

To operate these lamps there would be required 
about 21,000 horsepower for an average of II hours 
per day, being a maximum of 14 hours in the 
winter for about two months and a minimum of 
8 T /2 hours in the summer for about three months. 
When such a system shall have been completed 
nearly all the ultimate power to be developed at 
Lockport would be required for this purpose and 



for the lighting of municipal buildings for a cer- 
tain portion OI the 24 hour day. 
As thi 

! , it would be necessary to n 

■ tin . power, when m 1 
lighting purposes, in order to 
This is 1 

water driven plan! than in thi 1 1 e of a steam - 
di ivi n, n'nce the operating 1 icpen 1 an q lit 
in the foi mi r a r, while 

the fixed chargi plant arc heavy 

"WORKS. 

In order to determine appro in 
of power that would bi op< ration 

of the v. atet wot k of the go, the 

prci 'Hi work of the ti tion ha Ix ei 

ba 1 
The average daily pumpage for the ■, ■ 

was at the rah <, boul 1 0100,000 gallons 
a head averaging 100 feet. This is equivalent to 
about 7,200 pump-horsepower. The maximum 
pumpage in any certain time of the year is about 
20 per cent, over and above the average, or say 
8,600 horsepower. If electrically driven pumps 
should be installed, there would he required 
motors to perform this work about 14,400 horse- 
power at the time of maximum pumpage. 

Owing to additional pump installations during the 
coining year there will probably be required in 
1907 for electrically operated pumps about 16,000 
horsepower for peak loads. The minimum would 
thin he about r,3,ooo horsepower. 

The comparatively slight variation in and the 
constancy of the power required during all hours 
for this purpose would make the utilization of 
the watcrpowcr quite desirable, but there are ob- 
jections which outweigh these apparent advantages, 
and which must not he lost sight of. 

It is, in our opinion, impracticable to apply elec- 
tric power to the present vertical triple-expansion 
and horizontal compound pumping engines without 
an entire reconstruction of the various plants. 
This reconstruction, even with the maintaining of 
the present pump ends, would be so costly and the 
results so unsatisfactory, that it would be pref- 
erable to install entirely new plants with modern 
turbine pumps. 

The power for waterworks purposes must be 
constant and absolutely reliable. Failure at any 
time of the power operating such plants would 
involve the city into difficulties not to be counte- 
nanced for a moment. It is almost a certainty 
that at times there will be an unavoidable shut- 
down of the waterpower plant, caused by anchor 
ice, accidents at the power house or to the trans- 
mission lines or from other causes. This has oc- 
curred both at Niagara Falls and at the Economic 
plant at Joliet, at the latter place for hours at a 
time, so that an auxiliary steam-turbine installation 
has been made at the power, plant to meet such 
emergencies. There is certainly no guarantee that 
such accidents will not occur at the Lockport 
plant. 

It would, therefore, be necessary to install en-" 
tirely new plants, suitable for electric power equip- 
ment, and also to maintain the present plants as 
' auxiliaries to be brought into use in cases of 
emergency, at least for some time. The difficulty 
and cost of installing duplicate plants of equal 
capacity with the present ones at each station, to 
be operated electrically and without dismantling 
the present plants, is too great to be contemplated. 

Proposed New Works. — In the plans now being 
prepared to provide for the future development 
of the Chicago waterworks system there are con- 
templated four additional pumping stations, each 
of a capacity of about 100,000,000 gallons daily. 
One of these will be in operation in about four 
years, and the others as soon as the demands will 
require and the finances will permit. 

Recent developments in turbine or centrifugal 
pumps which are specially adapted to be operated 
electrically, makes it advisable to consider such 
installations at the new proposed stations, provided 
that the power can be obtained at a sufficiently 
low cost. The low cost of installation and of op- 
eration, exclusive of power, of such plants brings 
the cost of pumping water below the cost of op- 
erating with steam-driven plants, provided the 
power can be obtained at a price that it costs to 
generate same at the proposed power plant and 
to transmit it to the point of application. In case 
of such installation, however, supplementary power 
should be available in cases of emergency. This 
could be provided by storage batteries or from 
one or more steam-driven plants, which the mu- 
nicipality in the near future may install for mu- 
nicipal street railways or other purposes, whether 
the Sanitary District waterpower is made use of 
or not. 

The average power that will be required at the 
motors for each one of these stations, when fully 
equipped, is about 2,500 horsepower, with peak 
loads at certain times during the warmest and 
coldest months of 4,700 horsepower. 

High-pressure Water System. — A high-pressure 
water system has for some time been under con- 
sideration by this community. One system for the 
central district with a total capacity of 30,000 
gallons per minute and one for the south section 
of the city with a capacity of 10,000 gallons per 
' minute. Assuming maximum pressures at 200 



•he maximum given >. 
pumping 

llOt la 
At - 

I by the railroad company 

■ a lion is supplied wilh 
1 pumps, each driven by a .;- 
in engine. 'I his in ' 
i' adily he cbi 

lly without much cost. The pon 
quired will vary from 16 horsepower un<h - 
nary dry-flow conditions to about - 

Pullman Station, located at Onc-hundred-and- 
ninth Street and the Illinois Central Railroad, con- 
tains two direct-acting compound steam pumping 
of 60 horsepo trically driven 

centrifugal pumps can be substituted for the pres- 
ent machinery- 

The Jackson Park Avenue pumping station con- 
tains four steam-driven centrifugal pumps. The 
plant is just about completed, hut a change so as 
to provide for electrical operation could be made 
without excessive cost. The average power re- 
quired will for some years probably not exceed 
80 horsepower. The maximum probably not to ex- 
ceed 300 horsepower. Ultimately the maximum 
power required may be as much as 800 horsepower. 

Contract is about to be let for a sewage-pumping 
station at Ninety-fifth Street and Erie Avenue. 
This will practically be a duplicate of the Jack- 
son Park station, and will require about equal 
power. 

At the FuIIerton Avenue pumping station a 
maximum of 100 horsepower at the motors would 
he required if electrically operated. The load at 
this station may be kept uniform, making the sta- 
tion especially suitable for the application of elec- 
tric power. 

The Thirty-ninth Street and the Lawrence Av- 
enue sewage-pumping stations arc both to be 
equipped with steam-driven centrifugal and screw 
pumps. As they both are to be operated by the 
Sanitary District, they need not be further con- 
sidered in connection with the subject under dis- 
cussion. 

What has been said as regards reserve power for 
the operation of the waterworks pumping stations 
applies also to the sewage-pumping stations, al- 
though generally not with equal force, as the stop- 
ping of the latter for a few hours would generally 
not have the same disastrous effect as the stopping 
of the waterworks pumps. 

Bridges. 

There are 50 movable municipal bridges in the 
city, all of which eventually will be electrically- 
operated. The average maximum power required 
for each bridge, including lights, signals, pumps 
and operation, is about 125 horsepower. There is, 
however, only a part of this number that are op- 
erated simultaneously, and the power required will 
vary considerably for different seasons and dif- 
ferent hours of the day. Since a number of railway 
cars have to stop running when bridges are op- 
erated, and the power can be obtained at very 
reasonable cost, there would probably be very little 
if any gain, in changing the power from the rail- 
way service, where it is now mostly obtained. The 
power would vary from about 300 to 1.200 horse- 
power for the whole city when all bridges shall 
have been electrically equipped. 

Street Railways. 

L'ntil the question as to whether the city of 
Chicago is to operate railway systems of its own 
is settled, it cannot, of course, make any provision 
for the power that will be necessary for this pur- 
pose. 

The pending ordinances now before the Ciry 
Council call for 1.582 double-truck cars and S51 
single-truck cars to be in use within a period of 
three years. Allowing for a certain proportion of 
these cars to be out of service and undergoing 
repairs, there would be required for the peak loads 
from 5 :30 to about 6 p. m. about 95,000 horse- 
power, basing our conclusions on a load diagram 
furnished by the Chicago City Railway Company. 
All the power that can be developed at both the 
power plants . that the Sanitary' District proposes 
to install can be utilized for 10 or 20 hours out 
of 24. The surplus power developed the remain- 
ing four or five hours could be stored, and thus 
reduce the capacity of the steam-driven plants that 
would be necessary to take care of the loads that 
the water-driven power . could not handle. TKe 



38 

power produced by the water-driven plants could 
therefore be used more advantageously for this 
purpose than for any other mentioned. 
Recapitulatio n. 

At the present rate of installing electric street 
lamps, the city will require during the year 1907 
about 7,000 horsepower for an average of 11 hours 
per day. Additional power for this purpose will 
be required in proportion to the number of street 
lamps installed yearly. For the disposal of power 
when not used for electric-lighting purposes, there 
remain the following municipal utilities : 

Average constant power required for sewage- 
pumping stations is about 300 horsepower. The 
requirements for this purpose may at any time, 
day or night, be increased to about 1,000 horse- 
power. The power required for the operation, 
lighting, signaling, pumping, etc., at the present 
electric bridges will vary from about 200 to a 
maximum of about 1,000 horsepower. This maxi- 
mum requirement of power may be made at any 
time, night or day. 

In addition to the lighting of municipal build- 
ings, there are a few small municipal shops where 
electric power may take the place of steam power. 
As before stated, it is not practicable or advisable 
to introduce electric power for the operation of 
the present waterworks plants. Assuming then 
that sufficient power be purchased to operate our 
present electric-light system, there would be 7,000 
horsepower to be disposed of during the day. The 
average requirements, day or night, for the opera- 
tion of the sewage-pumping stations, bridges and 
shops would not exceed 1,000 horsepower, which 
at times may be increased to 2,000 horsepower. 
The maximum requirements are liable to occur 
at nighl, when the power is required for electric- 
lighting purposes, as well as in daytime. If the 
city of Chicago can dispose of its surplus power 
for commercial uses, when not required for elec- 
tric lighting or other purposes, satisfactory ar- 
rangements could undoubtedly be made whereby 
the electric lighting as well as the other mentioned 
municipal works could be economically operated by 
power generated at Lockport. 

Assuming that the power from the proposed 
waterpower plant will be obtained at a price that 
will bring the cost below that of power generated 
by steam-driven plants, and sufficient funds for 
necessary installations are appropriated, we beg to 
emphasize the following: 

First — The most desirable use for municipal pur- 
poses of the power now being developed at Lock- 
port by the Sanitary District would be for the 
operation of municipal street railways, which can 
use all the power that the Sanitary District can 
furnish for 24 hours each day. 

Second — For the lighting of the city's streets 
and municipal buildings, provided a disposition can 
be made of the power during such hours when 
lighting is not required. This may be done if the 
city is given the right to dispose of power for 
commercial purposes during the day. 

Third — Sewage-pumping stations, bridges and 
other minor utilities may be equipped for electrical 
operation, but would not to any appreciable ex- 
tent serve to utilize during the daytime the i*e- 
leased power used for electric lighting during the 
night. 

Fourth — It is not economical or practicable to 
change the present waterworks plants to electrical 
operation. New proposed plants may be electrically 
operated, and careful consideration should be given 
to this matter before new designs are decided 
upon. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

of course, be the case if the foregoing assertions 
prove true. 



A Wireless Printing Telegraph. 

An Indiana correspondent sends the following: 
"Elmer A. Burlingame, a young electrician and 
inventor of Laporte, Indiana, says that he has per- 
fected an apparatus that will revolutionize present 
methods of telegraph communication and news dis- 
semination. The invention is a printing wireless 
telegraph. The operator who sends messages writes 
or prints them on an ordinary typewriter. This 
prints in the usual way, but in addition flashes a 
message through space to a receiving station, where 
the copy is reprinted on a similar machine, ex- 
actly like the first. The receiving station must be 
attuned to the incoming Hertzian waves, this 
giving secrecy and making it possible to have sev- 
eral sets of instruments working at once without 
interference. This non-interference is said to be 
so complete that all sending instruments may be 
connected to the same sending wire, and all re- 
ceiving instruments to another wire. Mr. Bur- 
lingame says messages may be sent by his printing 
system about five times as fast as with the Morse 
code, and the necessity of waiting for an idle line 
is done away with. It is said that by connecting 
linotypes in offices within a radius of 500 miles 
it will be possible to operate them simultaneously 
from one sending station. The cost of equipping 
the receiving station will be about $i,oco, while 
the cost of the sending station will be about $2,000. 
Laporte capitalists, it is declared, are preparing to 
huild a factory to manufacture the apparatus." 

This is certainly interesting. But more detailed 
information will be needed to supplement these 
general statements before it can be taken for 
granted that the gentleman named has made an 
invention of great practical importance, which will, 



Waterpower Development at Sewalls 
Falls, N. H. 

An interesting problem in the utilization of a 
waterpower with a small fall and large variation 
of head for the production of electric current has 
been skillfully solved in the design of two 900- 
horsepower turbines which have been built and are 
now being installed at Sewalls Falls, N. H., for 
the Concord Electric Company. The first installation 
will consist of two complete hydro-electric units, 
each composed of a triplex turbine waterwheel and 
a direct-connected alternating-current Bullock gen- 
erator, a motor-driven exciter set, turbine governors 
and electrical synchronizers. As the current is to 
be used chiefly for lighting purposes and possibly 
in connection with other sources of power genera- 
tion, it is necessary to have the speed of revolution 
for the wheels and generators constant, even 
though the amount of developed power might differ 
tinder different heads. 

Ordinarily the stream produces a fall which gives 
a net working head of 16 feet. In times of flood, 
however, the water backs up in the lower channel 
so as to reduce the working head to 12 feet. 

To secure the desired results two turbines have 
been designed, each with three sets of runners and 
gates complete, the three sets being arranged one 
above the other on a vertical shaft, as illustrated 
in horizontal position in Fig. 1. The runners are 
all connected to the tailrace by means of draft tubes 
so as to derive the full energy of the water, due to 
its actual head, from each of the runners, no matter 
what its relative or actual position may be upon 
the shaft. The lower runner of each wheel has a 
draft tube by itself, while a single tube of larger 
dimensions carries off the discharge water from 
the two upper runners. The turbines are of the 
Francis central-discharge type. The three runners 
on each wheel are each of equal size, form and 
capacity; but they do not all discharge in the same 
direction. The lower one discharges downward 
into an individual concrete draft tube. The upper 
runner discharges downward and the middle one 
upward, both into a separate concrete draft tube, 
which joins the lower one at the bottom of the 
tail-race. The reactions from these two runners 
practically balance one another, while the reaction 
from the discharge of the lower runner, being 
upward, tends to lift a portion of the load on the 
turbine shaft. This effect is considered negligible 
in the turbine design, but provision is made for 
using the pressure due to the head of water to 
actually carry a considerable part of the weight of 
the turbines and the generators at all times. This 
is done by admitting the water of the flume into 
a space directly under the second runner of each 



January 13, 1906 

this operation. This power is supplied by the gov- 
ernor for each wheel. 

The governors are placed on the generator floor 
beside the generators. They are of the Allis- 
Chalmers standard, self-contained oil-pressure hy- 
draulic type. The design of this governor is such 
that no changes in arrangement will need to be 
made should three or more units be added to the 
plant. Such additions are not unlikely after two 
or three years. 

The wheels will each produce 000 horsepower 
with a 16-foot head on a consumption of 620 cubic 
feet of water per second, or 625 horsepower at 12- 
foot head with a flow of 650 cubic feet per second. 
Working at full gate they are expected to econo- 
mize 78 per cent, of the power of the water or 
more, and to give 80 per cent, return at three- 
fourths gate. At half-gate they are expected to 




FOR SEWALLS 



economize 75 per cent, of the power of the water. 
They operate at 100 revolutions per minute. 

Standing directly over the turbines with their 
stator parts supported on the generator-room floor 
are the two generators, one for each turbine. The 
rotor shafts are direct-coupled to the shafts of the 
turbines and form the upper parts of the turbine 
shafts. The weight of the rotors is carried by the 
thrust bearings of the turbines ; but they have a 
steady bearing above the coupling to keep them in 
line. 

The generators, one of which is shown in Fig. 2. 
are of the Bullock vertical waterwheel type, with 
upper guide bearing supported in a housing 
bolted to the stator. The stator or armature 
rests on a substantial cast-iron ring supported 
by the foundation. The revolving field consists of 
a cast-steel spider securely keyed to the vertical 
shaft and provided with dovetail grooves in its 
rim for holding the laminated pole-pieces, which 
are secured in place by tapered steel keys. The 
field coils are wound with copper strip bent on 
edge. 

Each generator can deliver 500 kilowatts at 2,600 
volts, three-phase, 60 cycles, in amperes per line. 




turbine, where it exerts its pressure upward 
against a circular plate, which forms a revolving 
piston. The water will carry about one-third the 
weight of the rotating parts. The other two-thirds 
is carried by a thrust bearing supported by the 
castings of the turbine. 

Lubrication is provided for in an ingenious man- 
ner. A well is formed outside the bearing rings, 
and this is filled to a suitable height with oil. 
The oil flows to the inner part of the bearing 
through suitable holes, passes through the bearing, 
guided by proper grooves, and is returned through 
holes to the well. The circulating action is con- 
tinuous as long as the wheel is in action, and it is 
automatic. 

The shaft is in two parts coupled together just 
below the generator. The rumors are of non-cor- 
rosive bronze, each cast in one piece. They are 
55 inches in diameter. Surrounding each runner 
are the gates which admit the water to it and con- 
trol its speed. Outside the gates of each runner 
and reaching all around it so as to admit water 
to all parts of the periphery of the wheel at once 
is a space ample for that purpose. The gates are 
composed of movable guide vanes and so con- 
structed that when open they admit a full head of 
water with but little interference, and when closed 
totally exclude the water. They are all connected 
by links to a common gate ring and arranged so 
that a minimum of power is required to operate 
them. Operation is through two countershafts 
standing parallel to the main shaft. These are 
each provided with a crank at each set of gates, 
and the cranks are connected to the gate rings by 
links. One-eighth of a turn of the shaft com- 
pletely closes the gates. An energy of not more 
than 12,000 foot-pounds is all that is required for 



FOR SEWALLS 



The speed is 100 revolutions per minute, the re- 
volving fields having 72 poles. The fields are 
wound for separate excitation at 120 volts and the 
generators have an efficienc} r of 94 per cent, at full 
load, 93 per cent, at three-quarters load and 91 
per cent, at half-load, and will stand a 100 per 
cent, momentary overload without injury. 

The armatures have a three-phase winding of 
heavily insulated coils capable of standing a 5,000- 
volt puncture test between coils and frame. The 
field insulation is tested with 1,500 volts applied 
between the coils and field cores or spider. The 
supporting yoke for the armature core is of open 
construction. 

For exciting the alternators a motor-generator 
set consisting of a 75-horsepower induction motor 
coupled to a 45-kilowatt direct-current generator 
is provided. The induction motor is wound for 
2,600 volts, three-phase, 60 cycles, and the generator 
for 120 volts; the full-load speed is approximately 
680 revolutions per minute. Both machines are 
mounted on a common bedplate and the set has 
three bearings, two of wmich are carried in end 
housings bolted to the stator yoke of the induction 
motor. 

The Allis-Chalmers Company of Milwaukee fur- 
nished the complete hydraulic and electric equip- 
ment. 



Books Received. 

"Practical Pattern Making," by F. W. Barrows. 
Published by the Norman W. Henley Publishing 
Company, New York. Price, $2. 

"Practical Talks on Electricity* (Parts I. and 
II.), by William Baxter, Jr. Published by the En- 
gineer Publishing Company, Chicago. Price, $3. 



January [3, [906 



WESTERN ELECTRK 






Electricity In a Large Paper Mill. 
By F. M. Feikkh. 
Of all the varied Industrie) in which electricity 
has been so widely applied aa a motive power there 

in h nil ii 11 1 better adapted than thi 

ufacturc of paper, In 1 Ii 1 n papi 1 mill 1 Ihe 

flexibility and general efficiency ol tni - tem are 
causing ii to supplant rapidly the older method 
,,i mi ■ hanii al di 11 Not only does the He ibilil 

,1 . in 1 1 ii iimim ih n ' ini |M|i< 1 mil 111 11 him 

n mill 11 1-. 1 Hi', applicable, but there ;ire also 



■n foi the virion proa of panel manu- 
facturing, such as hi • , drying the 

in tins generating station is located a co 

-I with an ultim 



[50 pound : 

,ii p .]„ r manufacturi 

I, I ti ite the variabli 

paper m : ' 



- 

chine the 



paper ma- 





of manilla paper evei 

Company of Schenectady, 



many subsidiary reasons which have helped to 
bring about the change. 

One of the most prominent of these causes is 
the general simplicity of the electric system. There 
are no idle-running shafts or belts ; indeed little 
shafting and belting is required. From the starting 
point at the generating apparatus up to the mo- 
ment when the electrical energy is converted into 
useful work there is a minimum of transmission 
loss. 

At the generating end we may have a water- 
wheel-driven electric generator deriving its power 
from the same river which floats the raw material 
to the mill in the form of logs; or, the location, for 
commercial reasons, may of necessity demand 
steam-power generation of electricity. 

Another reason which makes the use of electric 
power advantageous is the ease with which it can 
be measured. At the main switchboard in the 
power house are located the measuring instruments, 
through which all current passes and is accurately 
metered. With the mechanical, steam or hydraulic 
distribution of energy the accurate measurement 
of the energy used is practically impossible. Using 
the electric system, the power consumed in various 
mills or departments of the same mill is known 
to the fraction of a horsepower and may therefore 
be properly charged. 

In the third place, in the distribution of power, 
electricity again has the advantage. Leaving the 
main switchboards the current is led by overhead 
or underground transmission lines to the various 
buildings or mills. This transfer of energy takes 
place with a small loss in comparison with the 
cumbersome methods of mechanical or hydraulic- 
power transmission. 

At the receiving end of the line there are many 
marked advantages for the electric drive. The 



engines is the most ready means of drying the 
paper. The furnaces are designed to burn either 
wood or coal, being equipped with interchangeable 
grates. An electric railway is being constructed to 
bring the refuse from a number of shingle mills 
in the vicinity of the plant. This refuse will first 
pass through an electrically driven hogging ma- 
chine and then be fed to the boilers. At present 
coal is used for firing. 

The electrical equipment consists of two 500- 
kilowatt 600-volt alternating-current generators, 



Chicago Street-railway Situation. 

I he I ry M\ 

Icring 
: the whole. 
I In franchise-extension ordinances for the Chi- 
1 mpany and the Union Trac- 
ipanj and it- underl; ii . drawn 

bj ihe local transportation committee, were to have 
been presented and coi ng with them 

the mayor's $75,000,000 Mueller certificate ordi- 
i taken up, the object 
being t" arrive at something definite for presenta- 
tion to tlie voters at the spring election. As soon 
..- ii-, council "1 called to order, and before it 
got as far as committee of ihe whole, a resolution 
was presented and passed sending the franchise- 
extension ordinances back to the local transporta- 
tion committee, with instructions to consider all 
suggested amendments and such other matters 
germane to the question as might be presented. 

The resolution was presented by those friendly 
with the majority of the transportation committee. 
It recited that the ordinances represented the best 
efforts of ihe majority .of the committee in the 
way of a solution of the traction problem, and 





itmi's 1 iri-K \ri-:n t i.li I ki, all 



\RGE PAPER MILL. 



motors may be of either the direct or alternating- 
current type, although the latter design, the induc- 
tion motor, is better suited to most paper-mill work. 
In order to bring out more clearly special adapta- 
tions of the electric system an interesting example 
of an electrically driven paper mill is briefly de- 
scribed. This plant, located at Munising, Mich., 
consists of three groups of buildings — the power 
house, the sulphite fiber mill and the paper mill. 
The power house is centrally located so as to sup- 



each direct connected to compound condensing en- 
gines rated at 850 indicated horsepower. There 
is also a 600-volt alternating-current generator 
having a capacity of 50 kilowatts, direct connected 
to an engine with the field exciter mounted on the 
same shaft. The other generators are supplied with 
current for field excitation from a 30-kilowatt di- 
rect-connected engine exciter set and a duplicate 
motor-driven set. For operating the railway the 
necessary direct current is furnished by a 35-kilo- 
watt 550-volt motor-generator set. Because of an 
increasing need for power it is proposed to add to 
this equipment soon a 1,500-kilowatt Curtis^ turbo- 
generator set which will take care of the increas- 
ing load and also provide a reserve capacity. 

The remaining illustrations show some ex- 
amples of induction-motor drive operating in the 
mill. The method of adapting the motors is self 
explanatory. All of the machinery is so arranged 
that one-half of the plant can be shut down with- 
out interfering with the operation of the other 
half. From the time the logs are run out of the 
canal on electrically driven conveyors until the 



that they embodied the limit of concession on the 
part of the companies. It stated that the majority 
of the committee believed that the settlement pro- 
posed by the ordinances, if submitted to a ref- 
erendum, would be accepted by the people and 
would bring about traction conditions of a high 
degree of efficiency and amply safeguard the pres- 
ent and the future interests of the city. Whereas 
amendments had been suggested to the ordinances, 
and. whereas the amendments, like the ordinance?, 
would have to be accepted by the companies be- 
fore becoming effective, and, whereas the com- 
panies had already said that they would not ac- 
cept the ordinances if essentially changed, there- 
fore, the object of the resolution was, to have the 
amendments taken up by the local transportation 
committee, which would Iisjen to all suggestions 
and negotiate at once with the companies con- 
cerning the proposed amendments. 

Meetings have already been held by the local 
transportation committee, which has been listening 
to suggestions from various speakers. There were 
many minor objections offered to the ordinances. 



40 



some of them being covered by the amendments 
submitted to Judge Grosscup by his special trac- 
tion adviser, John M. Harlan. On the four points 
covered by Mr. Harlan, and which are here given, 
all the objectors agreed. They are, in brief: 

That all bonds of the Union Traction Company 
in excess of $20,000,000 be either paid or pro- 
vided for inside of three years. That the Consoli- 
dated Traction Company be made a party to the 
ordinances, giving up its present franchises and 
accepting new ones. That unless all the ordi- 
nances are accepted by the grantee companies none 
of them become operative. That a fund be set 
aside by the companies for renewals and mainte- 
nance. 

At the time of going to press the committee is 
in adjournment, awaiting a reply from the traction 
companies as to the amendments mentioned. The 
committee was instructed to report to the council 
next Monday night. 

Col. James Hamilton Lewis and G. W. Brown- 
ing, representing the city of Chicago, and John P. 
Wilson, representing- the : traction companies, "were 
scheduled to appear in the Supreme Court in 
Washington this week to argue the tunnel ques- 
tion. This question comes from the Supreme 
■Court of Illinois, which decided the city had legal 
authority to enact an ordinance requiring the. street 
railways to lower' "the tunnels under the river. 
The g9-year cases were also expected to be argued 
this week. 



Westinghouse Electrostatic Voltmeter. 

In electrical testing and experimental work high 
pressures are frequently used, and the measure- 
ment of these potentials is often a perplexing 
problem. A number of different methods of high- 
pressure measurement have been used, with vary- 
ing degrees of success as to their accuracy, but 
all involve some uncertainty as to results. Where 
it is 'required that such apparatus as dynamos, 
transformers, cables, insulators, etc., be subjected 
to a specified pressure test as a condition of their 
acceptance, controversy often arises as to whether 
the required voltage has been applied. 

Theoretically correct, at least, is that method 
of high-potential measurement employing an elec- 
trostatic voltmeter, but certain obstacles, the prin- 
cipal one of which was the lack of an insulating 




FIG. I. ELECTOSTATIC VOLTMETER COMPLETE. 

medium of sufficient dielectric strength, have here- 
tofore prevented the development and application 
of this type of instrument. The Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company believes that 
it has succeeded in overcoming these difficulties 
and in producing a meter that requires for its 
operation a negligible amount of energy, that is 
free from the effects of variation of wave form 
and is direct reading. It is said that the faults 
inherent in all other methods of high-potential 
measurement are entirely absent from this meter. 
Fig. 1 is a view of the voltmeter complete. 

The operating elements of this instrument are 
immersed in a special grade of oil contained in a 
metal-lined wooden case, with an insulated cover. 
The metal lining acts as a screen to prevent out- 
side fields or influences from affecting the meter. 
As the insulation is one of the most important 
parts of an instrument of this type, a few of the 
advantages derived from the use of oil may be 
summarized as follows : 

(1) The distance between the operating ele- 
ments may be greatly lessened, thereby reducing 
the size of the instrument. 

(2) The actuating forces are greatly increased, 
due to the smaller distances between active parts 
and the high specific inductive capacity of the oil. 

(3) The reduction in distance between working 
parts of the meter makes possible a better form 
of scale. 

; (4) The oil acts as a damper and makes the 
instrument nearly dead beat and easy to read. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

(5) The oil buoys up the moving element, thus 
removing practically all weight from the bearings. 

The arrangement and relative position of the 
parts of the meter are shown in the diagrammatic 
sketch, Fig. 2. The curved plates (Bi) and (B-) 
are of such a shape and so arranged with respect 
to the moving element that a deflection in a posi- 
tive direction shortens the gap between the ele- 
ment and the plates. The charges induced on the 
two extremities of the moving element (Fig. 3) 
are of such a nature that they exert forces of 
attraction on the charges on the plates, which 
bring about such a movement. The turning of 
the moving element is restricted by a spring, and 
the deflection of the pointer is read on the scale. 
The condensers (G) and (C=) are in series with 
other parts of the instrument, one plate of each 
being metallically connected to a curved plate and 
the other to a terminal. The instrument may be 
operated with either or both condensers short- 
circuited, thus giving a wide range to the meter. 
Curved plates, with the condenser plates at- 
tached, as shown in Fig. 4, are supported from 
the insulated cover by means of grooved posts 
of suitable insulating material. The separate con- 



January 13, 1906 

The "Hold-fast" Lamp Guard. 

Users of incandescent electric lamps will be in- 
terested in the Hold-fast lamp guard, illustrated 
herewith, patented by Charles P. Anderson, on 
August 15, 190,5. The design of the collar makes 
it impossible to pull or jerk the guard from the 
socket. The center spreading ring is corrugated, 
and is said to be superio'r to a plain ring so far 
as strength and rigidness are concerned. The cor- 
rugations are deep, allowing the rib wires to lie 





3. Mov 



VOLTMETER. 



denser plates are supported in a similar manner. 
As all parts are firmly fastened to the same base, 
they are held in constant relation to each other, 
and no error can result due to disarrangement of 
parts. The height of the oil in the case, together 
with the long paths over the suspension posts, 
prevent leakage between the plates. The horn- 
shaped terminals (Fig. 4) extend to the same dis- 
tance below the oil as the suspension posts and 
are also grooved so as to prevent leakage over 
their surface. 

Bearing springs and adjustments are similar to 
corresponding parts of Westinghouse standard in- 
dicating instruments. The cylindrical parts of the 
moving elements are hollow, and so proportioned 
that the buoyant effect of the oil removes almost 
all weight from the bearings, thereby eliminating 
friction and wear. The scale over which the 
pointer passes is placed on an edgewise cylindrical 
form similar to the scale of an edgewise switch- 
board instrument, and the reading may be taken 
from a safe distance. With the exception of the 
glass window through which the scale is read, the 
cover over the pointer is all metal, and acts as 
a screen to prevent external static fields from 
affecting the pointer. Instruments of this type may 
be obtained for potentials as high as 200,000 volts. 
The one shown in the illustrations may be used 
for voltages up to 100,000 volts with the con- 
densers in circuit, or for approximately 50,000 or 
25,000 volts, with one or both condensers short- 



inward from the extreme outward circumferential 
point of the ring. In that position the connections 
are protected from any injury by impact upon the 
guard. This center ring is in the greater diameter 
of the guard and must meet practically all of the 
impact, thus protecting the ribs from becoming 
bent or dislocated. Its rigid construction makes 
it capable of withstanding a. heavy blow without 
collapsing, and for this reason the Hold-fast guard 
is said to be the only one made that is self-pro- 
tecting. 

The spiral cushion is- a guarantee against injury 
to the lamp under all conditions of usage. This 
cushion can be raised or lowered to fit any length 
or shape of lamp by bending the three terminals 
up or down. 

Through the bottom ring the lamps are removed 
or replaced. By its construction are eliminated all 





circuited. The case is 22 inches long, 18 inches 
wide, and i$% inches high, with terminals pro- 
jecting 18 inches above the case. 



adjustable', parts for that purpose. This is a 
marked improvement. 

The Hold-fast guard can be set down like an 
ordinary oil lamp when long cords are used around 
work benches or tables. When hanging, there is 
r.o obstruction to the downward rays of light. It 
is impossible for grounds to occur on this guard, 
as no part of it can get in contact with the ter- 
minals of the lamp socket. 

The maker of this guard, the Hold Fast Lamp 
Company of St. Louis, recently turned over the 
manufacture of these guards to W. N. Matthews 
& Bro. of that city. It is stated by the maker 
that, conservatively, 90 per cent, of the lamps on 
suspended sockets never burn their entire rated 
life before they are carelessly or accidentally 
broken. Taking the average life of a lamp at 
about four months at 26 days each, counting 10 
hours per day, and at a cost of 20 per cent., if 
broken the first month, it means a loss of 75 per 
cent, on the investment. The second month 50 
per cent, and the third month 25 per cent. Any 
lamp broken, carries with it a proportional per cent, 
of loss. 



The membership list of the National Electric 
Light Association, which has just been brought up 
to date by Secretary Eglin, shows that the associa- 
tion has grown considerably during the last year. 
The membership companies, Class A, number over 
500, and there are long lists under classes B, C, D 
and E. 



Municipal ownership and operation of an electric- 
light plant at Thorntown, Ind., have proved a failure. 
The plant is depreciating and losing money every 
day, while the taxpayers are bringing suits to pre- 
vent the trustees from paying interest and principal 
on the bonded debt on the ground that the con- 
tract entered into for the construction, of the 
plant was illegal. 



January 13, 1906 

Inter-pole Variable-speed Motor for 
Machine-tool Work. 

There hat been foi a numbi 1 
live demand for vai 1 ibli peed mi toi foi the 
direct driving of machinery, it 
opinion that the great bulk of machinery 
future is io be 'I"" 1 driven b 
rather than bell driven, - pecially in view ol thi 
fact that a substantial redui tio'n in 1 
facture in several different indu tries has bi 

de nstrated, when »a\ ing in pai c, labor, 

Installation and ■■ill otl 1 

c 1 There arc a numbei ol important condi 

tions which are essential and which 1 be met in 

order that variable speed motoi hall 1 01 to 

general use. Among these may be menti 1 non 

spat king lei exci iv< ovei load 1, 1 lai gi 1 mgi 

.ii speed "i motor, peed to bi kept coi 

all loads when adjusted to any de ired peed, 

pactness, simple wiring, revei ibility, impli trol 

ami simple accessories, the lightest p<> ible weight 
ami high efficiency under avi ragi load 

The Electro-Dynamic Company of Bayonne, X J ., 

Iit'licvcs that in its inter polr im l> n ilin, ha I 

developed a machine which will till tin- exacting 
requirements of machine-tool drive. Several im- 
portant claims arc made by the company for this 
motor. The speed variation is given from j to i 
up to 6 to 1. Almost any variation of speed con- 
trol can be obtained. Changes can be made in- 
stantly and the controlling apparatus can be placid 
anywhere on the tool or machinery for convenient c 
of operation. The speed can he set at almost any 
point between the limits with a certainty that prac- 
tically constant speed will be maintained under 
varying loads. The torque is increased as the 
speed is decreased, and this is an important factor 
both in maintaining constant speed and in having 
the tool work uniformly and with proper cutting 
capacity. 

In the past considerable trouble has been experi 
enced by sparking, at the commutator, when vary- 
ing speed of motors, and especially when over- 
loading. This difficulty is said to have been over- 
come entirely in the inter-pole motor, and it is 
asserted that it will not spark, even when over- 
loaded 100 per cent, and reversed. The control of 
this motor is effected by turning the handle of a 
controller placed within the reach of the operator. 
The motor operates on a single voltage. The inter- 
pole feature provides a separate field which makes 
excellent commutation, thus increasing the life and 
efficiency of the motor and making greater the 
saving in operating expenses. 

Among the recent applications of the inter-pole 
motor stand forth prominently its employment for 
driving elevators, machine tools, blowers, pumps, 
fans and similar classes of machinery. The ad- 
vantage of the scientific method of treating ma- 
chine-tool work calls for such apparatus as shall 
produce the desired speed and keep the tool up to 
its proper cutting capacity. The wide steps in 
cone pulleys frequently render proper cutting 
speeds impossible, owing to the fact that the cor- 
rect speed cannot be obtained, and consequently a 
workman is obliged to push through work at a 
slower cutting speed than that called for. 

The facility with which the speed can be edged 
up to the proper point by the inter-pole motor and 
the certainty with which its speed will be held 



WESTERN EI.I 

plii ih of mainl -, tuu furthi-r 

menuation foi th wilding 

In pai 
pole mot 

riation afforded for 
and 11 1 , imp.. 11 mi that run at 

ny particular 
nun.. 1 upon I' ■ •' 1 I 

. and 






111 th>- : 



l/f 




if the voltage is maintained constant. This gives 
a sense of security to the machinist or mechanic 
who operates it. 

For printing-press work, where the motor has to 
stand very heavy overloads at certain times and 
run below its full-rated capacity at others, the con- 
struction of this motor is well adapted, and the 
company reports increased sales in this particidar 
branch of its business. The ordinary variation 
given for printing-press work is 2 to i or 3 to !. 
and in many cases a compound winding is used to 
give greater torque at the moment of excessive 
overload. 



Michigan Traction Consolidation. 

I llr- ' 

which 

of the ' 

the Kalamazoo and 

railway between th*- ■ be deal 

'•: that connect 
the in! ■ ral and 

n Mi' higan ler the 

name of the Michigan United Railway 

by which the project will be 
financed aggregate $4,000,000. Lansing will Ik the 
center of the system, and the local management 
ell line will remain in the home cil 

nt. I he syndicate is composed of Myron 
W. Mills and George T. Moore of Port Huron 
and James R. Elliott 

The construct Lansing and Jackson 

railway will first be completed. It is also intended 
to build a line between Jackson and Adrian and 
to extend the line now operating between Lansing 
and Pine Lake to Owosso, and from Owosso to 
Flint. The consolidation will give the company 
control of 141 miles of road, as follows: Kalama- 
zoo, city, 14 miles; Battle Creek, city, 15 
Kalamazoo and Battle Creek, interurban, 30 miles; 
Jackson and Battle Creek, interurban, 37 miles ; 
Lansing, city. 15 miles; Lansing and St. Johns, 
intemrban, 22 miles; Pine Lake extension, eight 
miles. The completion of the Jackson-Lansing line 
will add 37 miles, and the Pine Lake extension 
to Owosso 18 miles, giving in all 196 miles. 



Dinner to Indiana Traction Men. 

After a pleasant trip over the Indianapolis and 
Cincinnati Traction Company's line the stockhold- 
ers and prominent traction men were given a din- 
ner at the Columbia Club on New Year's night, 
the guests of President Charles L Henry'. Hugh 
J. McGowan had been invited to respond to a 
toast, his subject being "Indianapolis as an Inter- 
urban Center." Mr. McGowan was unable to be 



Yerkes' Successors Named. 

Sir George S. Gibb, L.L.B., general manager of 
the Northeastern Railroad, has been elected man- 
aging director and deputy chairman of the Under- 
ground Electric Railways Company of London and 
also managing director and chairman of the Met- 
ropolitan District Railway Company. At the same 
meeting of the board Mr. Edgar Spcyer of Speycr 
& Co., American bankers of the Underground com- 
pany, was elected chairman of the Underground 
company. These positions were made vacant by 
the recent death of Charles T. Yerkes. 

Mr. Gibb. a British railroad man of long ex- 
perience, is 55 years old and an Aberdeen Scotch- 
man. He is accounted one of the most successful 




Main Bay of Electro-Dyna 



(independent of load) make it a valuable accessory 
to a machine tool, and this facility imparts a dis- 
tinct tone to the product of the shop. 

Ability of the inter-pole motor to stand heavy 
overloads without deterioration of commutator, 
due to absence of sparking, its excellent reversing 
qualities, compactness and durability in general, 
make it well adapted for machine work. The 
motor, being equipped with ball bearings, is en- 
abled to be set much closer to the machine it drives 
and the reduction in bearing friction and the sim- 



AHLK-SI'EED MOTO 



present, but sent a letter addressed to Mr. Henry, 
who acted as toastmaster. 

Mr. McGowan's letter was listened to with in- 
terest, since he predicted that in a short time 
every. Indiana hamlet will be on an interurban line. 
Referring to the Rushville single-phase line he 
said: 

"I cannot let this opportunity pass without com- 
plimenting the president of the Indianapolis and 
Cincinnati Traction Company upon the splendid 
result of his single-phase system on the Rushville 




and up-to-date railroad officials in England. His 
railroad experience began in the legal department 
of the Great Western Railway Company in 1877. 
He was later solicitor and then genera! manager 
of the Northeastern Railway Company, which office 
he now leaves to enter the sen-ice of the London 
Underground. Mr. Speyer will have charge of the 
general financial interests of the company, and 
b will have the executive direction of its 
technical operation, succeeding more directly to 
Mr. Yerkes' labors. 



42 



Efficiencies. 1 

By James Swinburne. 

Heat includes what is called sensible heat, or 
heat that makes things latent heat, such as heat 
that disappears when ice is melted or water vapor- 
ized and chemical energy. I must tell you that it 
is not orthodox to call chemical energy heat; and 
you will not find any such treatment of the subject 
in books on thermodynamics. At present I believe 
that I am alone in classing chemical energy or 
defining heat so as to include chemical energy. But 
the treatment of chemical energy in chemcial ther- 
modynamics is quite consistent with my definition, 
so I may use it provided I give you due warning of 
any heterodoxy. 

I think that it is not realized that chemical energy 
is necessarily low-grade energy, only partially con- 
vertible into work. This involves the idea of chem- 
ical temperature which may be important in chem- 
istry in discussing the way any given possible 
reaction will go; but we are not concerned with 
that here. It will be said that the coal is cold 
when it is put into the furnace, as cold as the air, 
in fact, so that if this idea is right, none of the 
chemical energy .is available. 

But I must give some idea of what I mean by 
chemical temperature. If carbon and oxygen are 
heated to a high enough temperature you get a 
state in which on the least fall of temperature the 
carbon and oxygen combine and give out sensible 
heat at that temperature under the other circum- 
stances that obtain. The least increase of tempera- 
ture, however, causes the carbon and oxygen to 
separate again, absorbing sensible heat. At this 
temperature, therefore, under the pressure and 
quantitative relations of the carbon, oxygen and 
carbon monoxide, sensible heat and chemical energy 
are interchangeable. _ This temperature may be 
called the chemical temperature of the energy of 
carbon and oxygen. I need not trouble you with 
discussions as to whether the energy is really in 
the carbon or the oxygen or the ether, or as to the 
effect of pressure and proportions of carbon, oxygen 
and monoxide on the reaction. I merely want to 
give you a broad idea of carbon as having or con- 
trolling chemical energy, or heat with a correspond- 
ing "chemical temperature" of the order of 3,000° 
C. or more. If the burning coal, containing of 
course other constituents, such as hydrocarbons 
with other chemical temperatures could hand over 
its heat at 3,000° C, nearly all of it would be avail- 
able. As the heat is finally rejected at condenser 
temperature of ido° or so, 3.000 — 100 -f- 3,000, or 
about 97 per cent, of it would be available. But the 
boiler takes it up at under 500° C. absolute, so 
that five-sixths is degraded or rendered unavailable 
right off. 

It might be supposed that there is enormous room 
for improvement in the steam engine. An efficiency 
diagram looks as if all the loss is due to the engine 
which gets 68 per cent, and only gives out seven 
per cent, but we must not be hard upon the engine. 
It is turning out work, or high-grade energy, and it 
is receiving heat, or low-grade energy. This engine 
is probably taking in steam at about 450° C. absolute 
and rejecting it at about 375° C. absolute, so it 
could if perfect only turn out 68 X 73 -=- 450 = 11.3; 
so it is not really doing so badly. The real loss is 
between the fuel and the boiler, and it is not loss 
of energy but loss of availability. Though the 
chemical is low-grade energy, it has such a high 
chemical temperature that 97 per cent is theoret- 
ically available; but we cannot run a boiler and 
engine between 3,000° C. and 4,000 ° C. Engineers 
are always trying to improve the results by using 
higher and higher temperatures ; but as you can- 
not use the pressure that would then correspond 
with saturated steam you can only superheat. This 
does not mean that most of the heat is taken in 
at the high temperature, and the resulting gain is 
chiefly due to such things as reduction of cylinder 
condensation. There are great practical difficulties 
in reducing the lower temperature. The condenser 
reduces it to about 100° C. or 373° C. absolute ; but 
even then the steam is not completely expanded, 
and blows into the condenser under pressure. The 
efficiency has been raised more recently by reducing 
the lower temperature limit by means of sulphur 
dioxide. I do not know who was the first to pro- 
pose this. Rayleigh suggested it as early as 1-876. 
It is being put in practice now in Germany. 

The right-hand part of the accompanying dia- 
gram illustrates the yearly losses in the Metropoli- 
tan system, supplying several London areas from- 
Willesden. I am indebted to Mr. Highfield for the 
figures. It will be seen that the transformers are 
very efficient, and when they can be cut out at 
light loads so that the transformers in use are 
always well loaded, the efficiency can be made very 
high. The diagram is also a little deceptive be- 
cause it takes no notice of the time at which the 
energy is wasted. Energy wasted at the time of 
station full load is serious, because if it were not 
wasted it might be sold, or else the station might 
be a little smaller in proportion. But most of the 
waste in transformers is at light loads, and it 
costs very little extra to generate extra power at 
times of light load, for it costs nothing extra in 
capital, superintendence or labor, and it does not 
cost much in coal, for the boilers have to be kept hot, 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

and some engines have to be kept running in any 
case. These points have to be borne in mind in 
considering the meaning of such diagrams. It 
will be seen that there is a loss of six per cent, in 
"station losses," only two per cent, feeder losses to 
sub-stations and 13 per cent, conversion losses and 
lighting of the sub-stations. 

These are for the year. They alter from time 
to time, so the wastes are shown black to the left 
for three representative times. Thus the station 
losses are seven per cent at noon, four per cent, at 
top load and 20 per cent, at three in the morning, 
and so on. This is because the losses do not vary 
in proportion to the loads. Through the various 
sources of waste energy the final result is that 
there is 21 per cent, loss af noon, or 79 per cent, 
efficiency, and 74 per cent, efficiency at six p. m., 
and up to 65 per cent, at three a. m., which is 
astonishingly good when the system is considered. 

If a station is run by a town the accounts must 
be kept by an absurd system. Towns are generally 
concerned with such things as sewerage systems, in 
which there is no profit and loss account. The 
town may not treat its sewerage system as a per- 



January 13, 1906 







o! the British Institution of Electrical En 



) the Manchester local s 



Top Load 100 

DIAGRAM SHOWING LOSSES IN METROPOLITAN ELECTRIC 
SUPPLY SYSTEM. 

manent asset at all. It has to borrow money to 
put down its sewerage system, say iioo.ooo at three 
per cent. Then it has to pay £3,000 a year interest. 
But that is not all — it has to pay back the whole 
of the iioo.ooo in a certain number of years, to 
do this it has to provide out of the rates a sinking 
fund, such that in the prescribed term of years the 
whole of the debt is paid off. The town then has 
a sewerage system to the good, which has been paid 
for over many years out of the rates. The town 
therefore does not save money like the private indi- 
vidual and then buy what it can afford. I do not 
think it would be allowed to do such a rational 
thing; it has to borrow money for everything and 
pay it back over a term of years. The length of 
the term has no reference whatever to the nature 
of the work done, as the work is not in any way 
security for the loan; the local rates are the se- 
curity. There is an epidemic of outcry just now 
about municipal indebtedness, but it is apt to give a 
totally wrong impression to the average reader, as 
he does not realize that municipalities must be in 
debt owing to the way these things are arranged. 
For a private individual always to be in debt would 
be bad; for a town it is another matter; the only 
question is how much the town ought to be in 
debt. The nation itself does business in the same 
sort of way; it has no ready money, and when any- 
thing has to be done it borrows. But local au- 
thorities are now taking up such businesses as elec- 
tric supply and tramways, which have profit and 
loss sides; they are obliged to work the businesses 
on the same lines as town improvements, which is 
absurd. 

A municipal electric-light scheme is thus worked 
under absurd difficulties. It is like a public company 
that has a negative capital — that is to say, all its 
money is borrowed. The shareholders are the 
ratepayers. They hold shares depending on the rate 
assessments. The dividends are generally negative. 
All the shareholders are so by compulsion if they 
live in the place. The only thing they can do 
if they do not want to be shareholders in such 
undertakings is to move off to another town; but 
then they become shareholders in another set ^ of 
ventures. I believe the only way to avoid being 
shareholders in these compulsory undertakings is 
to live in a barge on a canal. Be this as it may, 
the undertaking, though a profit and loss concern, 
must keep its accounts on the same principle as if 
it were a sewerage system. To begin with, the town 
may only borrow enough money to put do\yn the 
plant This has to be paid off, as already explained, 
by the sinking fund, which returns all the borrowed 
money in say 20 years. The plant may last 10 
years" or it may last 50; that has nothing to do with 
the case. If the plant lasted 20 and then went into 
powder, like Holmes' "one-hoss shay," the sinking 
fund would correspond with correct depreciation. 
If it lasts less something more should be allowed, 
and less should be written off for the parts that 
will last longer. This right depreciation to be 
allowed in municipal works is a burning question 
between the advocates of municipal trading and its 
opponents. Again, a private concern would start 
business with enough capital to put down the sta- 
tion and to run it at a loss for a year or two until 



it turned the corner. The municipality may not do 
anything as sensible as that; it may only borrow 
money enough to put down the station, and the first 
few years' losses must be paid for out of the rates 
for these years. This sometimes excites the rate- 
payers. 

Almost any business has to be run at a loss at 
first, and enough capital is provided to meet the 
deficit, and when the business pays it ought to pay 
on the whole capital. No one would think of start- 
ing, say a works, with no working capital at all, 
and distributing a negative dividend during the 
next few years to pay the losses. This is one of 
the many absurd conditions under which municipal 
work has to suffer. In one case a lovingly solicitous 
gas company felt that it was hard that a municipal- 
ity should lose during the first years, so it got a 
clause inserted to the effect that if there were a loss 
the price should be raised and raised until there 
was either no loss or no customers ; it did not mat- 
ter which, though in its heart of hearts the gas 
company preferred the latter. This clause was sol- 
emnly inserted in one or two acts by the collective 
wisdom of the country. It may interest you to real- 
ize that the large commercial interests of this coun- 
try are controlled by a set of people who think that 
if a manufacture does not pay, the simple expe- 
dient of raising the price will put things right 

Referring to the comparative costs of different 
artificial illuminants, if electrical energy costs 4d. 
a Board of Trade unit, an ordinary glow lamp will 
give nearly Soo candlepower for is. A flame arc 
with energy at 3d. gives you 14,000 candle-hours. 
It must be remembered that the is. is all spent on 
energy, nothing is allowed for renewal of lamps, 
interest on fittings, meter rents, interest on arc 
lamp, cost of carbons or labor. For Is., with 
energy at sd., you get about the same light as with 
a flat-flame gas burner and gas at 4s. The ordinary 
oil lamp, with paraffin at 8d. a gallon, beats them 
both hollow, and it is out of the running with 
acetylene. The great fight between electricity and 
gas has been fought with the flat-flame burners and 
carbon lamps, and there has been much discussion. 
I have been accused of a strong partiality for elec- 
tric light. But I feel impartial. I really do not 
know which is the worst. The gas mantle makes 
an enormous difference and brings gas, say at 3s., 
ahead of everything but the mercury and flame arcs 
at, say 4Hd. a unit. The flame arc is essentially 
for large lights, while the mantle lights can be 
made quite small. The comparison is, I repeat, only 
for the same money paid for gas or energy. To 
make a real comparison many other factors are 
to be taken into account. There is the interest on 
the mercury lamp for one thing ; then its color is 
not good ; and if you add carbon lamps the effi- 
ciency goes down. On the other side, however, 
you have to estimate the cost of mantles, the 
trouble and worry of breakages, and of the jets 
getting stopped up, and so on. Even then it must 
be clear that the mantle has a large margin of 
economy for the house lamps, such as the Nernst, 
the metal and the carbon incandescents. For out- 
door use and for large buildings the flame arc 
seems to have plenty of margin over the mantle, 
though large mantle lamps are even better than 
some of the smaller ones. 

In addition to the cost of lamps, mantles, etc.. we 
must remember that if an illuminant spoils the deco- 
rations the extra cost of redecorating should be 
charged against it. Gas blackens the ceilings and 
destroys paint, and so on ; and the extra cost of 
decoration may be as heavy as the whole cost of 
electric light, in which case it does not pay to 
employ gas at any price. This argument annoys 
the gas industry, so it is sound and good. 



California Electric Power Consolidation 
Completed. 

The final consolidation of the principal electric 
power interests of California, under the name of 
the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, was brought 
about last week. The promoters of the new com- 
pany early in the week turned over to the Union 
Trust Company, trustee for the San Francisco 
Gas and Electric Company, $3,150,000 in cash and 
$10,101,460 in five-per cent, gold bonds to be dis- 
tributed among the stockholders of the San Fran- 
cisco Gas and Electric Company in the proportions 
of $25 in cash and $65 in bonds for each share of 
stock in the San Francisco Gas and Electric Com- 
pany. The taking over of the California Gas and 
Electric Corporation by the Pacific Gas and Electric 
Company had already been accomplished. The own- 
ers of the new company are N. \V. Halsey & Co. of 
New York, and the leading stockholders of the Cal- 
ifornia Gas and Electric Corporation. John A. Brit- 
ton has been elected president of the new company. 
The new company has secured extensive quarters 
on the eighth and ninth floors of the Shreve Build- 
ing, San Francisco, in which executive offices will 
be established. It is still unknown whether or not 
the company will be able to secure control of the 
Mutual Electric Light Company of San Francisco. 
It is known that a large number of stockholders 
of the Mutual company are in favor of selling, but 
there is a strong minority which is opposed to the 
deal. 



January 13, 1906 

Growth of the WrlKht Demand Indicator 
Business In the United States. 

'l he u righl d ind ind 

\1il11n \\ 1 ighl ol Bl igl ■ I nd, for use with 

tlie Wright di mand 

1 hie system w 1 1 introdw cd in B n ik,,.< 

.,11.1 w .1 ■ promptly follow, d by 

income, l«y greatly imprc cd load ■factoi ind b 

large increase in the numbei ol long 

tomei 

R. S, I talc broughl o\ m I 11° ind in 1896 

the i" 1 W 1 ighl indi al ll Ui 

[807 Mr. Wrighl Inn. icll 1 ■ ad I" ti 11 

El I.i.'lil A Ol 1 ..1 

papi 1 entitled, "Profitab 1 

Supply Stations," in which he outlined hi 

in detail. I his • 1 ved 1.. focu ; : tenl 1 

central station managi 1 on the rati que ' 

the principle 1 nuni iated bj »i 1 v. 1 ighl rapidly 

gaining recognition \i the pr. cnl timi 1 d 

I i f some form based on lh< e pi in. iplc 1 

in use in ill.- more promim nl citii ol ! i 1 

States such as N'i « York, Chicago, B Dctr. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Si. Loui . fopeka, Den 



ERN ELEl 'ilMClAN 

equipped ivlth the tl 

tli. pri 



Engineering Features of tho Jhalum 
Power Installation In India. 

\l.. , 
ill.- Jhclum I' 

of San Frai 
! I.- i-i ivitj 1 ondu • '"t will 

be appi 
ill.- upp. 
ditch 

Hume, 



* 

Oscillographic Researches on Surging 
in High-tension Lines. 




WRIGHT DEMAND INDICATOR 

St. Paul, Minneapolis, Seattle, Rochester, N. Y., 
and Springfield, Mass., as well as in a large number 
of the smaller cities. 

The manufacture of Wright demand indicators 
in this country was begun in 1898 by the General 
Incandescent Arc Light Company of New York, 
which purchased the right from the English com- 
pany. The business grew rapidly and was trans- 
ferred to Pittsfield in 1903, where improved facili- 
ties were obtained and the present capacity of the 
works of the Stanley-G. I. Electric Manufacturing 
Company is 1,000 indicators per week. The busi- 
ness continues to grow, and for the first 10 months 
of the present fiscal year, which dates from Febru- 
ary 1st, is already 34 per cent, ahead of last year's 
total. 

The accompanying illustration shows some of the 
assembly benches in the factory at Pittsfield, Mass., 
with indicators awaiting inspection. 



The New Philadelphia Subway. 

On December 18th the first section of the new 
Philadelphia subway, previously allude to in the 
Western Electrician, was opened for traffic. This 
section runs from Fifteen Street to the Schuylkill 
River under Market Street. Two inside tracks will 
be used for express trains and two outside tracks 
for locals when the subway is completed. The 
completed section is 48 feet six inches wide inside 
and 14 feet six inches above the rails. The walls 
are of reinforced concrete and the floor of plain 
concrete. 

An interesting type of track construction is used, 
having no ballast, for the purpose of providing 
a perfectly sanitary condition. The entire roadbed 
can be washed down with a hose and drained 
through sumps placed at frequent intervals. The 
rails for the local tracks are mounted on cast-iron 
chairs, which, with the rails, are embedded in 
concrete. The rails are secured to the chairs by 
adjusting screws, making it possible to set the 
rails to exact gauge. Except at crossovers, the 
express tracks are mounted on yellow-pine blocks, 
to which they are attached by clips and screw 
spikes. One rail for each express track has been 
reserved for block signaling; the other rail is 
bonded with a protected bond, and the two return 
rails are cross-bonded. 

As surface trolley cars will be operated over 
the local tracks, an overhead wire is provided, 
supported in a special flexible suspension. The 



FACTORY READY FOR INSPECTION. 

will have a capacity of over 500 cubic feet per 
second. 

The forebay at the end of the gravity line and 
at the head of the pressure pipes will be con- 
structed of masonry and will be provided with 
special headgates. 

The pressure lines will consist of rivelc.l steel 
pipes designed with a factor of safety of five, each 
supplying one of the hydro-electric units. For each 
pipe line a standpipe and two special vacuum valves 
will be provided, in order to protect the pipe 
against injury in case the water should be drawn 
out suddenly. The pipes of each pressure line 
will vary in diameter from 30 to 36 inches, with 
a 54 to 36-inch taper pipe, 10 feet long, at the 
upper end. The pipes will be 790 feet in length 
and will deliver the water under an effective head 
of 400 feet. The interior piping of the power 
house will consist of welded pipe with welded 
flanges. 

Twelve main units and three exciter units have 
been planned for the equipment of the power house. 
Each main unit will consist of a Doble tangential 
waterwheel with automatic oil-pressure governor, 
delivering 1,765 brake horsepower to the shaft, un- 
der an effective head of 400 feet. Each wheel will 
be direct connected to a 1,000-kilowatt alternator, 
the speed of the unit being 500 revolutions per 
minute. The exciter units will each consist of 
a tangential waterwheel. delivering 285 brake horse- 
power to the shaft under an effective head of 400 
feef. The speed of the exciters will also be 500 
revolutions per minute. 

The power house will be of solid masonry con- 
struction and will have a wide veranda as a pro- 
tection from the tropical sun. A double steel roof 
will be provided, and two traveling cranes will be 
installed for handling the machinery. The trans- 
formers will be installed in a bay of the main 
building or in a separate structure. 

The conditions under which the plant will be 
installed arc decidedlv out of the ordinary as com- 
pared with similar work in this country. The 
specifications for the electrical and hydraulic equip- 
ment stipulated that no single piece of machinery 
should weigh more than four tons when packed, 
for the reason that there is 200 miles of road_ 
transportation, including a lift over a range of 
mountains S.ooo feet high. Transportation in that 
section of the country is limited to bullock cart, 
and no single piece of machinery heavier than four 
tons can be transported, a total of five tons m- 



ired in two way* in a 

inge of circuit condition taking 

in additional line, the open- 
ing of a circuit wit] 

■;, in the tii.-.' 

' 

vstcm and can 
When a transmission lux 
ban maintained at constant potential the line may 
ndenser with inductance and 
■ rics. According to theory 
■ 
High-potential Transmission Lines), the 
maximum value of the oscillating electr. • 

rce producing the surging; that is, when a 

source of electromotive force 

ntial may rise to double potential and will 

cillate between this value and zero with 

continually diminishing amplitude. The amplitude 

oscillations set up depends on the point of 

the impressed electromotive-force wave at which 

the circuit switch is closed. Also the frequency of 

the oscillations set up is independent of the im- 

frcqiiency but depends on the line constant. 

Ilie instantaneous values of electromotive force 

i.-nts were obtained by means of a Blondcl- 

I .11. .graph. In the ordinary form of 

graphs the images arc obtained on a 

plate 3.5 inches by 4.5 inches. It was ad- 

to arrange some means by which the records 

would be taken for a time sufficient to include 

conditions not only during the period of surging but 

for the time before and after. 

Instead of the ordinary plate a film 3.5 inches 
wide by 4.5 feet long was wound on a wooden 
cylinder placed in a closed box with a shutter and 
arranged so that the images on the galvanometer 
mirrors could be thrown on the film. This drum 
was rotated by a small motor, so that the width 
of a period length as shown on the film could be 
altered by speeding or slowing the motor. It was 
thus possible to obtain a large number of periods 
on one film. 

The transmission lines experimented upon are 
shown in Fig. i mi the next page. 

The two stations of Plan du Var and La Mecla 
operate in parallel. These stations arc 4!i miles 
distant. The line joining them is overhead, three- 
three conductors, 24 inches apart. No. 1. 
1; & S. copper wires. From station of Plan du 
Y.ir two overhead transmission lines. 17 and 15 
miles long, go respectively to sub-stations at La 
and Ste. Agathe. The line to La Begude 
is made up of three conductors. No. 2. B. & S.. 24 
inches apart, and that to Ste. Agathe of No. 1. 
B. & S. ; conductors same distance apart. 

The sub-stations at La Begude and Ste. Agathe 
are connected by an underground three-conductor 
lead-covered cable eight miles long, No. 00, B. & S. 
conductors. 

Capacity in microfarads between one conductor 
and the other two connected* to the lead covering, 
0.S25 per 1,000 feet. Capacity in microfarads be- 
tween the three conductors joined together and the 
lead covering. 0.825 per 1,000 feet. 

It was thus possible to experiment with a cir- 
cuit forming a loop of a total perimeter of 40 
miles — 32 miles of which was overhead, the remain- 
ing eight miles underground, the underground part 
about midway along the loop. 

A three-phase 600-kilovolt-ampere 25-cycle ti.ooo- 
volt alternator, driven by a ooo-horsepower hori- 
zontal turbine, provided the electric power. The 
switchboard in the station was equipped with high- 
tension oil switches and three-pole air knife switches 
were also provided. 

The electromotive force wave of the generator 

showed the effect of the fifth and seventh har- 

which were the only ones noticed, and they 

were quite small, the fifth being less than two per 

the value of the fundamental one._ 

The first experiments consisted in making and 

1. From an abstract of Mr. David's paper given, with introduc- 
tion, by L A. Herdt before the Electrical Section of the Canadian 
Society -t eis November 2, 190= 



44 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 13, 1906 



breaking with an air switch the charging current 
at the sending end of the line, the charging cur- 
rent being approximately five amperes at 8,000 
volts. The 40-mile circuit was unloaded but for 
a few transformers with open circuit secondaries 
which were left accidently on the line. 

In Fig. 2, (Ui) is the electromotive-force wave 
across one phase at the generator, (Us) the voltage 
at the end of the line. Waves (U,) and (Us) have 
been shown in opposition of phase, that is (Us) is 
displaced by 180 to show the two curves more dis- 
tinctly. 

The line is shown to have been switched on 
the bus-bars when the impressed electromotive 
force is changing sign, and, as would be expected, 




SUBST/JT/OA/ or 

lr Becuoc 

FIG. I. TRANSMISSION LINES, WIRES 24 INCHES 
APART. 

the oscillations produced are very small. The oscil- 
lations cease in the first half period after the 
make. When the line is opened there are no oscil- 
lations on (Ui), but the wave (Us) shows at the 
rupture a damped oscillation of large period. 

Fig. 3 shows the line switched on at the mo- 
ment when the impressed electromotive force is 
near one-fourth period. 

At first the impressed electromotive force is sud- 
denly reduced, but further a rise of potential takes 
place, giving a 50 per cent, increase of impressed 
pressure. A rise is also shown on wave (Us). 
The oscillations cease in the first period after the 
make. Here again there are no oscillations in the 
impressed electromotive-force waves when the cir- 
cuit is opened, but (Us) shows a momentary surge. 

When the line was switched on at a moment 
when the impressed electromotive force was at or 
near one-third, one-half or two-thirds period, the 
surges on both ends of the line were well shown 
and quite large. The rise of potential, how- 
ever, did not in any one of a large number of 
experiments exceed 55 per cent. The oscillations 
took place in one period after the make of the 
switch. When the switch was opened the voltage 
never rose, but in all cases the wave (Us) showed 
a much longer period and is damped out in a sin- 
pie oscillation. 

Records taken on the unloaded line, when oper- 




FIG. 2. OSCILLOGRAPH CURVES WHEN IMPRESSED PRES- 
SURE WAS CHANGING SIGN. 

ated with an oil switch in place of the air switch, 
do not differ very much from those just shown. 

In 12 different experiments the rise of voltage 
for (Ui) and (Us) is as follows (line switched 
in): 

Per Cent. 

U, (E. M.F. at bus-bars) one rise of potential 64 

two " " 60 

three '" " 25 

For Us difference of potential end of line: 



Oscillographic records were taken on non-induct- 
ive load with oil switch and were given for the 
switch placed between the generator bus-bars and 
the line and the switch placed between the line and 
th load. A three-phase water rheostat was placed 
at the end of the lint as a load. 

The experiments under load were carried out in 




the following manner: The alternator was loaded 
through the 40-mile line on the water rheostat. 
The switch was then opened for one-half second 
and then closed. The load was adjusted to 22 
amperes, a voltmeter on the line side of the switch 
reading (Ui) (7,200 volts on one phase) and a 
voltmeter placed on the rheostat reading (U s ) 
(6,200 volts). 

The opening of the switch took place when (Ui) 
was zero. No rise of potential occurred. Other 
records showed similar results. The break was al- 
ways shown to take place at zero value of impressed 
electromotive force. Mr. David is uncertain as to 
whether this was due to the oil switch or pure 
hazard. 

In other diagrams, waves (Ui) and (Us) are 
shown when the switch is closed. There is no 
surging or rise of potential. The regime is steady 
after the first period following the close of the cir- 
cuit. 

With a high-tension oil switch placed at the 
end of line, the oil switch was placed between 
the receiving end of the line and the rheostat, so 
that the alternator was kept on the line when the 
load was switched off. Oscillations were shown 
on (Ui) and (Us), but without rise of potential. 

Experiments were carried on with an air swatch, 
this sw 7 itch being of special make, allowing the arc 
made at the break to rise between copper horns, 
increasing the length of the arc until it broke. The 
records showed that the rise of potential with this 
switch is considerably greater than with the oil 



/ \ \ I 



FIG. 4. OSCILLOGRAPH CURVES ON UNLOADED CABLE. 

switch under similar conditions of load and that 
the oscillations are kept up for at least two periods 
after the opening of the circuit. 

An underground cable was experimented with 
also, being a three-conductor lead-covered cable, 
four miles long. The cable unloaded was switched 
on the bus-bars through an oil switch, and records 
of electromotive force and current are shown in 
Fig. 4. The bus-bar voltage was 9,700. The cur- 
rent value is not given but could not be more than 
a few amperes. 

In Fig. 4 (U) the electromotive-force wave shows 
little oscillations, not so with the current wave 
(I). Rapid oscillations take place during the 
first half period corresponding to the closing of the 
switch. 

A cable was switched on when the impressed 
electromotive force was about changing sign. The 
electromotive-force wave showed no oscillations. 
The current wave showed violent ones. The maxi- 
mum values of the current exceeded the width of 
the film and were not recorded on the plate. The 
negative and positive waves were dissimilar and the 
distances between the zero values were unequal. 
The switch was opened after an interval of four 
periods and the current had not then taken its nor- 
mal value. 



The North St. Louis Power Company has been 
incorporated with $10,000 capital stock by S. T. G. 
Smith, lohn G. Keyser and M. C. Keyser of St. 
Louis and Robert Gaylord, H. P. Young, W. T. 
Alden and C. R. Latham of Chicago, to develop 
waterpower. 



Central Illinois Independent Telephone 
Meeting. 

The Fifth District of the Illinois Independent 
Telephone Association, comprising the managers 
and owners of Independent telephone exchanges 
in Peoria, Marshall, Tazewell, Mason and Logan 
counties, held a meeting in Peoria on January 5th 
and 6th. The Fifth District is composed of pro- 
gressive men, who are giving the toll-rate commit- 
tee of the association all the assistance that lies 
in their power. To promote the best for the busi- 
ness in which they are interested they are organ- 
ized, besides their affiliation with the state associa- 
tion into the Central Illinois Independent Telephone 
Association, which is connected with the Inter-state 
Telephone and Telegraph Company. This com- 
pany has upward of 3.000 telephones in Peoria, 
with lines extending almost to Chicago. It has 
made Peoria the hub of the Independent business 
in Central Illinois. 

The meeting in Peoria was to consider the 
question of the adjustment of toll rates through- 
out the district and, incidentally, throughout the 
entire state. The plan as advanced by the toll- 
rate committee, composed of J. S. Dailey of 
Chillicothe, James Barrett of Pekin and C. A. 
Camp of Sparland, is that the Independent com- 
panies throughout the Fifth District unite on a 
uniform toll rate that shall obtain in all parts of 
the territory, and establish a clearing house, to be 
opened possibly in Peoria, from which the earnings 
w^ill be distributed equitably among the lines par- 
ticipating in the carriage of a message. 

Some 50 of the owners and managers of the 
systems radiating from Peoria attended the meeting 
and took part in the discussion of the question of 
merging their interests to bring about the best 
results. The toll-rate committee was continued in 
service until the April meeting, with enlarged pow- 
ers, the most important of which are the solicita- 
tion of toll connections in all parts of the state 
and in other and adjoining districts to join in the 
agreement and accept the articles which will be 
drawn up by the committee, the reception of whose 
report will be made the order of business at the 
next meeting of the association. 

For a number of months the Independents have 
had a working agreement among themselves and 
have handled the business of the public more from 
the standpoint of accommodation than for the 
actual monetary consideration to be derived there- 
from. The need of this adjustment of the toll 
rates led to the appointment of the toll-rate com- 
mittee at the meeting of the Central Illinois Inde- 
pendent Telephone Association held several months 
ago. The work of reaching an agreement is a 
difficult one. In the district within the bounds of 
the five counties are .65 different concerns operat- 
ing 108 exchanges, with 30,000 telephones and 6.000 
miles of toll wire. An extension of the toll lines 
in Central Illinois is planned. A new line will be 
strung between Peoria and Washington, a distance 
of 12 miles, at which place connection is to be had 
through El Paso with the Independent toll lines 
north and south, from the outskirts of Chicago to 
Springfield. From the present indications the year 
1906. it is believed, will be the most prosperous 
one in Central Illinois in the building of toll lines. 



TELEPHONE MEN. 



F. P. Fish, president of the American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company, reached San Francisco 
from Boston a few days ago. 

Leigh W. Prentice, formerly manager of the 
telephone exchange in New Richmond, Wis., and 
afterward at St. Cloud, Minn., died a few days 
ago of consumption at his home in Clinton, Iowa. 
He had been manager of the Tri-city Telephone 
Company in Clinton for several years. 

As a memorial to his father, Alexander Graham 
Bell has presented to the Association for Diffusion 
of Knowledge to the Deaf, for the benefit of the 
Volta Bureau, real estate, bonds and gifts valued 
at $75,000. The bureau was established by Dr. 
Alexander Melville Bell. Three generations of the 
family have been interested in problems relating 
to its work. 

E. B. Danielson of Chicago died a few days ago 
at the age of 35 years. He had been in the em- 
ployment of the Chicago Telephone Company for 
many years and had charge of its supply depart- 
ment when this department was made a part of 
the supply department of the Western Electric 
Company several years ago. Since that time he 
has had charge of that part of the supply business 
of the Western Electric Company relating to the 
business of the Chicago Telephone Company. Mr. 
Danielson had many friends throughout the coun- 
try who will be grieved to learn of his death. 



The monthly instrument statement of the Chi- 
cago Telephone Company shows for December a 
gain of 2,104 subscribers in the city and 816 in 
the country. Total gains for the year 1905 were. 
17.644 telephones in the city and 7,686 in the coun- 
try, a total of 25,33°. A call has been issued for 
the annual meeting of stockholders, to be held in 
the offices of the company on January 17th. 



January 13, 1906 



ELE( 1 1- 1 



Indiana Telephone Items. 

The Mutual 1 1 li pi I omp 11 Ibyvillc 

will soon begin the construe! ni p 

building will be 1 n eti d tor exi 10 ki and 

all the wires in the bu ini 1 1 of the city will 

be laid underground, David B Wil 01 

of the company. 11 i expected thai th< new plant 

will be in operation by the first of May. 

1 he I ■ ntral 1 nion 1 eli pi 1 ompany and 

the 1 [ope [ndependenl 1 1 lephone 1 omp iny al 1 topi 

ItlirthoI'Miii w ' niliity, li' ■■ 

Some time ago thi I is' End li nl 

phone ( V-lnp.'iJiy ni I mIiiiiiI.ii m.i'l, in 

tin: I I'M 1 ■. . properly, bill tin- pi 

mandril w.i in. 1 liip.li. 

The Indiana [ndepi ndenl I - li phom 
has issui'il the first number ol rhi Bulletin, a 
ini.iiilily publication devi ited < lusi <■ to ti 
pendent telephone industry in Indiana 11 Bu 
tin is under the direction of C. S, 

i.-iry "f the as '....in 1 1 hi is creditabli 

in appearance and character. The chiei aim 
first issue seems to be to convince the people thai 
the greater number of telephone connections possi- 
hle the more valuable the service, and that, unlike 
many other industries, the larger the plant the 
greater the cost, proportionately, to operate it. 

The Salem Ridge Mutual Telephone C panj 

of Kising Sun has been incorporated. William 
Rockafcllow, Charles Rice, G. A. Woods and Clay 
Miller are the directors. 

The Indiana branch of the Illinois Central rail- 
road is being thoroughly equipped with Independ 
ent telephone service. Copper wire weighing 166 
pounds to the mile is being used for the long-dis- 
tance circuit. 

The Central Union Telephone Company is Hear- 
ing the completion of new lines surrounding the 
city of Crawfordsville. During the last two months 
this company has set 90 miles of poles and is now 
running 600 miles of wire to complete the neces- 
sary connections. 

It is expected that the final struggle between 
the New Long-distance Telephone Company and 
the Bell telephone company for the long-distance 
business arising from the exchange of the Citizens' 
Telephone Company in Kokomo will take place at 
the next meeting of the City Council of Kokomo. 

The Central Union Telephone Company has 
finished placing its wires underground in the city 
of Lafayette. The improvement in the appearance 
of the streets by the removal of the poles and wires 
is marked. 

A petition will be filed with the new Board of 
Public Works in Indianapolis next week from the 
Indianapolis Telephone Company requesting several 
changes in the contract between the city and the 
Home Telephone Company to the end that the 
company may increase its rates in Indianapolis 
and also for an extension of its 25-year franchise. 
The Indianapolis Telephone Company — a holding 
and operating and interest-guaranteeing concern — 
operates in Indianapolis under the contract made 
by the city in May, 1898, with the Home Telephone 
Company. The Indianapolis Telephone Company 
recently passed from the hands of local holders 
into a syndicate that is dominated by St. Louis 
and Toledo financial interests. The opposition to 
a modification and an extension seems to be melt- 
ing away, and it is generally believed if the new 
holders make it plain to the Board of Public 
Works and the City Council that the improvements 
named in their petition will be made there will 
be no great opposition to granting the request for 
an increase of rates and an extension of the fran- 
chise. 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals has 
affirmed the decision of the District Court and 
holds that the Cumberland Telephone Company is 
on the streets of Evansville, with no rights under 
the law. The injunction to prevent the city from 
disturbing the company's property has been dis- 
solved. While the decision means that the Cum- 
berland Telephone Company is without a fran- 
chise and the city has a right to remove its poles 
and wires, the feeling of the people has undergone 
a change. The Cumberland system covers the ter- 
ritory of Evansville as no other does, and it is 
claimed that the people of Evansville prefer this 
system to any other. The Pocket Telephone (In- 
dependent) is asking for a franchise and claims to 
have a good system in the territory. However, it 
is conceded that the Cumberland company has 
the advantage by reason of its established plant and 
can afford to bid higher than a new company for 
a franchise. S. 



Telephone News from the Northwest. 

The Northwestern Telephone Exchange Company 
has installed a local exchange for Isanti, Minn. The 
company is improving its toll lines around Lake 
Minnetonka, from Excelsior, Minn., and has just 
completed connection with St. Bonifacius. 

J. J. Maloney, manager of the Northwestern 
Telephone Exchange Company at St. Cloud, Minn., 
has been transferred to Albert Lea, Minn., for the 
same company. He is succeeded at St. Cloud by 
James P. Howatt, who has been wire chief. 

During the next two years the Twin City Tele- 
phone Company proposes to construct about 21,000 
feet of underground conduit in Minneapolis, which 
will cost about $22,000. This, together with the 



:'„:, will 

entail an • 
and Wi 

earning 

'l he 
pany will remove il 1 old ti 
Minn , and ' 

Minn , is mount. 

Minn. 

■ 1 li. |i bough) 

St, James, Minn . and ha a 

I 
1, 1906, 
certain 1 
with. 1 hi dad finds very little pn 

.... the total an a 1 leart .1 of ■■• in 

too extended and was unreasonable. The council 

11 1 in underground territory materially 

. ground within 

two years f*he panii say that seven t.. to 

ould I"' allowed. 

A new telephone exchange has been installed in 
the North Dakota Agricultural College at Fargo. 

The Northwestern Telephone Exchange Company 
has established a new division to include most of 
the business section of Minneapolis, the Main ex- 
change having become filled. A new north division 
will also be established shortly. R. 



■ 

I - the pta 



Ohio Telephone Notes. 

The statement has been made that a new com- 
pany will be formed to take over the property of 
the Federal Telephone Company and that collateral 
bonds will be issued to take care of the debt 
against the company and to provide money for 
improvements and extensions. The Everett-Moore 
syndicate, to which the large part of the debt is 
due, will take stock in the new company in pay- 
ment and the other stockholders will be asked to 
participate in the same way. The St. Louis syndi- 
cate thatT has been spoken of so many times in 
connection with the company is expected to take 
the bonds with a 40-per cent, stock bonus besides 
considerable of the stock issue. 

Thee Cleveland Telephone Company, according 
to General Manager Yensen's recent statement, has 
secured 5,000 new subscribers during the last year. 
Besides building a new exchange, as already men- 
tioned in the Western Electrician, the company will 
probably expend something like $1,000,000 in im- 
provements and extensions in and about Cleveland 
the coming year. The number of subscribers' sta- 
tions is now 25,000, Mr. Yensen said. 

The Columbus Citizens' Telephone Company is 
engaged in installing new telephones, orders for 
which have been waiting for many months, some 
of them two years. It is reported that the company 
has announced an advance in the price of the serv- 
ice and that some dissatisfaction has been caused 
thereby. 

The Cumberland Telephone Company will build 
four direct wires from Louisville to New Orleans. 
This will give the company better service with the 
South. 

The Van Wert Home Telephone Company of 
Van Wert has notified the secretary of state of an 
increase of capital stock from $50,000 to $100,000. 

The girl operators in the Bell exchange at Dela- 
ware struck last week because the manager forbade 
them talking to each other while on duty, and 
closed the window blinds so they could not see 
out on the street. 

The Bell exchange at Elyria was badly damaged 
by the fire that destroyed the Hotel Adwur on 
January 6th. Men were put to work at once re- 
pairing and installing a new exchange across the 
street from the hotel where the old one was located. 

Fred Lubbe and others have organized the Dills- 
boro Telephone Company at Dillsboro with a capi- 
tal stock of $1,000. 

It is reported that the Bell people have reduced 
their rates at Toledo in competition with the Inde- 
pendent company. Two-party residence telephones 
have been reduced from $24 to $18; two-narty 
business telephones have been placed at $36; inde- 
pendent or single-wire residence telephones from 
$36 to $27 ; independent business telephones from 
$60 to $54, with $12 additional for extensions. The 
four-party lines have been abolished and two-party 
lines will be furnished at the same rate. All ex- 
isting contracts will be continued at the new rates. 

The Union County Telephone Company of Marys- 
ville has been incorporated with a capital stock of 
$200,000 to take over all the Independent interests 
of the county. Newton E. Liggett, W. C. Fulling- 
ton, W. C. Shearer, G. E. Whitney and H. E. 
Conkright are the incorporators. 

The Central Union Telephone Company has ar- 
ranged to establish a branch exchange in Columbus 
on the North Side at the corner of High Street 
and Fifth Avenue, where the entire floor of a 



Indiana District Telephone Meeting. 

A sp* 

Indiana I ri • 1 •• 1 n was 

held ir January 5th 

-canoe. 
tain, Park, B<xjtie ai I 

O. B. Farlxrrtt. 
and Prank Goodwinc ol W< ted a* 

secretary. The principal • 
the advisability of making 

pany at Danville, III. The discussion resulted in 
the appointment of a committee to take up the 
matter with the Commercial Club at Danville and 
have the long-distance business at Danville 
distributed among all the long-distance companies 
I he matter of independent companies becoming a 
sub-licensee of the Bell company was disa; 

Local operating methods were also discussed, 
after which William Vcsey of the New Long-dis- 
tance Telephone Company of Indianapolis talked 
of the latest phases 'of the Independent telephone 
situation in the state. Mr. Vescy said that within 
a short time Independent long-distance facilities 
would be brought to every Independent company 
in the state. 



Modern Telephone Exchange for 
Manila. 

The Philippine Island Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, which was organized in San Francisco 
some time ago for the purpose of constructing 
telephone and telegraph lines in the Philippine 
Islands, is now installing a modern telephone plant 
at Manila. A switchboard is now en route to 
Manila, accompanied by a force of electricians 
An underground-conduit system is now being put 
in. The company has a 50-ycar concession from 
the Philippine Commission, and has purchased the 
property of the Manila Telephone Company, a 
Spanish corporation, which put in a plant about 
20 years ago. It is said by San Francisco repre- 
sentatives of the company that as soon as the city 
system is completed a number of long-distance 
lines will be extended into various provinces. 



GENERAL TELEPHONE NEWS 

The Kinloch Telephone Company will erect a 
new building in Granite City, 111., to cost $10,000. 

The Attica Telephone Company has received a 
franchise to operate a telephone system in Attica, 
N. Y. 

The Lamoure County Telephone Company of 
Marion, N. D., has been granted a franchise to 
operate a telephone system in Marion. 

The Kansas City Home Telephone Company has 
secured a permit for another branch exchange 
building in Wabash avenue, Kansas City, Mo. 

The city of Shawnee, Texas, has granted a 21- 
year franchise to the Pioneer Telephone Company 
for the installation of a telephone system. It is 
proposed to invest $100,000. 

T. J. Smith and J. B. Rhodes have received 
a telephone franchise from the City Council of 
Xew Lexington. Ohio, and will at once commence 
to build throughout the entire county of Perry 
in conjunction with the Independent toll service. 

A good programme and entertainment have been 
provided for the annual meeting of the Nebraska 
Independent Telephone Association to be held at 
the Lindell Hotel. Lincoln, on January 23d and 
24th. Important matters are to be discussed and 
decided, among them a plan to harmonize the In- 
dependent telephone interests of the state. A large 
attendance from Nebraska and adjoining states is 
expected. R. E. Mattison of Lincoln is acting sec- 
retary. 

Albert Haynes and associates of Royal Oak and 
Birmingham, Mich., have entered into a sub-license 
contract with the Michigan State Telephone Com- 
pany and will operate telephone exchanges at 
Birmingham and Royal Oak under the name of 
the Detroit Suburban Telephone Company. This 
company will take over all Michigan State prop- 
erty in both towns and will connect with the long- 
distance system. About So subscribers are already 
in the service in Birmingham and about 75 con- 
tracts have been secured in Royal Oak and 
vicinitv. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 13, 1906 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Great Britain. 

London, December 27.— After the usual uncer- 
tainties which are yearlv created by the notices 
of intention to deposit bills in Parliament during 
the forthcoming session, it is now possible to give 
a correct estimate of what is likely to take place, 
the statutory period for depositing bills having ex- 
pired. Of course, chief attention will again be at- 
tracted to the electric power bills for London, there 
being no less than 10 such measures. Only three, 
however, schedule an area of supply and deal 
with the matter in a comprehensive manner, viz., 
the revised Administrative County of London and 
District Electric Power Company, a new company 
ostensibly formed to sunply London railway com- 
panies, but whose bill will, no doubt, be regarded 
with suspicion by competitors, owing to a somewhat 
ambiguous drafting, and the London County Coun- 
cil's electric power bill. The capital involved in 
these three measures amounts to something like 
$4S,ooo,ooo, but, from the nature of the proposals, 
only one can be sanctioned. The majority of the 
remaining electric power bills are combinations of 
existing electric-supply authorities for powers to 
give mutual supply in each other's areas, by agree- 
ment, a thing at present rendered impossible by 
a clause in the electric-lighting acts. A welcome 
sign in connection with these latter bills is that 
local authorities and companies are combining with 
the object above stated. One bill schedules the 
larger part of the County of London north of the 
River Thames, but there is a rumor that it is in- 
tended to appoint a royal commission to inquire 
into the whole matter, a proceeding which would 
be fatal to the passing of any of the measures. 

Appertaining to the question of electric power 
supply, is the recent attitude of the London County 
Council to those borough councils owning electric- 
ity undertakings. The County Council is the au- 
thority in London for granting electric-lighting 
loans, and there now seems to be a tendency to 
discourage any further extensive loans, pending 
the result of the power-bill controversy. This is 
not done in an impartial spirit, however, for it is 
evident that the object is to secure business for 
the council's own project, should it pass into law. 
It may be taken for granted that were a power 
company to succeed, the granting of loans would 
go on as merrily as before. 

The National Telephone Company's head ex- 
change in Glasgow was burnt out at the end of 
last week. Fortunately none of the operators were 
in peril of their lives, but the inconvenience to 
many thousands of subscribers is considerable. 

There is a very rapidly growing tendency in 
Great Britain, especially in busy towns, toward 
the adoption of covers to the roofs of double-deck 
tram cars. In Sheffield, Glasgow, London and 
many other places quite an extensive use is made 
of this form of vehicle, and, quite naturally, a 
town of the size of Birmingham would wish also 
to adopt them. The Board of Trade's consent, 
however, has to be obtained in every case, and in 
regard to Birmingham it has been withheld on 
account of the narrowness of the tracks and the 
danger of capsizing, due to wind pressure. The 
corporation has a very good reply, however, in 
that the cars of the company, which has running 
powers over the municipal lines, have been fitted 
with roof decks for 18 months. An answer to this 
is now being awaited. 

From the very inception of the National Physical 
Laboratory, the complaint has been heard that the 
funds granted by the government are insufficient 
to carry the institution on. Frequent representa- 
tions have resulted in some slight but always in- 
sufficient increase. Consequently it is not surpris- 
ing that an application has been made to the new 
government with the same end in view, and in 
this instance a great deal of detail has been gone 
into in making comparisons between what is done 
in the United States and other countries. The 
sum of $120,000 has been granted for buildings in 
connection with the National Physical Laboratories, 
together with a grant of $27,000 (not permanent) 
per annum. Against this it is pointed out that the 
United States has provided $35°,°°° f°r buildings, 
$225,000 for equipment and an annual grant of 
$95,000 in connection with the National Bureau of 
Standards. The memorial embodying these argu- 
ments has been presented to the new chancellor 
of the exchequer, in the hope that he may make 
further provision for the laboratory in the forth- 
coming education estimates. 

Mr. Fell, the chief officer of the London County 
Council, has presented a lengthy report in which 
he comments on and compares, in a very can- 
did manner, the various systems of tramways 
and street railways in the United States. The re- 
port is the outcome of a recent visit to the United 
States. The comparisons in many details are not 
favorable to British methods. 

The giving of the contract for the electrical 
equipment of a portion of the London, Brighton 
and South Coast railway, with the single-phase 
system, to Germany, appears to have engendered 
considerable feeling in certain quarters here. It 
is clear, however, that most of this is at the hands 
of unsuccessful bidders, and, after all, from official 
information, there is not much in it. The patents 



are held in England, and with the exception of the 
first few motors, etc., the majority of the work 
will be carried out by the British Thomson-Hous- 
ton company. In fact, it is announced that the 
latter concern was associated with the Allgemeine 
Elektricitats Gesellschaft in its very favorable tender 
for the work. G. 



Dominion of Canada. 

Winnipeg, Man., January 6. — The Winnipeg Elec- 
tric Street Railway Company has applied for per- 
mission from the City Council to place additional 
side tracks in order to give better service on 
William and Sherbrook streets. The company has 
just opened a new line to Headingly, about II 
miles from Winnipeg, which will make a good 
route for the transportation of produce and garden 
truck from the farmers along the route. Plans 
have been prepared for a belt line with Elmswood 
and St. Boniface. A new bridge will be built by 
the company across the Seine River, St. Boniface 
paying half the cost. 

The British Columbia Electric Railway Company 
is installing additional machinery to the value of 
about $35,000 in its Vancouver sub-station. The 
chief improvement is a new rotary converter with 
transformers and equipment This will be used in 
connection with the street-railway circuit and leave 
the machinery at present used for this purpose 
available for other uses. It will be employed in 
providing a separate system for all motors sup- 
plied with power by the company which are now 
operated on the trolley circuits. In connection 
with the public-lighting service new transformers 
will be put in at an expense of $8,000 and a new 
two-phase switchboard which will cost approxi- 
mately $2,000. 

W. M. Douall, president of the West Kootenay 
Power and Light Company, states that the cost 
of the new machinery at Bonnington on Kootenay 
River, B. C, together with the pole lines, will be 
about $1,000,000. The company will have 28,000 
horsepower for railway and industrial purposes 
and expects the lines into the boundary will be 
ready for transmission purposes by March or 
April. 

Robert P. Inglis of Montreal has a charter for 
the construction of a street railway in Edmonton. 
He has gone to Europe to secure capital for his 
enterprise. The principal part of the business will 
be between Edmonton and Strathcona. The equip- 
ment will at first consist of 10 cars. Mr. Inglis 
is interested in the Montreal, the Toronto and the 
Winnipeg street railways. 

An electric railway connecting Windsor with 
Buffalo will be the outgrowth of the Windsor, 
Essex and Lake Shore Electric railway. The 
grading of the roadbed is finished between Kings- 
ville and Windsor, and the tracks are now being 
laid. The waterpower of Niagara Falls will be 
used when Buffalo and Detroit are connected. 
The distance is 229 miles. The route will be from 
Windsor to Essex, Kingsville, Leamington, Wheatly, 
Tilbury, Chatham, London and thence to Buffalo 
and Detroit. 

James Milne of Toronto has accepted the posi- 
tion of general superintendent of the British Co- 
lumbia electric railway. H. 



Railroad near Jamaica between an electric pas- 
senger train and some freight cars showed con- 
clusively that the steel passenger cars are capable 
of withstanding an impact at the rate of 50 miles 
an hour. 

The State Lighting Commission is still hearing 
evidence as to the cost of gas in this city. Prof. 
E. W. Bemis, a gas expert, has stated that he has 
calculated that the profit made by the Consolidated 
Gas Company is 45.65 cents for every thousand 
cubic feet of gas it sells in New York. It appears 
that the Consolidated reserves 10 cents per thou- 
sand feet for depreciation of plant, or five times 
more than Professor Bemis thinks needful. 

During the year just ended there has been a net 
gain of 35,000 telephone instruments operated by 
the New York Telephone Company in Manhattan 
and the Bronx. 

In an appellate decision the New York Telephone 
Company has been ordered to pay a householder 
$200 for the use of his roof for affixing telephone 
wires. 

One of the last acts of the retiring fire com- 
missioner, N. J. Hayes, was to recommend the 
speedy installation of a new fire-alarm system. The 
first act of the new commissioner is to order Bell 
telephones to be placed in every fire station, as 
supplementary to the present departmental service, 
which is so deficient that it frequently breaks down. 

The New York Tribune reports that a Brooklyn 
boy, named Austin Curtis, has invented a space- 
telegraph apparatus by which he has been enabled 
to pick up messages from the Brooklyn navy yard. 

The De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company an- 
nounces that 22 steamships sailing from New York 
port are equipped with its system, and that the 
equipment of 20 more vessels has been ordered. 

The New York and Westchester Auxiliary Fire 
Alarm Company has been incorporated with a 
capital of $50,000, and offices at Yonkers, N. Y. 

An examination for an electrical engineer for 
the Federal service will be held at the Brooklyn 
Postoffice Building on January 24th. Details are 
obtainable at the Civil Service Bureau, Custom 
House, New York city. 

Bids are returnable on January 15th for installing 
electric elevators in the Manual Training High 
School, Brooklyn. The value of the work is ap- 
proximately $10,000. 

The General Electric Company has installed at 
the Brooklyn navy yard a searchlight of 20,000 
candlepower, similar to a twin light at Sandy 
Hook. The carbon is 2j4 inches in diameter, used 
with 200 amperes current, at 50 volts. The lens 
is 60 inches in diameter and there is a powerful 
parabolic reflector. D. W. W. 



New York. 



' New York city, January 6. — The appellate judges 
have denied the application of two taxpayers, acting 
in the interests of the Board of Aldermen, to re- 
strain the Board of Estimate and Apportionment 
from act4hg in the matter of new subway applica- 
tions. This decision, unless reversed by the Su- 
preme Court, confirms the constitutionality of the 
new law which took away from the Board of 
Aldermen the power to grant traction and tele- 
phone franchises. Following this decision, the 
Rapid Transit Commission has announced that it 
will advertise for bids for new subways on May 
1st, as relating to proposed new subways on Third, 
Lexington, Seventh and Eighth avenues. 

August Belmont, in a letter to the Brooklyn 
Transit Reform League, says that the merger of 
the Interborough and Metropolitan does not alter 
the situation as far as the completion of the Flat- 
bush extension is concerned. The merger will not 
change the policy of the Interborough with regard 
to extensions. If there is any change, it would be 
forced, he says, by those who have assumed that 
"the companies are incapable of conducting trans- 
portation properly. The combined companies seek 
to promote the efficiency of their service on sound 
and stable lines of operation, to the end that the 
public may be better served and that rapid-transit 
facilities may be more speedily extended between 
the several boroughs. These statements give satis- 
faction in Brooklyn. 

There are prospects that, as far as Brooklyn is 
concerned, there will be rival bids for subways 
from the Interborough company, the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company and from the syndicate identified 
with J. Edward Swanstrom, president of the Brook- 
lyn Transit Reform League. 

The Supreme Court has refused to restrain the 
Pennsylvania Railroad from closing Thirty-third 
Street, between Ninth and Tenth avenues, for the 
purpose of tunnel building in connection with the 
Pennsylvania-Long Island line across Manhattan. 
A collision on Wednesday on the Long Island 



Ohio. 

Cleveland, January 6. — The trouble between the 
Schoepf interests at Lima and the Western Ohio 
Railway Company threatens to break into the 
courts. The trouble is over the joint use of cer- 
tain tracks in Lima. 

Mayor Tom L. Johnson of Cleveland appeared 
before the special committee of the Chamber of 
Commerce a few days ago and gave his version of 
what should be done regarding franchises. He 
does not believe in renewing franchises which, he 
says, will give the company rights that are worth 
from $20,000,000 to $40,000,000 without some com- 
pensation in return. The mayor holds pretty 
closely to his old idea of three-cent fare or some 
form of municipal ownership. 

It is said that the larger electric railways out 
of Cleveland are making plans for the development 
of business the coming year and that some of 
them at least will have traveling passenger agents 
to work along their lines. In the past the roads 
have taken largely only the business that has 
come to them. Now they propose to make busi- 
ness. The excursion business will be given atten- 
tion and all other matters will receive more care 
than usual. In addition more publicity will be 
given the roads and their manner of conducting 
business. 

George F. Wilson of Delphos and Engineer 
Huntoon of the Fort Wayne, Van Wert and Lima 
road are laying off a line between St. Marys and 
Defiance, and it is said that Delphos and Fort 
Wayne men are interested in it. 

The Dayton Citizens' Electric Company of Day- 
ton, with a capital stock of $100,000, has been 
incorporated by Cyrus E. Mead, F. T. Griest, H. B. 
Arnold and others. 

Purchasers of the Springfield, South Charleston, 
Washington C. H. and Chillicothe road have incor- 
porated the Washington Traction Company to take 
over the property. The nominal capital stock is 
$io,coo, and J. S. Hrashman, F. J. Southard, A. M. 
Irwin, H. J. Andrews and E. M. Buel are the in- 
corporators. The intention of the new company is 
to complete the line to Washington C. H. and 
eventually to Chillicothe. It has been in the hands 
of a receiver for some time and the new owners 
have arranged for financing the debt. 

The directors of the Columbus Public Service 
Company' have declared a three per cent, dividend 
on the $250,000 preferred cumulative stock. 

The Cleveland City Council has appropriated 
$56,000 for improving a municipal light plant re- 
cently acquired by the annexation of territory. 

It is said that traction officials in this state are 
considering the advisability of reducing the number 



January 13, 1906 

bi in * pa ' issued. They i< -I thai too many 
people have been receiving them. 

Interurban railway men will probably havi 
lull introduced in the I ,cgi laturc thi winti 1 mal 
ing a $2 bill the maximum amount thai maj bi 
tendered to a 1 ondui toi foi a cash fai 1 < pi 

mi there is no limit and 1 ondui toi 1 ilwaj 

In a position to make change foi a $10 01 $20 bill. 

All the ill. stal 1 hi the I olumbu , Dclawan 

and Marion line were put in opei ation al the in il 
of the M. 11 O, M ' 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

The mii/ 1 Walker! 

n mi. 1 ..11 „| in thai 

iiy. 



Indiana. 



[ndianapoli i, fanuai y 6 \ .1 p ull ol thi ai 
quisition of the Indiana Northern Traction Com 

p.-iiiy by the Indiana Union Traction C pan 

through cars are now running between mh| 

and Wabash, with close conned E01 Indian 

apolis. All "f the employes of the Indiana North 
.in have been dismissed and the repair ihops ol 
the company have been closed. 

Joseph A. McGowan, secretary to Hugh J. Mc- 
Gowan, president of the Indianapolis fraction and 
Terminal Company, has been promoted to the 
office of auditor of the company. Leroj I 
Snyder has been made assistant secretary to Prcs 
h]i hi McGowan with the duties of secretary. 

Franchise ordinances were presented to the Sey- 
mour City Council on January 2d for the entrance 
i.l l Ik- Indianapolis, Columbus and Southern Trac- 
tion Company and the Louisville and Indianapolis 
Traction Company to that city. 

Robert I. Todd, recently appointed general man- 
ager of the Indianapolis Traction and Terminal 
Company, has arrived in Indianapolis and taken 
up the active duties of that office. Mr. Todd 
has a reputation among traction men as one of the 
ablest executive and operating men in the business. 

C. C. Reynolds, who was recently made general 
superintendent of the syndicate controlling most 
of the Indiana trolley lines, has moved his head- 
quarters from Lebanon to the Traction Building, 
Indianapolis, where D. G. Edwards, president of the 
merger company, will likewise make his official 
headquarters. 

Edgar Elliott and Harry B. Gates have purchased 
a controlling interest in the Louisville and Eastern 
Electric railway extending from Louisville to Beard 
Station. The sale of the road involves more than 
$2,000,000. There is considerable speculation about 
this deal, and it is currently believed that the 
merger traction syndicate of Ohio and Indiana is 
back of the deal, notwithstanding Mr. McGowan 
says he knows nothing about it. 

The city electric-light plant at Cannelton was 
destroyed by fire on January 1st. The plant was 
purchased by the city two years ago and several 
thousand dollars have been expended on improve- 
ments. The two private plants are insufficient to 
■supply the light and power needed and the city 
plant will be rebuilt and installed with new appli- 
ances at once. 

Mayor McCormack of Columbus has recom- 
mended that the council take immediate steps 
toward the securing of an incandescent commer- 
cial lighting service to be conducted by the city. 
The plan is to erect and install a municipal-light- 
ing plant. 

A 25-year franchise has been granted by the 
City Council of Andrews to the Andrews Light 
and Water Company for the construction and 
operation of an electric railway from the middle 
of the city to the station on the Fort Wayne and 
Wabash Valley, traction line, a half mile north of the 
town. It is understood that the Andrews company 
will receive assistance from the Wabash Valley 
company, as it will prove a good feeder. 

The Capital Circuit Traction Company, recently 
incorporated to construct an electric railway around 
Indianapolis, about 25 miles out, and connecting a 
number of good towns and cities, has elected the 
following-named officers, with headquarters in In- 
dianapolis : President, J. N. Crabb ; vice-president, 
J. W. Trotter; secretary-treasurer, C. E» North- 
chief; engineer, J. A. Shafer. 

The interurban express and freight business dur- 
ing Christmas on the Indianapolis and Northwestern 
required four express cars,, each averaging $200 a 
day. It is said the other interurban lines did 
equally as well. 

The Northern Indiana and the Winona Electric 
Railway Companies have jointly ordered plans for 
the construction of a joint terminal station for all 
lines entering Goshen. A four-story building with 
offices above and station below is the plan to be 
followed. 

Land values in Indiana lying near interurban 
lines are increasing at an unprecedented rate. In 
traction localities the farmers have raised the prices 
of their holdings until good farms cannot be 
bought for less than $100 to $500 per acre. 

The largest concrete arch on any interurban line 
of the state has just been completed over Williams 
Creek on the Indianapolis and Cincinnati traction 
line, near Connersville. The arch is 200 feet long, 
contains 5,000 cubic feet of concrete and cost 
$45,000. 

The Indiana Public Service Company of Aurora, 
Ind., has been incorporated with the purpose of 
constructing an electric-light and waterworks plant 
in Aurora. David J. Hauss is chairman of the 
board of directors. 



Southeastern States. 
1 harlotl 
t la n ta, G 
to thi outnern 1 

- "ii n of a en 



■ • ..1 It providi thai .11 not 

01 

•f-'X for 1 

I'hc to 1 
idi ring thi : . ol floating $1 

bond 1 Hum ipal lightini p 

inte hi tow a i" build an indi p 

lighting plant, 

1 hi louthi rn Pi i i mpany, which 1 
foi eat buying in watcrpowi 1 in the 

1 arolina 1, now hold title ti 
which .-ire estimated to bi 
■on. mii I101 . powi 1 Ml arc on thi ' 

■ a 1 pi hi. , ■.■, in. h 1 . iti d on Broad Ri 

South Carolina II" lunipanj 

the Catawba River and may soon turn its atl 

i" other rivers in the South. [Tie 1 

just bought $250,000 worth ol ichincry 

1 1 1 In U . .1 ini'l ipan , foi il new plant 

1 ii Fall 1, m 11 Fort Lawn, S. I 

important cotton mill plants in the section where 
lln Southern Power Company operates have re- 
cently become subscribers to the electric power and 
its use in the mills is daily becoming more and 
more popular with the mills. L. 

Northwestern States. 

Minneapolis, January 6. — The Minneapolis Gen- 
eral Electric Company has notified the City Council 
of its plans for placing its wires underground. 

The Grand Forks (N. D.) Gas and Electric Com- 
pany has prepared plans for a two-story brick 
building in that city for a storehouse and office. 
Next season it will also construct a large power- 
house adjoining its present buildings. 

The survey for the proposed trolley line from 
Milwaukee, Wis., to Sheboygan, with a branch line 
to Fond du Lac, which will be built by the Mil- 
waukee and Northern, is progressing rapidly. 

H. L. Wherland has resigned his position as 
superintendent- of the water and light plant at 
Waseca, Minn. 

The Tripoli (Iowa) Canning Company is plan- 
ning to install an electric light plant in the spring. 

Electric power will be furnished the two pumping 
stations at De Pere, Wis., by the Electric Light and 
Power Company. A contract has been entered 
into for that purpose. 

The Penn Iron Mining Company has contracted 
for a complete hydro-electric plant to be installed 
at Sturgeon Falls, Mich. The first contract is for 
apparatus that will furnish 2,000 horsepower, which 
will be doubled later. 

There is talk of putting in a new electric-lighting 
system at Paynesville, Minn. 

A. M. Worthington has resigned as superintend- 
ent of the electric-light system at Ortonville, Minn. 

It is announced that work will be started at 
once on a trolley line on the Iron Range, connect- 
ing all towns between Biwabik, Minn., and Hib- 
bing. A right-of-way has been granted to the Mis- 
sabe Range Traction Company, and it is estimated 
that the road will cost about $700,000. The road 
will be approximately 40 miles long. F. B. Myers 
of Biwabik is president of the company. 

C. W. Hurd has been appointed city electrician 
at Stillwater, Minn. 

The Sioux Falls (S. D.) Interurban Railway 
Company has been incorporated and will build a 
trolley line from Sioux Falls to Parker and Marion 
Junction. R. F. Brown is president and G. A. 
Pettigrew, secretary. 

The City Council of Pipestone, Minn., is inves- 
tigating the advisability of installing an electric- 
light plant. 

The courthouse and city-hall commissioners of 
Minneapolis and Hennepin County have awarded 
the contract to the Electrical Machinery Company 
for a generator and engine to cost $4,Soo. They 
have also let the contract for a new $9,000 switch- 
board. 

The electric light plant at Ladysmith, Wis., has 
been sold to G. E. Newman. R. 



Pacific Slope. 

San Francisco, Cal., January 5. — The municipal 
authorities of San Francisco are meeting with de- 
termined opposition to the reconstruction of the 
Gearj r Street cable road, as a municipal electric 
line, from the bondholders of the Geary Street 
Railroad Company. Isaac Strassburger, one of 
these bondholders, attempted to secure an injunc- 
tion restraining the city from proceeding with its 
plans. He failed to get the injunction, but secured 
an order to show cause why an injunction should 
not issue. Notwithstanding this suit the super- 
visors have passed a motion urging the mayor to 
proceed as expeditiously as possible with the pur- 
chase of property for use as a site for a municipal 
power house. 



1 he i. 
ot $n 

■ 

and Iroi 

being built urn 

I In 

' under the I. 
preparing to build an electi 

thoritu 
in bond 

'•. owned and control ■ 

fornia arc completed and that right 
'ii largely secured. 



PERSONAL 



K W. Hani 1 o, Mich, superintend- 

■ in of the Michigan Traction Company, has tcn- 
dered his resignation and will leave Kalamazoo. 

C. A. Coffin, president of the General Electric 
Company, with Mrs. Coffin and daughter, 1- ft 
"lorl. on January 6th on hoard the While Star 
liner Celtic, for a Mediterranean trip. 

Alexander E. Orr, president of the Rapid Tran- 
sit Commission of New York city, has been elected 
president of the New York Life Insurance Com- 
pany. Mr. Orr will not resign from the Rapid 
Transit Commission, it is said. 

George P. Zwcrncr of Marysville, Ohio, has re- 
signed his position with the Marysville Telephone 
Company to become superintendent of the Marys- 
ville Light and Water Company. Mr. Zwcrncr 
succeeds Howard M. Jones, who has gone to the 
Standard Stamping Company. 

Marcus Smith of Wilkesbarre, Pa., died sud- 
denly at his home on Christmas evening from a 
stroke of apoplexy. Mr. Smith was the founder 
of the Wilkesbarre Gas and Electric Company 
and was a leading citizen of Wilkesbarre. He was 
68 years of age and is survived by five sons. 

C. E. Mitchell has resigned his position as as- 
sistant manager of the Western Electric Company 
of Chicago to engage in a financial enterprise in 
New York city. Mr. Mitchell has many friends in 
Chicago who learn of his departure with regret 
It is understood that his new work will practically 
take him out of the electrical field. 

R. S. Mitten, who has been general sales manager 
for the Eureka Electric Company of Genoa, HI., 
for the last three years, has severed his connec- 
tions with that company and has taken a position 
with the Electric Appliance Company as assistant 
to Mr. S. A. Dinsmore in the telephone department. 
He will have charge of the correspondence of this 
department. 

George H. Thayer, for 30 years superintendent 
of the Chicago and Northwestern railway division 
of the Western Lmion Telegraph Company, died 
on January 8th at his residence in Norwood Park, 
Chicago. Mr. Thayer was born at Weathersfield, 
Vt., on January 8, 1843, and had lived in Chicago 
53 years. He was connected with the Western 
LTnion company 45 years. His widow, a daughter 
and three sons survive him. 

Dr. Otto A. Moses died at his home in New 
Y'ork city on January 3d. He had a world-wide 
reputation as a chemist and geologist. Dr. Moses 
was born in Charleston, S. C, in* 1S46. He was a 
graduate of the L T niversity of Leipsic, and intro- 
duced most of the Edison inventions in Europe. 
For some time he was state geologist of South 
Carolina and general supervisor of the phosphate 
works. Dr. Moses was the founder of the Hebrew- 
Technical Institute, in Stuyvesant Street, an in- 
stitution for the free education of poor boys. 

Mr. Radiguet, a scientist of Paris, has died after 
a lingering illness caused, it is said, by his ex- 
periment with radiography. He was a maker of 
instruments, but on the discovery' of the rays by 
Dr. Rontgen applied himself immediately to the 
study of the new- force. About two years ago his 
right arm was attacked, and partial mortification 
set in, owing to his having subjected it to the rays 
to observe experimentally the effects of the iatrer. 
which were not then known. The progress of the 
affection was slow, but eventually ulcerous wounds 
were produced, which every remedy failed to heal. 

H. W. Goode, president of the Portland General 
Electric Company of Portland. Ore., returned re- 
cently from a six-weeks' trip through the East. 



where he went to arrange for considerable im- 
provements to the company's plant in Portland. 
He stated that work will be commenced at once 
on the company's new $200,000 office building. 
The reconstruction of the electric-lighting system 
of the city, which will cost nearly $1,000,000, will 
be undertaken early in the year. The improve- 
ments and extensions include a pole line to Salem, 
Ore. A contract has been made to supply the local 
lighting company at Salem through this line. 

H. I, Wellman, in the employment of the West- 
ern Electric Company in Chicago, was instantly 
killed by a train on January 3d. He resided at 
Riverside, 111., and was hurrying across the tracks 
of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad to 
catch a train to work when he was struck bv an 
approaching fast train. Mr. Wellman was one of 
the designing engineers of the Western Electric 
Company. He was a skillful engineer and was 
highly esteemed by his employers, who anticipated 
an exceptionally successful career for him in elec- 
trical engineering. Mr. Wellman came to the West- 
ern Electric about a year ago. He had been with 
the General Incandescent Arc Light Company pre- 
vious to its consolidation with the Stanley com- 
pany. He was 32 years old and leaves a wife and 
one child. 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING. 

Fire in Beresford, S. D., recently destroyed the 
electric-light plant in that city. The loss is said 
to have been $25,000. 

The Humbird Lumber Company and the Pan- 
handle Smelting Company are both applicants for 
an electric-light franchise in Sand Point, Idaho. 

The Kirksville (Mo.) Gas, Heat and Electric 
Company has been incorporated with $30,000 capi- 
tal stock by B. F. Henry, Fred Grassle, Charles 
Sands, F. J. Storm, W. P. Foster and P. C. 
Miles. 

The stockholders of the Utah County Light and 
Power Company of American Fork, Utah, have 
voted to increase the capital stock from $50,000 to 
$200,000 and will at once proceed to install a sec- 
ond plant of much larger capacity directly above 
its present plant and thus be enabled to furnish all 
the power needed by the fast-growing community. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS, 

P. S. Briggs and John L. Davis are seeking a 
franchise for a street-railway system in Beloit, Wis. 

The Central Pennsylvania Traction Company has 
commenced the construction of its new power plant 
in South Cameron Street, Harrisburg, Pa. 

The Central Railway Company contemplates 
building an electric railway through Prairie Home 
and Booneville to Marshall, Mo., from California, 
Mo. 

Robert K. Cochrane, a councilman of Pittsburg, 
Pa., is threatened with blindness from blood poison- 
ing, which he believes he got from a street-car 
strap. While holding a strap in a crowded car 
Mr. Cochrane rubbed one of his eyes frequently 
to relieve it from itching, and he thinks he con- 
veyed poison germs from the strap. 

The Lansing (Mich.) and Suburban Traction 
Company is planning to install a comprehensive 
block signal and dispatching system, practically the 
same as that used on the steam roads. When the 
new offices are in shape a telephone line will be 
installed, covering both the city and interurban 
systems, to be used by the dispatcher. 

The four elevated railways of Chicago carried 
123,654,432 passengers in 1905, compared with 113,- 
050,400 in 1904. Of the total for 1905 the Metro- 
politan carried 45,358,843, the South Side 32,959,- 
752, the Northwestern 28,238,621, and the Oak 
Park 17,097,216. All the roads show a good in- 
crease over 1904, the percentage of gain being 
8.69 per cent. During the month of December 
traffic on the Oak Park line averaged 52,044 pas- 
sengers daily. This was the largest in the history 
of the road and a gain over December, 1904, of 
9.89 per cent. The average increase for the year 
over 1904 was 7.09 per cent. 

At a meeting held in South Bend, Ind., the di- 
rectors of the Kalamazoo, Elkhart and South Bend, 
railway elected officers for the ensuing year and 
made public the fact that the organization had 
been incorporated in both Michigan and Indi- 
ana. The line contemplated by the company will 
run from Kalamazoo to Vicksburg, thence to Park- 
vine and Three Rivers, Constantine, Mottville, 
Union, Elkhart and South Bend. The road is in- 
tended to be a connecting link between lines di- 
verting to points in Michigan from Kalamazoo and 
from South Bend to points in Indiana. A private 
right-of-way will be used. 



PUBLICATIONS. 



The Chandler & Taylor Company of Indianap- 
olis, Ind., has published two new bulletins, E-104, 
covering stationary tubular boilers, breechings, 
fronts, etc., and E-105, showing plain slide-valve 
engines with detailed description of parts. These 
bulletins are high-grade both in printing and in 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

the character of the half-tone illustrations. These 
bulletins the company will be pleased to mail upon 
request. 

Two important mining machines — the Jeffrey elec- 
tric drill for cutting coal, and the Jeffrey electric 
locomotive for hauling it — are illustrated on the 
1906 calendar of the Jeffrey Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Columbus, Ohio. The calendar is well 
designed. 

A circular that is attracting attention, and favor- 
able comment is being distributed by the Consoli- 
dated Engine-stop Company of 100 Broadway, New 
York. It concerns the Monarch engine-stop and 
speed-limit system, which is a safeguard to life 
and property against accidents due to the running 
away of engines or to persons becoming caught in 
machinery, and requiring the machine to be stopped 
instantly to save their lives. 

A concise pocket telegraph code for use in the 
electrical profession and trade in general has been 
published by F. B. Badt & Co., 1504 Monadnock 
Block, Chicago, and is being sent out by them. 
Different from most codes now in existence, the 
Badt electrical trades telegraph code is not bulky 
and can be easily carried in the pocket. The se- 
lection of code words has been given special at- 
tention by the author, Mr. Badt, and they meet the 
exacting conditions of accuracy and dispatch. 

Allis-Chalmers belted-type Reliance Corliss en- 
gines are described in bulletin No. 1501, sent out 
by that company. The line of engines described 
embody the latest design in Corliss construction, 
but in detail are somewhat different from other 
types manufactured by the company The bulletin 
describes the important parts of the engine in de- 
tail, giving numerous illustrations. A bulletin from 
the electrical department of the' company describes 
Bullock alternating-current generators of the engine 
and flywheel types. 

Open belt-type motors and generators and vari- 
ous types of electric hoisting machinery are de- 
scribed in two recent bulletins from the Crocker- 
Wheeler Company of Ampere, N. J., numbered, 
respectively, 61 and 62. The line of belted ma- 
chines described includes a large number of sizes 
and ratings from 10 horsepower to 275 horsepower, 
and from nine to 225 kilowatts. A general de- 
scription of these machines is contained in Bulletin ' 
No. 61. Electric hoists and winches of various 
types are shown in Bulletin No. 62, for different 
purposes, such as contracting work, prospecting, 
dock work, for traveling cranes, etc. 

The Peru Electric Manufacturing Company of 
Peru, Ind., is distributing a circular calling atten- 
tion to the special features of safety in its Na- 
tional Electrical Code standard cartridge fuse 
blocks, which it asserts are found in no other line. 
Under the heading of "Greater Protection" it em- 
phasizes the advantages of Peru blocks. Another 
circular describes the exhibit of the Peru company 
at the electrical show, Chicago, January 15th to 
27th, which will not only display Peru products 
to the best advantage, but will also have a number 
of unique features, making its booth very attractive. 
All are cordially invited to visit its exhibit. 

"If a man can write a better book, preach a bet- 
ter sermon, or make a better mouse trap than his 
neighbor, though he build his house in the woods, 
the world will make a beaten path to his door." 
There is a good deal of truth in this saying, and 
one of the firm believers in its efficacy is the Bull 
Dog Specialty Company of South Bend, Ind. This 
company has just issued a new descriptive price- 
list upon Bull Dog soldering fluxes, which come 
in various forms, and are especially useful in elec- 
trical work. One of the products described in the 
pamphlet in which the company takes special pride 
is the new six-inch slim soldering stick, manu- 
factured for both the domestic and export trade. 

Proceedings of the thirty-third annual convention 
of the International Association of Fire Engineers 
have been compiled in book form by A. A. Far- 
rington, official reporter, Duluth, Minn. One of 
the papers, by Frank C. Stover of Chicago, was on 
'Advantages of Fire-alarm Equipment in Fire De- 
partments." Mr. Stover advocates the addition of 
an auxiliary fire-alarm service to the regular city 
system, extending that system to any desired point 
in the interior of buildings, thus saving the time 
that would otherwise be lost in running from the 
point of discovery of the fire to the nearest street 
box. The auxiliary service, he said, should be 
operated on entirely independent circuits, having 
no electrical connection with the fire-department 
circuits, thereby preventing the possibility of 
trouble on the city circuits from causes originating 
in the auxiliary plants. 

The Illinois Telephone Construction Company has 
issued a handsome brochure which gives the present 
status of the great underground tunnel system in 
Chicago. The book contains about 35 half-tone 
illustrations and many drawings illustrating various 
parts of the work. All the different sections of 
the tunnel constructed up to December 1st are 
enumerated, with the number of lineal feet in each 
section. The total number of feet on that date was 
208,212. The title of the booklet is "Chicago Sub- 
way." At the end George W. Jackson, general 
manager and chief engineer of the company, says: 



January 13, 1906 

"So many misleading, malicious and vicious reports 
have been circulated about damages being done by 
this company's work, that I feel it my duty to state 
emphatically that in the construction of the entire 
system it has been accomplished without the com- 
pany being called upon to defend or pay any claim 
for damages of any kind. No deaths have occurred 
that can be attributed to tunnel construction, and 
not one employe has been disabled to such an 
extent as to prevent him from following his usual 
vocation." 



SOCIETIES AND SCHOOLS. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bos- 
ton, has issued its catalogue for December, 1905, 
being Vol. 41, No. 1 of the Bulletin. It is a book 
of 408 pages giving detailed information about the 
Institute. General information, officers, courses 
of instruction, requirements for admission, subjects 
and methods of instruction, laboratories and equip- 
ment, libraries, regulations, summer courses, etc., 
are the subjects treated. 

The tenth annual meeting of the National Fire 
Protection Association will be held in Chicago on 
May 22d, 23d and 24th. A committee of the asso- 
ciation on "uniformity of requirements" is pre- 
pared to compile a glossary of words, terms and 
phrases used in connection with the insurance busi- 
ness or the various trades, arts and sciences with 
which that business has to deal, and which are 
more or less commonly used or referred to in the 
reports and standards of the association. To that 
end the committee will undertake to list and de- 
fine any words, terms or phrases that may be sent 
for that purpose to its chairman. The committee 
will also be glad to receive suggestions of defini- 
tions along with the words in cases where mem- 
bers have already made research and determined 
the same. H. E. Hess, 32 Nassau Street, New 
York, is chairman of the committee. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Sir Edwin Cornwall, chairman of the London 
County Council, has issued to the press a proposal 
for an international congress of representatives of 
cities having over 500,000 population, to meet 
annually for the discussion of municipal methods. 
In conjunction with this congress Sir Edwin pro- 
poses an exchange of pupils between the schools 
controlled by the municipalities holding member- 
ship in the congress. 

Governor Higgins of New York, in his message 
to the Legislature, said that the preservation of 
Niagara Falls could not be accomplished without 
an international agreement to protect the cataract 
and river from spoliation. The state of New York, 
however, could limit the amount of water taken 
by American companies, repeal all undeveloped 
charters, and institute legal proceedings to result 
in forfeiture in the case of abuse of franchise 
powers by corporations. 

Vice-consul Kaiser of Mazatlan, Mexico, reports 
that the Standard Oil Company will establish a 
large factory in Torreon, Mexico, in which the 
guayule plant will be utilized in the production of 
rubber. The company is known as the Continental 
Mexican Rubber Company. The price paid for the 
plant is $35 per ton Mexican, and there is a large 
demand at that price. The rumor is current, says 
Mr. Kaiser, that the same company will establish a 
number of smaller plants, which would greatly in- 
crease the rubber output of the country and place 
it in the lead of other Mexican materials on the 
market. 

Electrification of the railway in the Simplon 
tunnel has been entrusted by the Swiss govern- 
ment to the Swiss firm of Brown, Boveri & Co. 
Inasmuch as the Simplon line reaches into Italy, 
and will eventually be operated jointly by the Swiss 
State Railways and by the Italian government, the 
latter has arranged with Ganz & Co. for the use 
of some of the three-phase locomotives now em- 
ployed on the well-known Valtellina line for the 
Simplon tunnel, and has placed these locomotives 
at the disposal of the Swiss government, so that 
the tunnel may be opened for public traffic in June, 
1906. Brown, Boveri & Co. are now building two 
other three-phase 1,000-horsepower electric locomo- 
tives, which will also be used to handle the traffic 
through the tunnel. 

F. S. Richardson at a recent meeting of the 
American Gas Light Association in Milwaukee 
gave some interesting experiences in connection 
with electrolysis in a six-mile pipe line paralleling 
a street railroad and connected with the trolley 
rail at five places near the center of the line in 
proximity to the power station. On account of 
damage done to the pipe before it was connected 
to the rail it was necessary a short time ago to 
remove about 600 feet. One length of pipe had 
27 pits in it, and three other lengths were so 
badly pitted that they leaked. Originally the pipe 
line had insulated joints every 500 feet, but it has 
since been bonded, making it a continuous con- 
ductor. Insulated joints will not keep the pipe 
from being damaged, and in fact have quite the 
opposite effect, as tests have shown that a dif- 
ference of potential exists between the ends of 



J; :n\ I .^ , [906 

each insulated i i, which i au to pa 

from nne length of pipe to the nc i bj way of the 
soil 

Mir Swiss Ocrlikon Company ha iu i pleted 

its experimental single-phasi I 

be tried on its line close to Zurich fhi voltage 

on the line will be 15,000:11 25 cycli rhi I 

motive is mounted on two ■■ ivel trucl 

motoi s .-ire used. '1 he axle of the toi 1 i pci 

pendicular to the wheel axle. The motoi i ioo 

horsepower output, of the scrie compen atcd I pi 

There are eight principal poles and eight 1 tal 

iilg poles. The speed is 650 revolul i" 1 

and the vvorking voltage is 350. Speed variation 
arc obtained by varying the voltage, and foi this 
purpose the transformer on the locomotive 1 pro 

viiled with 12 taps. The motors can, il 1 

safely sustain an overload of 100 pc 1 I. 

trolley collector is of the inverted bow type oi the 
Ocrlikon company. 

The Pittsburg Reduction Company has made a 
contract with the Niagara balls Hydraulic Power 
and Manufacturing Company for 27,000 horsepower, 
to be delivered in 1907. To use thi- power the 
Pittsburg Reduction Company plans to erect a 
very large new aluminum works on a four-acre site 
which it has leased form the power company. It 
is understood that contracts for the electrical equip- 
ment of the proposed new plant are about to be 
made. Power for the new works will be supplied 
from a new power bouse to be erected at the 
water's edge in the gorge, the site for which has 
been excavated in the debris slope. On top of the 
high bank the canal basin has been extended sev- 
eral hundred feet to the north of the flouring mills, 
and a large new forebay is being built at the edge 
of the bank. Next spring the work of building 
the new power house will be commenced and 
prosecuted with great vigor. The output capacity 
of the station will be 110,000 horsepower. 

Dr. Jacques Locb believes that be has discovered 
the reason of the electrical effects of galvanic cur- 
rent upon nerve and muscle tissue. In previous 
investigations Dr. Loeb had discovered that sodium 
and potassium in solution stimulated nerve and 
muscle fibers, and that the subsequent administra- 
tion of solutions of calcium and magnesium neu- 
tralized the stimulating action of the other two 
substances. Dr. Loeb now says that his last set 
of experiments has demonstrated that this phe- 
nomenon is due to the fact that when the galvanic 
current is applied these chemical substances migrate 
and, concentrate in the region of application of the 
electrodes, or poles of the battery. The oleates 
and stearates, which are normally in the nerve and 
muscle tissue, precipitate the calcium from the solu- 
tion under the action of electricity, and in this 
way the calcium, or lime, is prevented from inter- 
fering with the stimulant action of the sodium and 
potassium. 

Electric tramways are "all the go" in New Zea- 
land. In addition to the well-established and suc- 
cessful lines in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch 
and Dunedin, the local authorities at Hutt and 



ELECTRICIAN 

in the 

11 lor . , mo 

ni ill lighted elect 

trii po 1 1 

Zealand, ncarlj all the largi ■ ther cm- 

pl " electric 1 

Duneditt 

1 Power 1 nerating 

works a 1 pari 

eral di po iti • . of the 

.11 the 
water rights for this purpose. 




TRADE NEWS 



J. Reed ha purcha ed the electrical busin 
I'. I hompson at Santa Ana, Cnl. 

W. N. Matthews & Bro of St. Loui call at- 
tention to the f art that their bu m.-ss in tl 
has grown so large that it has been necessary for 
them to open a New York office at 30 Cortlandt 
Street, to give it proper care; also that thi 
just bought the patents and have taken over the 
manufacture of the Hold fat lamp guard. 

The general purchasing agent of the Isthmian 
Canal Commission is inviting scaled proposals until 
January 23d. for furnishing a number of engines, 
dynamos and switchboards for delivery on the 
Isthmus. Proposal blanks and detailed informa- 
tion can be obtained from the above-mentioned 
officer, located at Washington, the assistant pur- 
chasing agent, 24 State Street, New York, or the 
chief quartermaster, Department of the Lakes, Chi- 
cago. 

The Navy Department, through the Bureau of 
Supplies and Accounts, is inviting sealed proposals 
until January 23d for furnishing a quantity of 
weatherproof wire and electrical supplies, embraced 
in schedule 313, obtainable at the navy pay office 
in New York or upon application to the bureau. 
On February 6th the bureau will open bids for 
furnishing The Norfolk navy yard with a portable 
electric jib crane, embraced in schedule 317, ob- 
tainable from the same sources. The bureau is 
also inviting sealed bids, until January 30th, for 
furnishing and installing in the United States naval 
hospital at Washington a quantity of electrical 
apparatus. The schedule number is 321, which can 
be obtained from the bureau. 



BUSINESS- 

Electrical dealers desiring to add to their line 
two specialties of proven merit, arc invited by 
E. R. Crolius & Son of 6419 Peoria Street, Chi- 
cago, to correspond with them. They are the man- 



49 

-■ flick 

not already handling them | 
will be offered. 

At ■ 

duty p 

tabling a steady load 

working 

will be well v. 

ing out a small bull' 

many interesting thing, tint will I 

1 '"' mpany 

of Kansas 1 ity, Mo., 
has been one of the 

farm-engine di 

has been worki 

The buying of gas and ting and pump- 

ing machinery I 

t many new mines beii 

th Mexico has 
been excellent, as the company manufacture 
cial sectionalized machines for transports 
mule-back when shipped to the mountain, of that 
country. The large-engine business has exceeded 
ns, the Weber company having placed a 
many plants for various uses, including a 
number of complete electric-light installations for 
private use and for municipal purposes. The out- 
look for 1906 is good in all departments, many 
orders being on the books for future deli-. 

The electric-light and power equipment in the 
Majestic Theater Building in Chicago is one of 
the best and most modern private plants 
kind in the city. It was built and installed by the 
Allis-Chalmers Company of Milwaukee and con- 
sists of three generating units, composed of Rcv- 
nolds-Corliss engines, of the Reliance type, direct- 
connected to Bullock direct-current generators. 
Two of the engines are 20 inches by 26 inches, pro- 
ducing 300 horsepower each ; the third is 16 inches 
by 30 inches and of 150 horsepower. The two 
larger engines are each connected to a Bullock 
direct-current generator of 200 kilowatts capacity, 
while the smaller is coupled with a ioo-kilowatt 
generator of the same make. There are two com- 
pensating sets, each consisting of a Bullock 45- 
kilowatt generator and a 15-kilowatt machine. This 
plant produces a 220-volt power current and a no- 
volt lighting current, distributed by the three-wire 
system through a seven-panel switchboard. The 
power is used for running the elevators, scene- 
shifting machinery, compressed-air plant, ventilat- 
ing plant, etc., and furnishes the lighting current 
for all the building and the theater illumination. 



ILLUSTRATED ELECTRICAL PATENT RECORD. 



Issued (United States Patent Office) January 2, igo6. 



8,620. Tube-drawing Apparatus. George Baehr, 
McKeesport, Pa., assignor to the National Tube 
Company, Pittsburg, Pa. Application filed Sep- 
tember 17, 1904. 

An electric motor is used to drive the apparatus. 

8,635. Apparatus for Treating Diseased Tissues. 
Antonino Ciolfi and Rolland A. Case, Cleveland, 
Ohio, assignors to the American Specialty 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio. Application filed 
September 21, 1904. 

Two electrodes are used, each in a compartment by 
itself, an electrolyte being introduced into the compart- 
ments. The device is used for electrotherapeutical pur- 

8,641. Wireless Telegraphy. Patrick B. Delany, 
South Orange, N. J. Application filed May 14, 
1903. 

A microphonic contact is placed in the path of the 
received waves or impulses. Electromagnetic means 
variably maintaining the microphonic contact at a high 
periodicity comprise a local circuit controlled at the 



tact and a receiver whose circuit is controlled 
contact, modification of the contact by the received waves 
or impulses effects manifestation of the signals by the 

8,669. Tablet Board. Charles B. Macfarlane, 
Waltham, Mass. Application filed February 28, 
1905. 

Three terminals are fixed to the tablet, a pair of bus- 
bars being fixed to the top face of the tablet and con- 
nected with two of the terminals, the bar is branched 
and each branch adapted to be connected with a fuse. A 
bus-bar on the opposite side of the tablet and connected 
with the other terminal, is branched and each branch is 
adapted to be connected with a fuse. 

8,717. Electric Locomotive. Asa F. Batchelder, 
Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to the General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Appli- 
cation filed November 12, 1903. Renewed June 
14. 1905. 

The locomotive truck comprises an inclosing frame 
constituting the field-magnet structure for a number of 
armatures, transverse members joining opposite sides of 
the frame. The pole pieces are secured to the transverse 



member; 
referenc 

SoSjiS. Regulating Transformer. Henry J. Blakes- 
lee, Hartford, Conn. Application filed April 
8, 1905. 

A regulating transformer having a magnetic frame is 
provided with a stationary primary coil, a stationary 
secondary coil and a core always having the same mag- 
netic relation to the primary coil but adapted to be 
moved to vary its magnetic relation with the secondary 

808,723. Annunciator. Albert Carliss, Chicago, 111., 
assignor to the American Electric Telephone 
Company, Chicago, 111. Application filed May 
25, 1901. 

Combined with a drop or shutter are a pintle or pivot- 
pin having a central upward bend and a lever to actuate 
the drop or shutter and extending beneath the upward 

S08.729. System of Control for Electric Motors. 
Maxwell W. Day, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor 
to the General Electric Companj'-, Schenectady, 
N. Y. Application filed May 15, 1905. 

A motor having a shunt field winding and series 
field windings has also means for connecting the motor 
to a source of current supply in such a manner that 
the effective excitation of the series windings assists that 
of the shunt winding both when the motor is propelling 
a load and when it is overhauled by the load and acting 
as a generator. 

80S.740. Transformer. John J. Frank, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., assignor to the General Electric 
Company, Schenectadj-, N. Y. Application filed 
March 27, 1905. 

A magnetic core formed of three laminated units has 
the planes of lamination intersecting each other at iro 
degrees, each unit being formed of a number of bundles, 
some of the bundles overlapping the others to form 
tenons which interlock with the other bundles. 

808.755. Electrical Battery. Carl Jager, Rock Is- 
land, 111., assignor to the Rock Island Battery 
Compan3\ Application filed February 27, 1904. 

A battery cell having a zinc cup is supplied with a 
carbon pencil within the cup, a compound of dioxide of 



manganese, iron filings and powdered graphite -„■ 

me the carbon pencil and a filling of flour and plaster- 

of-pans between the cup and the inclosed body. 

808,763. Automatic Holdfast for Electro- hoister 
Drums. Asher Lambert, Newark, N. J. Ap- 
plication filed April 13, 1905. 



S0S.773. Surface-contact Electric Railwav. George 
H. McFeaters, Johnstown, Pa., assignor to the 
Lorain Steel Company. Application filed Au- 
gust 15, 1904. 

Combined with an upper fixed electrode are a lower 
movable electrode and a flexible conductor connecting 
the movable electrode with the supplv side of the svstenf 
An arc guard or shield in the form of a thin plate or 
disk of insulating material is situated below the movable 
contact and covers the flexible conductor. 

SoS,777. Telegraph Key. Addison E. Peterman. 
Repton, Ala. Application filed October 13, 1905. 

A base to the key having a number of contacts rep- 
resenting different lines is associated with a turntable 
mounted on the base and carrying a kev lever to operate 
any one of the lines and means carried" by the turntable 
to hold the other lines closed. 

SoS,77S. Motor-control System. William B. Pot- 
ter, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to the General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Appli- 
cation filed August 10, 1904. 

Several groups of motors, each group comprising motors 
permanently connected in series, the motors being adapted 
for operation on either direct or alternating current, are 
provided with means for supplying alternating or direct 
current to the motors. A switch is adapted to connect the 
groups in series and in parallel and to vary the amount 
of resistance in the motor circuit and a switch is adapted 
to vary the field strength of the motors. (See cut on next 
page. ) 

SoS,779. Electric Generator. Benjamin P. Remy 
and Frank I. Remy, Anderson, Ind.. assignors 
to the Remy Electric Company, Anderson, Ind. 
Application filed May 27. 1905. 

journaled within the sta- 



5° 



808,832. Receiver and Recorder for Wireless and 
' Other Transmissions. Fred E. Gallagher, San 
Francisco, Cal., assignor of one-third to Simeon 
L. Phillips and one-third to Walter D. Val- 
entine, San Francisco, Cal. Application filed 
June 15, 1905- 
A type wheel having constantly-operative impelling 
means is associated with a pivoted armature carrying 
means for locking the type wheel, another pivoted arma- 
ture carrying a sinking hammer, a pair of magnets for 
each armature arranged respectively at opposite sides 
of its pivot, a controller circuit which includes one 
magnet of each armature and a striker circuit which 
includes the other magnet of each armature. (See cut.) 

808,834. Relay. Charles L. Goodrum, Rochester, 
N. Y. Application filed November II, 1905. 

An armature, front and rear pole pieces, one of which 
forms a support for the relay, the other forming a sup- 
port for the armature, contact springs mounted on the 

supporting pole pieces and means removably securing the 
core to the supporting pole piece are the essential features. 

808,852. Trolley Device. Frank J. Ludolph, Roch- 
ester, N. Y. Application filed July iS, 1905. 

A trolley device comprises the pole and a harp in two 
separable sections for holding the wheel, the two parts 
of the harp having mutually interlocking elements be- 
tween the wheel-bearing and the outer end of the harp 
for preventing their separation. ' 

808,868. Telephone Signaling Apparatus. Karl H. 
Poyas, Los Angeles, Cal. Application filed July 
24, 1905. 

In a telephone receiving instrument, are a base of 
insulating material in the instrument, two normally closed 
manually operated make-and-break switches mounted on 
the base and forming a part of the instrument circuit, 
one switch in each branch, a ground plate secured to the 
base at a point to be engaged by the switches when they 
are moved to open the circuit and a connection from 
the plate to the ground. 
808,894. Adjustable Suspender for Electrical De- 
vices. Austin Berry, Ottawa, Canada. Appli- 
cation filed July II, 1905. 

Mechanical features are described. 

808,944. Alternating-current Motor Reverser. Ed- 
win H. Porter and Burleigh Currier, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Application filed March 29, 1905. 
Combined with a source of alternating-current energy 
is a motor connected with and adapted to operate from 
the source of energy having a number of energizing cir- 
cuits, part of which is supplied with two opposing alter- 
nating eleetromotives forces in series. Means are sup- 
plied for automatically varying one or both the opposing 
electromotive forces so that their sum is greater or less 
than zero. (See cut.) 

808.957. Circuit Controller. Richard Varley, Engle- 
wood, N. J., assignor to the Autocoil Com- 
pany. Application filed October 31, 1904- 

A permanent magnet, a rotary shaft carrying a block 
of iron tending to close the magnetic circuit of the 
magnet and a circuit-controlling lever interposed be- 
tween a pole of the magnet and the block of iron are 
the patentable features. 

808.958. Spark-ignition System for Explosive En- 
gines. Richard Varley, Englewood, N. J., as- 
signor to the Autocoil Company. Application 
filed March 28, 1905. 

An ignition system for explosion engines comprises 
an induction coil, an igniting device and means whereby, 
according to the speed of the engine, a single spark or 
a series of sparks will be created at the igniting device. 

808,966. Weft-replenishing Loom. Horace W. Wy- 
man, Worcester, Mass.; Mary H. Wyman, 
administratrix of said Horace W. Wyman, 
deceased. Application filed May II, 1905. 
The filling-detector feelers of the loom are clectro- 
magnetically operated. 

868,983. Telephone . Holder. Louis S. Hallowell, 
New York, N. Y., assignor of one-half to 
Thomas L. Ricart, Philadelphia, Pa. Applica- 
tion filed March 28, 1905. 

A movable bracket for holding a telephone set is 
described. 




808,832. 



-TELEGRAPH RECEIVER, 



809,026. Electric Scale for Accurate Lard Weigh- 
ing. Charles E. Snypp, Gretna, La., assignor 
to the Southern Cotton Oil Company, Jersey 
City, N. J. Application filed June 25, 1903. 

An electromagnet arranged in connection with a lever 
of the weighing mechanism operates to close the valve 
which controls the flow of the melted lard. 

809,060. Ringer for Telephones and the Like. El- 
bert R. Hobbs, Lamar, Colo. Application filed 
November 10, 1904. 

1 Combined with a magnet are a supporting plate, 
mechanism connected with the plate and adjusted rela- 
tively thereto, the mechanism being provided with brack- 
ets, springs connected with thy brackets and depending 
therefrom and an armature mounted upon the springs 
and free to rock. 

809,083. Automatic Electrical Controller for Air 
Compressors. Fred D. Ackerman, Kendallville, 
Ind. Application filed May 17, 1905. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



The improved automatic controller comprises a valve 
chest and valve, an air cylinder and a slidablc piston 
contained therein and connected with the valve. A 
spring opposes the movement of the piston in one direc- 
tion, a second air cylinder having a spring-pressed piston. 
An air conductor connects the second cylinder with 
the valve chest, a slidablc bar being connected with the 
last-named piston. A casing applied to and slidable on 
the bar contains a spring which applies pressure be- 
tween it and the bar. An electrical switch has one 
member connected with the casing, spring locking and 
release mechanism is connected with the casing and holds 
it normally immovable and the switch normally closed 
until a certain predetermined air pressure is accu- 
mulated. 

9,085. Electrolytic Apparatus. Henry S. Black- 
more, Mount Vernon, N. Y. Application filed 
filed July 22, 1903. 

Apparatus for electrolyzing light metal compounds 
comprises an electrolytic vessel having a means for pro- 
ducing a heavy and light metal alloy by the electrolysis 
of the light-metal compounds, in combination with means 
for displacing the heavy and light metal alloy by gravity, 
means for associating the heavy and light metal alloy 
with a metal hydroxide, means for removing the light 
metal oxid thus produced, means for converting the 
light metal oxid into light metal hydroxid, and means for 
„ returning a portion of the light metal hydroxid to the 
chamber containing the heavy and light metal alloy. 

9,088. Process of Producing Caustic Alkali. 
Henry S. Blackmore, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Application filed May 10, 1905. 

The process of producing caustic alkali consists in pro- 
viding a liquid metal cathode having in communication 
therewith a liquefied alkali-metal compound of a weight 
sufficient to digress the surface thereof below its normal 
level and electrolysing the alkali metal compound, 

9,116. Method of Producing Circulation in Elec- 
trolytic Processes. Hugo Koller, Vienna, Aus- 
tria-Hungary, and Paul Askenasy, Nuremberg, 
Germany. Application filed October 29, 1903. 

A mechanical process for causing the circulation of 
the electrolyte is described. 




January 13, 1906 



A telephone exchange comprises a subscriber's latent- 
signal set arranged to send its signals in separate groups, 
a calling-board with subscribers' jacks, a bench carrying 
calling plugs, a called board with subscribers' jacks, a 
bench carrying called plugs and an electromagnetic dis- 
tributer. A numerical indicator comprises a set of indi- 
cators at the called board in the plug circuit, energized 
by the plugging of a calling plug into the calling sub- 
scriber's jack to simultaneously indicate to the called 
operator the several elements of the signal set on the 
subscribers' latent-signal transmitter. 

■9,237. Semaphore Mechanism. Bruno O. Wag- 
ner, Swissvale, Pa. Application filed March 9, 
1905. 

Electromagnetic mechanism operates the semaphore. 







(,944.—. 



RRENT MOTOR REVEKsHR. 



NO, 808,778. — MOTOR-CONTROL SYSTEM, 

9,120. Electric Railway. Charles Levinson, New 
York, N. Y. Application filed July 18, 1905. 

A safety device for preventing the starting of a car 
comprises a contact or switch located in the driving- 
motor circuit independent of the motorman's controller 
and associated with a gate of the car, the contact or 
switch is so arranged as to be opened and to cut off the 
current from the driving motor independent of the mo- 
torman's controller when the gate is open. 

9,126. Electric-light-fixture Insulator. Louis Mc- 
Carthy, Boston, Mass. Application filed Feb- 
ruary 2, 1905. 

Two ribs are provided on the insulator separated by an 
intervening depression, the outer edge of one rib being 
adapted to engage the inside edge of a canopy of one 
size, and the inner edge of the other rib being adapted to 
engage the outside edge of a canopy of another size, 
whereby^ the insulator may be used with more than one 
size of canopy. 

19,127. Station Meter Index. Donald McDonald 
and Lynn M. Scofield, Albany, N. Y., assignors 
to the American Meter Company, New York, 
N. Y. Application filed April 29, 1904. Re- 
newed December 8, 1905. 

A revolving cylinder is adapted to carry the chart. 



9,183. Current Tap. William D. Harris, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Application filed March 24, 1905. 

Combined with a body of insulating material are a 
set of plug contacts and a second set of socket con- 
tacts and terminals for the attachment of conducting 
wires in electrical connection with certain of the con- 

9,186. Telephone System. Henry A. Judge, 
Washington, D. C. Application filed September 
9, 1905. 

In a telephone system are a talking- circuit comprising 
a direct path of negligible resistance for continuous cur- 
rent, a magnetic discharge coil, a transmitter and a 
source of current therein and a shunt-path around the 
coil only. The shunt is opaque to continuous current but 
passes high-frequency currents directly. 

9,211. Starting Means for Gas or Similar En- 
gines. Francis L. Orr, Thurman, Iowa, as- 
signor of one-half to Mark Morrow, Percival, 
Iowa. Application filed February 21, 1905. 
Details are described. 

19,220. Collector Ring. Henry G. Reist, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., assignor to the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed 
April 22, 1904. 

A collector ring is cut away to forrn a flexible part 
and a supporting stud is carried by the part. 

59,232. Semi-automatic Telephone-exchange Sys- 
tem. Arthur T. M. Thomson, London, Eng- 
land. Application filed October 6, 1905. 



809,262. Contact Device for Induction Apparatus. 
Ralph O. Hood, Danvers, Mass., assignor of 
one-half to Warren D. King, Peabody, Mass. 
Application filed April 11, 1905. 

In a contact device for sparking apparatus are a casing, 
a flexible closure therefor forming therewith a substan- 
tially air-tight chamber, a fixed contact point, a movable 
contact point passing through the flexible closure and 
adjusting means for the fixed contact point. 

809,267. Station Indicator. Richard F. Le Broco, 
Etna, N. J., assignor of one-half to James P. 
Niemann, New York, N. Y. Application filed 
March 30, 1905. 

One claim reads as follows: "In indicators, indicating 
means, a stop actuated in unison with the indicating 
means, a stop-lever carrying a detent co-operating with 
the stop, an electric switch actuated by the stop-lever, 
setting means to actuate the stop-lever, a setting-switch 
actuated by the setting means, a motor to operate the 
indicating means and electrical contacts in series and co- 
operating with the stop-switch and the setting-switch to 
control the motor." 

Reissue. 
12,431. Induction Motor. Abe L. Cushman, Con- 
cord, N. H., assignor to the Cushman Electric 
Company, Concord, N, H. Application filed 
November 19, 1904. Original application dated 
April 14, 1903. 

In an induction motor are a secondary member pro- 
vided with a secondary winding having elements arranged 
in multiple arc, all adapted to carry currents in one 
direction only, any desired number of which may be used 
at the same time. Each when in use acts as an effective 
element of the winding contributing to the polarization 
of the secondary member. Means carried by the sec- 
ondary member bring the elements one at a time into 
action and remove them from action, the means admitting 
the current fully to each element as such element is 
brought into action. 



PATENTS THAT HAVE EXPIRED. 

Following is a list of electrical patents (issued 
by the United States Patent Office) that expired 
on January 8, 1906: 

395, 6S2. Electric Train-brake Apparatus. Augustin I. Am- 
bler, Washington, D. C. 
395,703. Trolley for Electric Railways. Wilton F. Jenkins, 

Richmond, Va. 
395,706. Dry Voltaic Battery. Isidor Kitsee, Cincinnati, O. 
395,755- Holder for Electric Arc Lamps. Jacob Pav.-lowski, 

Cincinnati, O. 
395,761. Conduit for Electric Railways. Samuel Trott, 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 
395,769. Voltaic Battery. Theophilus Coad, Forest Gate, 

County of Essex, England. 
395, 77^- Cathode for an Electric Depositing Apparatus. 

Elisha Emerson, Providence, R. I. 
395,814. Support for Aerial Electric Conductors. Henry H. 

Cutler, Newton, Mass. 
395,836. Apparatus for Charging and Discharging Secondary 

Batteries. William P. Kookonev. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
395,878. Process of Electric Welding. Charles L. Coffin, 



N. Y. 



New 



York, 

! Sys- 



395,936. Regulator for Incandescent Electric-lightir 
terns. Merle J. Wightman, Hartford, Conn. 

395,950. Electrical Heating. John V. Capek, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

395,958. Electric Signaling Apparatus. Mark W. Dewey, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

395,959- Electric Signaling Apparatus. Mark W. Dewey, 



Syra. 



N. Y. 



Electrical Store-service Apparatus. Richard N. 
Dyer, East Orange, N. J. 

395.962. Method of Manufacturing Electric Lamps. 
Thomas A. Edison, Menlo Tark, N. J. 

395.963. Incandescent-lamp Filament. Thomas A. Edison, 
Menlo Park, N. J. 

395,974- Electrical Measuring Apparatus. Hammond V. 
Hayes, Cambridge, and Anthony C. White, Boston, 
Mass. 

396.009. Forming, Brazing and Welding of Metals by 
Electricity. Elihu Thomson, Lynn, Mass. 

396.010. Method of Electric Forging. E. Thomson, Lynn, 



396,0 

1 

396,0 



Ma: 



Method of Electric Welding. E. Thomson, Lynn, 



Apparatus for Electric Welding and Working- 
Metals. E. Thomson, Lynn, Mass. 

396.013. Electric Pipe Joining and Pipe Work. E. Thom- 
son, Lynn, Mass. 

396.014. Electric Metal Working. E. Thomson, Lynn, 



396,015. Method of Electric Riveting. E. Thou 

Mass. 
396,039. Coupling for Gas and Electric-light 

Keinhold Herman, Crafton, Pa. 



Lyn 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 




EVERY SATURDAY 



Vul. XXXVII] 



The Chicago Electrical Show. 

Beautified with bi ighl i olorcd di oi i 

louaanda of electric lamps, and with admiring 

ircnn-. of people filling the galli i ii and 

round the various booths, where electrical ap 

aratus "I al I everj typi wa to I , thi 

iterior of the Coliseum in Chicago pn entcd ■< 
rilliant and animated scene on thi opening night 
f the Electrical Show. With only two daj in 

. 1 1 1 • 1 1 to prepare exhibits bel hi evening of the 

pening, which was January 15th, things were in a 
audi more completed 9tate than would be thoughl 
lossible when ii is considered thai so many of the 



Ml!' GO, J 1 ' \KY 20, I 

11 il Ural portion of tin- t ■ .-» 1 1 

exhibit ol thi I 

,, and '...nil 5hor I 

idi a "i thi exhibit 

the advantagi 

fulfill tl 1 ■:• way 

fitted Man; p 

;re ted in the electric kitchen, which was in full 

operation Hi 

men il ol all dc 1 1 iption , al an • lectrically opcr 






hall on 

about 

Ruber 




GENERAL VIEW OF THE CHICAGO ELECTRICAL 



exhibits required quite complicated wiring and the 
installation of heavy machinery. 

At the opening of the show on Monday evening 
there were several thousand people present, prin- 
cipally by invitations sent out by the Electrical 
Trades Exposition Company. They thronged the 
aisles and filled the galleries, and the general 
opinion expressed on all sides was that the show 
was going to be a great success. 

One of the drawing cards at the opening was 
the reception of a telegram from President Roose- 
velt by "wireless" at the Coliseum station of the 
American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company. 
The message was received at about 8 p. m., and 
said: "Congratulations and best wishes. Theodore 
Roosevelt." To the public at large the space tele- 
graph is still a thing of mystery, and hundreds of 
people were packed around the De Forest booth at 

• the time the message came in, waiting anxiously 
for some outward indication of the coming of the 
signal. 

The accompanying illustration of the interior of 
the Coliseum gives a fair idea of its appearance on 
the opening night, though it' hardly does justice 
to the blaze of light which greets the visitor upon 



ated dishwasher. Coffee, made on the spot, was 
served to visitors. This department of the ex- 
hibit received a great deal of attention, people 
standing in several ranks in order to get near 
enough to watch the operation of the novel appa- 
ratus. Just back of the kitchen was to be found 
an example of a cozy dining room with all the 
conveniences that could be wished, including a com- 
mendable scheme of dining-room lighting. Other 
things shown by these three companies in their ex- 
hibit space included all kinds of household electrical 
appliances and fixtures for decorative lighting. 

Across the aisle from the Edison exhibit the 
General Electric Company showed in one depart- 
ment a large amount of kindred apparatus such as 
electric flatirons, curling-iron heaters, cooking uten- 
sils, etc. 

C. H. Thorardson made some experiments during 
the evening at his booth in the north end of the 
building. Here he showed apparatus for interesting 
the public and at the same time drew attention to 
bis business. The feature of his demonstrations 
was a high-tension spark discbarge which could 
be seen and heard from all parts of the room. 

On Tuesday evening Prof. Clarke began a series 



back of the star, and as the latter revolves the 
lamps of different colors are alternately lighted 
and extinguished, giving a pleasing effect. 

Another feature in the lighting which could not 
but attract attention was the row of Siemens 
dame arc lamps which formed part of the central 
illumination scheme. There were eight of these 
lamps in a row down the center of the hall and 
the soft but intense light which they emitted 
brought forth much favorable comment. Part of 
these lamps emitted a pinkish light, part a bluish 
light and the remainder a nearly white light. The 
mechanical construction of these lamps is some- 
what simpler than that of the ordinary arc lamp. 
though the cost of maintenance is slightly more, 
owing to the cost of the carbons. The carbons are 
the distinguishing feature. They are made up with 
a special core which is a secret with the Siemens- 
Schuckert Company, the maker of the lamp. The 
efficiency of the lamp is' very high, and the maker 
predicts for it a brilliant future. The lamp is now 
used to light the streets of Berlin. 

Several of the leading universities and colleges 
in the Middle West are represented in what is 
known as "College Row." The institutions exhibit- 



52 

ing products of their laboratories and views of their 
buildings and grounds are the University of Illi- 
nois, University of Wisconsin, Armour Institute, 
University of Colorado and Purdue University. 
"College Row" is a popular meeting place for 
alumni of the various institutions represented. 

Franklin Day was observed at the Electrical 
Show on Wednesday, January 17th, that being the 
bicentenary of Franklin's birth. On Franklin Day 
the Exposition Company distributed handsome me- 
dallions as souvenirs of the occasion. These me- 
dallions were of bronze nearly as large as a silver 
dollar, bearing upon one side the head of Benjamin 
Franklin with his name suitably inscribed. The 
reverse side bore the inscription, "Souvenir, Elec- 
trical Show, Coliseum. Chicago, January 15-27, 
igc6." The keepsakes were much admired and they 
were given to each ticket holder. 

The music by Weil's Band of St. Louis is 
greatly enjoyed by all those in attendance. This 
band, it will be remembered, was the official band 
at the St. Louis Exposition. Afternoon and even- 
ing concerts are given daily and the music 
rendered is of a high order, the heavier pieces 
being interspersed with popular airs, making this 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



Following is a list of additions and corrections 
to list of exhibitors as printed last week : 

American Bank Protection Company, E 14. 

American Electric Fuse Company. A 5. 

American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company, I 7. 

American Electrical Supply Company, J 7. 

Hel'kn Manufacturing Company, I 3. 

Bullock & Co., T. H., A 8. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, F 12. 

Chicago and Milwaukee Telephone Com;<any. F 24. 

Dossert & Co., E 21. 

Electric Gaslighting Company, C 5. 

Electrocraft Pulilisliine Company, D 8. 

Electrical World, D 8. 

Engineer, The, B 10. 

Federal Electric Company, F 4. 

Krantz Manufacturing Company, F 13. 

.Newman Manufacturing Company, A 7. 

Niagara Tachometer and Instrument Company, C 12. 

Schott, W. H., I 1. 

Standard Electrical Manufacturing Company, A 8. 

Taylor, J. F., I 2. 

Universal Electric Storage Battery Company, D 12. 

Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, D 10. 

Western Electrician, E 22. 



Modern Sub-station Practice. 

At an interesting and well-attended meeting of 
the Chicago branch of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers held on Tuesday evening in 
the rooms of the Western Society of Engineers 
Louis A. Ferguson, one of the managers of the 




CHICAGO ELECTRICAL SHOW. — CENT 



feature of the show adaptable and pleasing to 
all tastes. 

Considerable attention was attracted to the large 
motor-generator in the northeast corner of the 
hall, which was installed by the Chicago Edison 
Company to furnish current for the exhibits. This 
machine furnished 60-cycle three-phase current to 
the exhibits, principally for power purposes, though 
a portion of the current was used for exhibit light- 
ing. On the opening night the peak load upon the 
alternating-current side of this machine was about 
25 amperes. 

Facilities for the comfort of visitors are provided 
on every hand. Unlike most of the previous shows 
held in the Coliseum, the galleries in this instance 
are left entirely free to visitors, all the exhibits 
being confined to the main floor. This leaves 
ample seating space for those who desire to rest 
and listen to the music. An up-to-date cafe is 
located in the annex, where excellent meals are 
served. Wardrobe checkrooms are conveniently 
located, where articles of clothing may be checked 
if desired. 

The great electric searchlight which carried off 
the honors at the World's Fair at St. Louis has 
been installed on the roof of the Coliseum, and 
its rays were visible at night far up and down 
the shores of the lake. It is equipped to cover 
a radius of 12 miles, but because of the atmo- 
spheric conditions it has not yet reached that dis- 
tance. 

The Electrical Show as a whole is brilliant, and 
showed at the start that it will draw the public fully 
as well, if not better, than any of the. "shows" in 
various lines of development which are held each 
year as the Coliseum. Next week the Western 
Electrician will undertake to describe more in detail 
the various exhibits. 



foreground). 



Institute, presided in the absence of K. B. Miller, 
the regular chairman. Prof. P. B. Woodworth 
gave abstracts of the recent Institute papers by 
Sydney W. Ashe and C. W. Ricker, the respective 
subjects being "The Relation of Railway Sub-sta- 
tion Design to Its Operation," and "Some Con- 
siderations. Determining the Location of Electric 
Railway Sub-stations." The latter paper was given 
in full in the Western Electrician of December 23d, 
page 489. Mr. Ashe's paper is on the same general 
subject as the same author's article, entitled "The 
Practical Operation of a Modern Railway Sub-sta- 
tion," written for the Western Electrician, and 
published in the issues of September 30th and Oc- 
tober 7th last. 

George A- Damon opened the discussion. He 
gave some of the results of his experience, saving 
that he had not found a practicable application 
of Kelvin's law. Theoretical assumptions are of 
course profoundly affected by practical conditions. 

P. Junkersfeld remarked that in starting rotaries 
in large systems the direct-current side is usually 
used. In interurban roads and in small systems 
the alternating-current side is usually used. Ro- 
taries are employed in units as large as 2,000 kilo- 
watts. In large cities the cost of real estate for 
sub-stations is a serious item. Often the buildings 
are designed so that they can be used for commer- 
cial purposes if it should later become advisable to 
take out the equipment. Cranes are sometices 
omitted, decreasing cost and making sub-station 
buildings more strictly available for commercial 
purposes. The storage battery has a very important 
place in the sub-station. As to Kelvin's law, it is 
perhaps sometimes used unconsciously by engineers. 
But it is always modified by the existing conditions. 

J. M. S. Waring spoke more particularly of the 
storage-battery feature. In railway sub-stations 
there is not at present, so far as the speaker is 
aware, a battery operated without a booster. 
Therefore, there is no purely floating battery in this 
class of work. He made the statement in view of 
a possible misapprehension on this particular point 
that might follow a reading of Mr. Ashe's paper. 



January 20, 1906 

Mr. Waring said that a battery is not a panacea 
for all ills, but he made reference to the saving 
in copper and transmission losses effected by the 
installation of line batteries on urban and inter- 
urban systems and to the possible elimination of a 
sub-station by the adoption of a battery of this 
description. 

Ernest Lunn also spoke of the battery feature. 
Both he and Mr. Waring agreed that the resistance 
is the all-important feature of the battery in sta- 
tion regulation. 

B. J. Arnold, past-president of the Institute, said 
that he believed in the use of sub-station batteries 
on variable loads for various reasons, the principal 
one being the reliability thereby secured. In the 
New York Central terminal work it was thought 
wise to spend the large amount of money called 
for by the batteries because the work is of such 
magnitude that reliability in train operation is 
of paramount importance. Here the battery takes 
the overload up to twice its one-hour discharge 
rate. Above that the overload is divided between 
battery and rotary. On interurban roads, where 
trains are few and far between, batteries are desir- 
able. On direct-current Edison systems they have 
amply proved their usefulness. In alternating-cur- 
rent work "inverted rotaries" are employed. The 
weak feature of this device is the interposition of 
revolving machinery between battery and line. 

Mr. Ferguson said that perhaps the most im- 
portant question in sub-station work, is, How far is 
it advisable to go to protect apparatus and service? 
The subject of protective apparatus is very impor- 
tant both in lighting and railway stations. Reli- 
ability of service is essential. As to the storage 
battery, it is a most useful adjunct. In the Chi- 
cago central-station system some 12,000 or J 3,000 
kilowatts of battery is employed. 

W. G. Carlton of New York, but formerly of 
Chicago and back on a visit, speaking of the re- 
verse-current relay as one protective device, said 
that with high-potential alternating-current systems 
it was necessary to have a considerable number of 
protective devices, such as reverse-current _ relays, 
overload relays and speed-limit devices. It is hard 
to determine how far to go in installing these de- 
vices. More information is needed on these points. 
W. M. Moran said that simplicity is the great 
essential needed in sub-station work. Referring to 
danger from lightning, he said that in this direc- 
tion protection in alternating-current high-tension 
work is still very poor. Turning to the ordinary 
risks of service, he noted that the direct-current 
side of the rotary is the more vulnerable side. Re- 
verse-current relays are all right, but they are very 
delicate. Nevertheless he would use them in a large 
installation. But more attention should be paid 
to the wiring and care of these appliances. Mr. 
Moran also made the point that it was possible 
to eliminate many reserve rotaries in a string 
of sub-stations by having one in reserve, suitably 
arranged on a flat-car or otherwise, to be trans- 
ported where needed. 

L. H. Zapp of Highwood, 111., said in the inter- 
urban system centering in that place they used 
what they called double-pole relays, with two cur- 
rent transformers, for the operation of the protect- 
ive devices. Thus if one should fail, the other 
would still stand up, undoubtedly, and furnish 
current for the protective apparatus. This was in 
answer to Professor Woodworth, who asked what 
would happen if the current transformers broke 
down. 

Mr. Junkersfeld called attention to the personal 
equation in the sub-station operators. In a large 
system it may be necessary to train 100 or 150 
men for this work. The percentage of efficiency 
is, of course, considerably below 100. "Much as 
we should strive for simplicity," said the speaker, 
"we can hardly do away with our protective de- 
vices." 

Mr. Winslow said the reverse-current relays and 
other protective devices should be tested about 
once in every 10 days. 

R. E. Hellmund, recently from Germany, briefly 
contrasted European and American practice. For 
one thing, in Germany, until very lately, motor- 
generators were used in sub-station work rather 
than rotaries. Mr. Lunn also gave some of the 
results of observations made by him on a recent 
European journey. He found that practice dif- 
fered widely in different parts of Europe. 

Others taking part in the discussion were Ernest 
Gonzenbach, Edward Schildhauer and D. W. Roper. 



Municipal Light Plant Shut Down. 

A dispatch in the Saginaw ("Mich.) News bearing 
the date line of Monroe, Mich., January 5th, says: 
"Darkness prevailed in Monroe last night and the 
prespects are it will every night for some time to 
come. The municipal lighting plant, which the 
voters refused to improve or sell, has gone to the 
bad and the glimmer of a few commercial lights 
on the streets only intensifies the darkness. It is 
said that the Board of Works cannot secure any 
more coal, as the city owes $700 for what has been 
used. The situation is the sole topic today. The 
council is being criticised for appointing a super- 
intendent of lighting at the fat salary of $i,Soo, 
nearly as much as is received by the superintendent 
of the Detroit lighting plant, which is $2,000." 



Januarj 20, [906 

The Automatic Control of Rotary Con- 
verters. 
Rotai ) < on' mi.,, to operate al thi ii I 

"efficiency, should be provided with 

h hei ebj the load upo rivcrti 

tain' '1 appro mi.' 1 ' Ij ant t ithin 

ing range regardlc ..i tin trariatio thi 

upon ili.' dirccl 1 in rem ostein ll ha be 

imiii pr: ■ herctol nsti ui I tl n 

vcrters and combine them v. ith an iliarj api 

thai ili.' voltage imprc • <l u| hi el 

system may remain practically 1 mi or may 

rise as the load upon the ystcin inert 1 it 

however, >i 1 dc ired 1 plo to batti 1 ii 

in conw 'i h.i, \.. n 1 arj convcrtci . il 1 1 ential 

thai the voltage impressed ii| the dircct-ci 

system by iln' rotary convert 
<-rs shall il''.'"' a >e .1 1 the load 
11 1. 11 n the system tin rea i 
since storage batteries delivcf 
tl u c r easing elcctromol \\ e 
forces ii- the current demand 



1-1.1/ TR] 

■ 

i pond ing 

(10J 11 j and 11.' 

upon 
ii'l from the primary 
coil Phi 
■ 

i from the 

if opcrati 

I In 



tin 



tion of in 
tary converters a plan h .1 
been devised and patented by 
Benjamin G Lamme, Charles 
\\ Scotl and Frank * onrad, 
all of Fitlsburg, which em- 
bodies a ^ >■ s 1 e in of one or 
more rotary converters and 
a storage-battery means f r 
causing the direct-current elec- 
tromotive force of the rotary 
converters to decrease as the 
1 a tl upon the system in- 
creases, this means compris 
ing automatic voltage regu- 
lators located between 1 h e 
alternating- cur rent supply sys- 
tem and the rotary converters. 
By their use the alternating- 
current electromotive force 
applied to the rotary convert- 
ers is varied inversely as the 
load upon the direct-current 
system varies. The voltage 
regulators may be so adjusted 
as to secure the following re- 
sults under the various stated 
conditions of operation: 

If the service requires less 
than a normal full-load cur- 
rent output of the rotary con- 
verters, the electromotive force of the rotary con- 
verters will rise slightly above that corresponding 
to full-load output and the open-circuit electro- 
motive force of the storage battery, and the stor- 
age battery is then charged. 

When the service requires the normal rotary- 
converter output, the current will be supplied to 
the direct-current system by the rotary converters 
alone at a voltage corresponding to that load, 
which is also equal to the open-circuit electromotive 
force of the storage battery. 

When the demand for current upon the direct- 
current system exceeds the normal rotary-con- 
verter output, the regulators which are located 
between the alternating-current supply system and 
the rotary converters cause the alternating-current 
voltage supplied to the rotary converters to di- 
minish, and consequently current is delivered to 
the direct-current system at a reduced voltage. 
The excess of current demanded by the direct- 
current system over the normal rotary-converter 
output is then supplied by the storage battery, 
since the voltage of the system is less than the 
open-circuit electromotive force of the battery, and 
the rotary . converters continue to deliver approxi- 
mately their normal rated output of current. 

If the demand for current upon the direct-cur- 
rent system is greater than the normal rated full 
load output of the rotary converters plus the 
maximum allowable current output from the bat- 
tery, the voltage regulators cease to operate, and 
a constant alternating-current electromotive force 
is delivered to the rotary converters. The addi- 
tional load upon the direct-current system is then 
carried as an overload upon the rotary converters, 
the direct-current electromotive force remaining 
approximately constant. Under this condition the 
current which the rotary converters may safely 
deliver in addition to that delivered by the storage 
battery is determined by the capacity of the rotary 
converters. The accompanying diagram illustrates a 
svstem embodying the invention. 

Alternating-current energy is supplied from any 
suitable source to distributing conductors (2), (3) 




CONVERTERS. 



similar to the well-known devices employed for 
the purpose of regulating the current in arc-light- 
ing circuits. When currents traverse the circuits 
of the primary and secondary coils of the regu- 
lator, these coils repel each other, the strength 
of the repulsive action being proportional to the 
amounts of the currents that traverse the windings. 
As the coils separate, the magnetic leakage be- 
tween them increases, and consequently the voltage 
at the terminals of the secondary windings de- 
creases. 

Corresponding terminals of the secondary wind- 
ings of the voltage regulator, constituting one set, 
are connected, respectively, to the supply conduct- 
ors, and the corresponding terminals, constituting 
the other set, are connected to delta-connected 
primary windings ( 17), ( 18) and (19) of three 
transformers. Secondary windings of the transform- 
ers are delta-connected and are also connected to 
brushes (26), (27) and (28") at the alternating- 
current end of a rotary converter (29). 

Direct current is supplied from the commutator 
brushes (30) and (31) of the rotary converter 
through series field-magnet winding {32), to sup- 
ply the conductors of the direct-current system. 
The rotary converter is also provided with a shunt 
field-magnet winding 1 35 ) , and the amount of 
current supplied" to it may be adjusted by means 
of a suitable rheostatic device, such as that shown 
at (36). If more than a single rotary converter 
is employed in the distributing system, an equaliz- 
ing connection, such as that indicated at (37), 
should be made between the terminals oi the arma- 
ture windings, which are connected to terminals 
of the series field-magnet windings. 

A storage battery (38) and a booster-generator 
(39) are connected in series between the supply 
conductors (33) and (34), booster (39) being 
provided with a field-magnet winding (40), that 
is connected in series with the conductor 1 34 1 
in order that the charge and* discharge of the 
battery may be dependent largely upon the current 
demand upon the system. The booster may be 
operated by any suitable means, such as a motor 












Automobile Shows In New York. 

club I19 

I he . 
limited. I he only I; . 

md, HI wh 

wound i"r the Baker 

.'ili'' ■-.[ not to i'Mrn 

battery can furnish 
will travel 40 m 

The 1 
scnted by .1. M Lansdi 

Ruprechl and Charles Schutti 
novel pleasure vehicle, which thej 

25 miles .-in I 

arranged in the front 
accessible by lifting a 
tnr- and controllers arc used. The 

d a two-ton truck equipped with 60 
traveling 25 1 

ii.. Dayton Electrical Manufacturing Company, 
represented 

" tin- line of ignition dynamos. The corn- 
also putting on the market a new automo- 
ttery charger, with clutch governor, to main- 
tain a constant speed. It- : 

made up of units each weigl 1 - The 

unit is a lead bottle with the vent at the 
prevent the fumes eating the terminal 
Other batteries were shown by the E 
Battery Company, the National Carl 
and the Eastern Carbon Works. The Witherbcc 
Storage Battery Company was also represented. 

Spark coils were shown by the Connecticut Tele- 
phone rind Electric Company, which claimed that 
it has designed its products cspeciall) to meet the 
conditions required by gasoline engines. 

The Byrne-Kingston Company of Kokom 
had a well-organized exhibit of commutators 
and plugs. This company was represented al both 
of the New York shows by C. T. Byrne. 
B. Kingston, J. P. Grace, j. W. Johnson. Marion 
Black and William H. Diehl. Cither coils were 
shown by C. F. Splitdorf of Xew York. 

In the large gymnasium was an interesting 
hihit by William J. Hammer, represented by Ed- 
ward Durant, wdio gave a demonstration of his 
method of signaling from balloons by m. 
incandescent lamps. Tn this system a ring 
pended from a small captive balloon, carrying 
eight incandescent lamps of different colors. The 
lamps are controlled from a keyboard, and a very 
high speed of communication can lie maintained. 
On the same balloon the Eric Bruce signaling 
method was illustrated, in which an incandescent 
lamp is placed within the balloon itself. Around 
the walls of the gymnasium were several hundred 
photographs, loaned by Mr. Hammer, and illus- 
trating the art of aerial navigation and its prog- 
ress during recent years. 

The lighting of the armory was in the hands 
of James Riley & Sons of Xew York, and com- 
prised 64 arc lamps and many thousands of in- 
candescent lamps, arranged in a, definite decorative 
scheme. 

The show in the Madison Square Garden was 
held under the auspices, for the first tin 
year, of the Association of Licensed Automobile 
Manufacturers. The makers of all the machines 
in the Garden recognize the rights of the Selden 
patent as governing the principles of the internal- 
combustion engine. The armory exhibitors, on the 
other hand, are known popularly as the independ- 
ents, as they have thus far refused to recognize 
the basic rights of the patent. This sharp legal 
division is really the reason lor the two sfi 

Both shows contain about 425 exhibitors. There 
were 220 in the Garden and 205 in the Armory. 
The Armory, however, contains a larger number 
of makers of different machines. In the Armory 
there were 44 types of American pleas-.-.r. 

ctrics, two steam, seven commercial and 
18 foreign makes of cars represented, a total of 
73 varieties. The Garden had 56 different makes, 
being divided into 30 American cars, it foreign, 
eight electrics and seven commercial vehicles. 
Nearly 200 complete cars and chasses were shown 
in the Armory and about 160 in the Garden. 



54 

Ferranti- Hamilton Alternating-current 
Meter. 

In electric wattmeters of the induction-motor 
type for use on alternating circuits it is necessary 
to produce a lag of go degrees in the magnetic 
field produced by the shunt-current, behind the im- 
pressed electromotive force. 

The object of an invention by Sebastian Ziani 
De Ferranti and William Hamilton of Hollinwood, 
England, is to provide a simple form of meter in 
which the required phase _ displacement is obtained 
without the use of special arrangements, such as 
additional choking coils or secondary circuits. ^ 

The invention consists, broadly, in employing a 
shunt magnet having large magnetic leakage through 
non-hysteretic and non-conductive material, such 
as air, so as to obtain a lag of go degrees of the 
effective torque-producing flux behind the impressed 
electromotive force without the use of additional 
flux-retarding devices. Further, it consists in de- 




WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

high up on the central limb of (b), and the lower 
part of the limb is provided with an additional me- 
tallic cross-section, the effect of which is to produce 
a further lag in the magnetic flux which enters the 
disk. This additional metallic cross-section may 
be provided either by thickening up the lower part 
of the central limb of (b), as shown in Fig. I, or 
by providing a non-insulated short-circuited winding 
(b') around the pole. By the above arrangement 
a lag of go degrees of the effective flux due to the 
magnet (b) behind the impressed electromotive 
force may be readily produced. Indeed, it is possi- 
ble and convenient to produce an excessive lag and 
reduce this to exactly 90 degrees by means of a 
series non-inductive resistance. Careful experiments 
have shown that the lag of more than go degrees 
thus obtainable is due chiefly to the following 
causes : First, large leakage through non-hysteretic 
and non-conductive material, and, second, large iron 
losses. 

In the form of meter shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 
the upper or shunt electromagnetic (b) has five 
poles which are alternately north and south, and 
which project inward from the end pieces (f) and 
(f) of the core on which the coil (d) is wound. 



MILTON ALTERNATING-CU 




vices for enabling sufficient speed to be obtained 
on inductive loads, thus rendering possible the con- 
struction of a meter practically equally accurate on 
both inductive and non-inductive loads and prac- 
tically independent of frequency through wide varia- 
tions. 

Fig 1 is a diagram showing the arrangement of 
the series and shunt magnets in relation to the 
rotating disk. This figure also shows the connec- 
tions to the supply circuit. Fig. 2 is an elevation of 
one form of the improved meter. Fig. 3 is a sec- 
tional plan on the line (3 3) of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is 
a sectional elevation on the line (4 4) of Fig. 2. 

Referring first to Fig. 1, a horizontal disk (a) is 
mounted on a vertical axis so as to be free to 
rotate between the poles of a shunt magnet (b) 
and those of a series magnet (c). The shunt mag- 
net, which is disposed above the outer portion of 
the disk, has three limbs, forming poles. On the 
central limb is mounted a coil which is connected 
as a shunt across the source of supply. The series 
magnet, which is below the disk, has two poles on 
which are wound coils through which current 
passes to the working circuit. The poles of (c) 
are arranged practically opposite to the gaps be- 
tween the poles of (b). In order to increase the lag 
of the effective field of (b) behind the applied elec- 
tromotive force — i. e., the lag of the flux entering 
the disk (a) due to the magnet (b)— the core of 
the latter is made of such a form that there is a con- 
siderable leakage of magnetic lines from one limb 
of (b) to the others. The shunt coil (d) is placed 



The coil (d) preferably does not occupy the whole 
of the space between the end pieces (f) and (f v ) ; 
but a washer (e) is arranged on each side of it. 
This shunt magnet is arranged, as shown, above 
the horizontal disk (a), which is mounted on a 
vertical axis (g), free to rotate in bearings sup- 
ported in a brass frame. This frame is clamped 
to the frame (1), which supports the magnets by 
means of a screw, so that when desired the frame 
(i), carrying with it the disk (a), may be removed 
without interfering with the other parts of the 
meter. The series electromagnet (c) has a core 
of laminated iron with four projecting poles, as 
shown in Fig. 2, on which are wound the coils 
through which the current passes to the working 
circuit. In order to obtain an adjustable starting 
torque when no current is flowing in the series coils 
the shunt magnet is mounted so that it can be dis- 
placed to the right or left, when the want of sym- 
metry produces a starting torque. 

The meter is also applicable to polyphase cir- 
cuits. For example, a three-phase meter may be 
made of three meter elements, each elment com- 
prising a series and a shunt coil, as in one of the 
forms of a single-phase meter, so arranged that 
each of the elements acts on a disk common to all, 
tending to rotate it in the same direction. 



The American Electrical Salesmen's Association 
will hold its first regular meeting in the Grand 
Pacific Hotel on January 20th. Any information 
regarding the meeting will be gladly given by Mr. 
George H. Erich ' of Room 52, 88 Washington 
Street, Chicago, who is secretary of the associa- 
tion, and has an office for the present at the above 
address. 



January 20, 1906 

Storage Batteries and Insulated Wir 

Discussed by Railway Signal 

Association. 

The January meeting of the Railway Signal As- 
sociation was held at New York city on January 
9th, C. H. Morrison of the Erie Railroad Company 
presiding. The association has now 565 members, 
and among 36 new applicants elected at the meeting 
were Joseph Bijur, president of the General Stor- 
age Battery Company ; Elmer F. Bliss of the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, Schenectady ; J. M. Walshe, 
General Railway Signal Company ; F. C. Laverack, 
Federal Railway Signal Company, Chicago; Sam- 
uel B. Dusinberre, manager storage department, 
Westinghouse Machine Company ; J. H. Dodd, Ja- 
maica Government Railways, and John P. O'Don- 
nell, London, England. G. M. Basford, the first 
president of the association, was made an honorary 
member. A. H. Rudd was elected eastern vice- 
president. 

I. S. Raymer, chairman of the committee on stor- 
age batteries, in a preliminary report said there 
was a general tendency to use storage batteries for 
signal work. Such batteries were charged (1) by 
transmission wire, (2) by taking portable batteries 
to the central station, and (3) by the "primary- 
storage" method. The last method is used on the 
Pittsburg, Cincinnati and St Louis division of the 
Pennsylvania lines. Six storage cells are used at 
a signal location. Eighteen gravity cells are then 
put in series and similar terminals of each set are 
connected. The result is that the gravity voltage 
overcomes the counter electromotive force of the 
storage cells. The signal motors receive current 
from the storage cells, but when the signals are 
standing, current is supplied from gravity to stor- 
age. Three years' operation shows this method to 
be practical and economical. 

C. C. Anthony, signal supervisor of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, said that when storage cells were 
charged at a low rate it is desirable to have a 
periodic overcharge. He doubted the ultimate suc- 
cess of the primary storage method. D. C. Arling- 
ton of the Westinghouse Machine Company also 
approved a periodical overcharge which removes 
sulphate in cells used spasmodically. 

E. B. Leslie of the Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, suggested combining a slow 

. charge with an overcharge at the normal rate. The 
half-rate reduces the sulphate, and there was no sedi- 
ment at low rates because it remained on the plates. 

D. M. Case of the Queen and Crescent Railroad 
spoke on portable batteries. He cited an example 
in which each maintainer kept two extra sets and 
used them as substitutes while the regular cells 
were recharged. The extra set lasted six weeks. 
Recharging portables gave no trouble. 

Edward L. Reynolds, sales agent of the Electric 
Storage Battery Company, said eastern engineers 
were much against portables. In the West they 
were used advantageously. As to charging port- 
ables, Mr. Bezar of Newark, N. J., said this is 
easier on account of the automatic cut-outs at the 
central stations. A. H. Rudd, assistant signal engi- 
neer of the Pennsylvania Railroad, estimated that 
portable batteries would stand 200 discharges, or 
say 20 years of life. 

H. W. Lewis, supervisor of signals of the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad, read a paper on the care of storage 
batteries. He recommended a full initial charge, 
followed by a half discharge and a regular re- 
charge. He asked for information as to the use 
of sodium sulphate to prevent sulphating. 

I. M. Waldron of the Interborough Rapid Tran- 
sit Company said that for 10 years they had given 
new batteries 100 per cent, overcharge and then 
set them to work. This method had never failed. 
Storage batteries are not delicate things if decently 
treated. They kept the plates covered, but did not 
test every day. 

Information being asked as to charging with mer- 
cury arc rectifiers, F. B. Corey of the General 
Electric Company, explained the process, which, he 
asserted, is cheaper and more efficient than using 
motor-generators. 

Instances of SOO-per cent, overcharge, lasting from 
40 to 60 hours, were related by Mr. Leslie. The 
positive plates got into good condition before the 
negative. 

Azel Ames, Jr., chairman of the committee on 
wire inspection, reported briefly. He suggested the 
formation of a permanent inspection bureau for 
the Use of all the roads. The committee was seek- 
ing to co-operate with the fire insurance inspectors 
as to methods of inspecting insulated wires. 

F. F. Fowle of the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Company read a long paper on "Spec- 
ifications for Line Wire." He laid down general 
principles for efficiency and economy under varying 
conditions, pleaded for standardization and sug- 
gested a number of problems for future investiga- 
tion. He asked members to collect statistics as 
to the number of breaks per mile per annum. An- 
swering a question by Mr. Ames, he said that no 
allowance was made for the extra weight of 
weatherproof wire because their wires were always 
strung with a very large factor of safety on ac- 
count of sleet. Mr. Rudd said insulated wires car- 
ried more sleet, and mentioned a case of sleeting 
two inches thick. Mr. Fowle remarked that sleet 
caused wires to slack and so decreased then tension. 

Double-braided No. 10 wire for storms, or No. 



January 20, [906 



l-.l.i/ TkH 



12 with 60 pole 1 i" II Ii 1 11 !"!■ d 

by Mr. Ames. 

No. 9 wire for signal circu 1 6 foi 

charging lines were favored byMr. Rudd, Weather- 
proof wire di ti 1 ioi ati I hi 

using a cheapi i i oppi i to last onl . a long a thi 
insulation, Prcscnl day braided win ai 1 irding 

to Mr. Balliet, are not so good a tl 1 peai 

ago. 1 tc mentioned lab d « 1 891 which 

lai ted 11 years, 'i he old soi 1 could I bti 1 il 

specified. Mr, Fov. I 1 laid < ubl 1 illation la ted 

[or 80 per cent, ol the life ol thi ■■. ire Mi . I lamrn 
aid the old « ii 1 '■■■ a boughl by the mile and the 
new by the pound. Purchasing agi nl can g 
good whr if they w ill pay for it. 

Mr. Anil v dwell upon the defects of the old 

wires. Some manufacturers joined with ingle 
loops ami put them through the insulating ma- 

illinr. 

Dr. Clayton II. Sharp, introduced as a visito 
scribed satisfactory and economical methods of ti I 
ing insulation. He is devising a method i>f aging 
wire prematurely. Mr. Smith reported five breaks 
per annum on 142 miles of wire. Mr. Anthony 
sni'l the trouble is Hue to railroads buying wire 
in small quantities. I In association should draw 
up a standard specification and make some ar- 
rangement for testing. 

A preliminary report by G. K. Rogers of Cal- 
cutta "ii signaling mi (lie East ISengal gnvern 
incut railways was received, but members ex 
pressed the view thai they had nothing to learn 
from Indian methods. 

President Morrison entertained the members of 
the association at dinner in the evening. The 
next meeting of the association will be held at 
Washington, D. G, on October 9th. D.W. W. 



11 mr 

" cd 1 
in the in 

corresponds 1 II four 

1 1 Imdi 1 i, thi ma im im 1 

11 11 70,000 

I at the mid. li- 
ne load and the other under load 

run at 1)1. ami 

and maintain synchronism foi 

1 1 "in. are upplicd .■• itti oil 

ervnir by gravity. After beil 

tank in Hi. 1 • 11 11 and is purified from ; 

timi . being rai led to th 

These two units were subjected to thorough 



- 



General Electric Salesmen's Meeting. 
Company in 

n man 
January' 15th, 
and mi 1 

arc, in general, ol a 



Central Light and Power Station in 
Hanover, Germany. 

By C. Smith. 

To meet the new conditions and greater demand 
for electrical power, the city of Hanover, Germany, 
has recently constructed a new. central station to 
take the place of the old direct-current installation, 
which has been in continuous service for the last 
13 years. But two of the three units have been 
installed, these two being sufficient at the present 
time to supply the current required. Space has 
been reserved throughout for the third unit, how- 
ever, which will be put into operation as soon as 
required. 

Coal is brought to the station by rail and stored 
in a shed separated from the boiler room by a 
fireproof wall. When brought to the boilers it 
passes over small scales, so that an accurate record 
of the coal consumption can be kept. Four Stein- 
muller boilers are in use at present, space being 
reserved for a battery of two more. They are of 
the water-tube type, with a heating surface of 
4.CCO square feet each, and a grate surface of 82 
square feet. They generate steam at a pressure of 
175 pounds per square inch. Steinmuller super- 
heaters of 840 square feet surface are also used. 

Furnace gases from each boiler are led through 
short flues to a main flue connecting with the 
stack, economizers not having been installed at 
present, although it is the intention to make use 
of them later. 

A spring situated a few hundred feet from the 
building supplies the feed water for the boilers. 
Two pumps lift the water to two water purifiers, 
from which it passes overhead to the front of the 
boilers, being forced into them by two feed pumps, 
one being placed before each battery. 

The steam from the boilers to the engines passes 
from the superheaters through a double conduit. 
The flanges are packed with asbestos, reinforced 
by inserted metal, a packing which does not blow 
out under the high pressure, so that the flanges 
could be made smooth and yet afford as much 
safety as the grooved ones usually used. 

Two large separators are used to take out any 
water which may condense. This precaution was 
taken in view of the fact that the superheaters 
might be temporarily out of service and saturated 
steam would have to be supplied to the engine. 
These separators are each 79 inches high by 39 
inches in diameter. 

Steam leaving the boiler has a temperature of 
509° F., but on reaching the high-pressure cylinder 
of the engine the temperature has fallen to 42S 
degrees, showing a loss of 81 degrees between boiler 
and engine, the steam pipe having a length of 
164 feet. 

Fig. 1 gives an excellent idea of the interior of 
the engine room and the two units already in- 
stalled. They are three-cylinder triple-expansion 
engines built by the Maschinenbau Actien Gesell- 
schaft. They develop from 1,350 to 2,040 horse- 
power each. The alternators are placed between 
the pair of cylinders. The high-pressure cylinder 




CENTRAL LIGH 



\ IN HANOVER, G] 



tests before being accepted by the city. In the test 
with dry saturated steam at a pressure of 170 
pounds per square inch 11.52 pounds of steam were 
consumed per horsepower-hour. With steam at 77 
degrees superheat, the steam consumption was 10.56 
pounds per indicated horsepower-hour. 

The condensers are of the jet type and are lo- 
cated beside the low-pressure cylinders. They are 
each of sufficient size to be able to handle the 
entire exhaust from a single engine, but can main- 
tain a better vacuum by working together. The 
water is led from each condenser through indi- 
vidual pipes to one large discharge main, which 
conveys it to a suction pit, located outside the 
small pump house. From there two centrifugal 
pumps, driven by induction motors, raise it to a 
cooling tower, from which it flows through piping 
230 feet in length, to another pit, into which the 
suction pipes from the condensers dip. 

The alternators used are of the Schuckert type 
and generate a three-phase current at 5,000 volts 
pressure, the frequency being 100 cycles per second. 
They have each a capacity of 1,000 kilowatts. Two 
vertical steam engines, developing from 400 to 500 
horsepower each, and a horizontal engine of 200- 
horsepower capacity are also situated in the engine 
room. They drive electrical generators at a speed 
of 150 revolutions per minute, supplying current 
for excitation and also for driving small motors 
and other electrically operated machinery about the 
station. 

The switchboard is located at the rear of the 
engine room. It is constructed entirely of iron 
and marble, and a glass cover entirely protects it 
from the injurious effects of moisture. The room 
in the rear is shut off from the engine room by 
iron gates, preventing unnecessary intrusion. 

Five main cables conduct the current to sub- 
stations, where transformers and rotary-converter 



commercial nature and are intended to increase the 
knowledge of the men by an interchange of ideas. 
Men especially versed in the different branches of 
the company's business address the salesmen and 
bring to their attention the particular points of 
merit in the various machines or appliances pro- 
duced by the company. For instance, P. D. Wag- 
oner of Schenectady spoke on transformers, F. G. 
Yaughen of Schenectady talked about meters, and 
F. G. Kimball of Boston gave a talk on small 
motors. Other speakers and subjects were as fol- 
lows : "Induction Motors," J. T. Stockdale of 
Schenectady ; "Railway Controllers," H. M. Ran- 
som of Schenectady; "Incandescent Lamps," A. D. 
Page and F. W. Willcox of Harrison, N. J. : "Heat- 
ing and Cooking Devices." X. R. Birge and W. J. 
Newcomb of Schenectady; -"Specialties," H. C. 
Wirt of Schenectady; "Circuit Breakers," E. P. 
Edwards of Schenectady ; "Railway Overhead Ap- 
pliances," W. G. Carey of Schenectady. 

Those present at the meeting from out of Chicago 
were the following-named : J. E. Lewis of Dallas, 
Texas, A. N. Feineman of Oklahoma City, Okla., 
C. W. Hough and I. F. Schaefer of Kansas Citv. 
George D. Rosenthal, F. C. Pullen, William Hand 
and C. R. Croninger of St. Louis, George A. 
Seabury and G. W. Munro of Omaha, C. H. 
Alexander of Helena, Mont.. A. B. Cross and 
W. F. Smith of Minneapolis. R. A. Swain of Du- 
ltith, Minn.. J. B. Tingley of Oshkosh, Wis., J. H. 
Livsey and W. W. Kittleman of Detroit. L. M. 
Paige of Grand Haven, Mich., A. L. Haralson of 
Cleveland, T. L. Rainey and A. H. Meyrose of 
Cincinnati. F. G. Kimball of Boston, A. D. Page 
and F. W. Willcox of Harrison, N. J., P. D. 
Wagoner, F. G. Vaughen. J. T. Stockdale. H. M. 
Ransom. N. R. Birge. W. J. Xewcomb. H. C. 
Wirt, E. P. Edwards and W. G. Carev of Schenec- 
tady. 

The usual banquet was not held this year. In- 
stead the salesmen made frequent visits to the elec- 
trical show at the Coliseum, wdiere the General 
Electric Company has a large and attractive exhibit. 



56 

WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

EVERY SAT URDAY. 

PUBLICATION OFFICES: 

510 Marquette Building, - CHICAGO. 

TELEPHONE, MAIN 1746. 

Eastern Office, 150 Nassau Street, New York. 

Telephone, 4147 John. 

Trade Supplied by Western News Co. 

OOFTHIGHT.— Not only the title but the entire contents oi 
each number cf the Western Electiucian are copyrighted. 
This paper is entered at the Chicago postofflce as mail matter 
of the second class. 

SUBSCRIPTION, in advance, postage prepaid, $3.00 for a 
full year of 52 numbers; in clubs of four or more. $2.50, with free 
extra copy lor eiL, r ht subscriptions; foreign countries, $5.00 a 
year; single copies, 10 cents. When change of address is re- 
quested, the old address as well as the new should be given. 

CORRESPONDENCE relating to electricity or any of its 
praet it'iil applu-u kms is cordially incited, and the co-operation 
of all electrical thinkers and workers earnestly desired. Clear, 
concise, well written articles are especially welcome; and com- 
munications, views, news items, local newspaper clippings, or 
any information likely to interest electricians, wiil be thank- 
fully received and cheerfully acknowledged. 

ADVERTISING-.— The Western Electrician— -the only 
general electrical paper published in the West— thorough lv 
covers a territory f.n-liimrth/ it a own. This is a c^-iim which 

CAN EB MADE BY NO OTHER ELECTRICAL JOURNAL IN THE 

United States. Electrical merchants and manufacturers 
dftirinq wt-r.lt rn trade will appreciate the unequaled vj»,-txe 
of this journal as an advertising medium in its special field. 
Advertising rates are moderate, and will be furnished en 
application. 

REMITTANCES.— All checks, drafts and other remit- 
tances -.imn'id hi- mad.' payable to the order of the publishers, 
(In Blectrician Publishing Company, and addressed to the 
Offices of publication, Suite 510, Marquette Building {204 
Dearborn Street), Chicago , Illinois, Tj. S. A. 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

The Chicago Electrical Show. Illustrated 5L 52 

Modern Substation Practice. (Institute discussion in Chicago.) 52 

Municipal Lighting Plant Shut Down : 52 

The Automatic Control of Rotary Converters. Illustrated .... 53 

Automobile Shows in New York 53 

Ferranti-Hamilton Alternating-current Meter. Illustrated 54 

Storage Batteries and Insulated Wire Discussed by Railway 

Signal Association 54. 55 

Central Light and Power Station in Hanover, Germany. By 

C. Smith. Illustrated 55 

General Electric Salesmen's Meeting 55 

Editorial 56 

Ohio and Indiana Electric Railway Associations to be Merged. 57 
Northwestern Electrical Association. (Annual convention in 

Chicago.) 57 

Magnetic Wells — 57 

Year's Earnings of Chicago Freight Tunnels 57 

Electrical Trades Association of Chicago 57 

Northwestern Cedarmen's Association. (Annual meeting in 

Minneapolis.) 58 

Marshall H. Coolidge. Portrait 58 

Electric Power for Large Iron Mine 58 

Further Details of Sarnia Tunnel Equipment. Illustrated — 59 

The Dynelectron. Illustrated 59, Go 

5,000 Kilowatts in Steam Turbines Ready for Shipment. Il- 
lustrated 60 

The New "Poke Bonnet" Reflector- Illustrated 60 

The Connectome. Illustrated 60 

High-voltage Electrically Operated Oil Circuit-breaker. Il- 
lustrated 60, 61 

Something about Hard-drawn Copper Wire 61 

Finest Ever Printed in the United States 61 

Long-distance Wireless. (Communication.) 61 

American Energy Triumphing over Misfortune. (Communi- 

Co-operative Insurance for Railway and Lighting Properties.. 61 

Opening of the Simplon Tunnel 61 

Electrically Operated Irrigating System on Large Sugar 

Plantation 62 

Auxiliary Telephone Circuits. By Charles H. Coar. Illus- 
trated 62, 63 

Telephone Men *3 

Telephone News from the Northwest 64 

Indiana Telephone Items 64 

Ohio Telephone Notes 64 

Southeastern Telephone Developments.. 64 

Oregon Independent Telephone Association 64 

General Telephone News 64 

DEPARTMENTS. 

Correspondence 64, 65, 66 

Great Britain 64. 65 

New York 65 

Dominion of Canada 65 

Ohio '■ 65 

Michiean 65 

Indiana 65. 66 

Southeastern States 66 

Texas 66 

Mexico 66 

Northwestern States 66 

Pacific Slope 66 

Personal 66. 67 

Electric Lighting 67 

Electric Railways 67 

Power Transmission 67 

Publications 68 

Societies and Schools 68 

Miscellaneous 68 

Trade News 68 

Business 68, 60 

Illustrated Electrical Patent Record 69. 70 

DATES AHEAD. 

Chicago Electrical Show (first annual exhibtion of Elec- 
trical Trades Exposition Company), Coliseum, Chicago, Jan- 
uary 15th to 27th. 

American Electrical Salesmen's Association (first annual 
meeting), Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, January 20th, 9 a. m. 

Nebraska hide pern lent Telephone Association (annual con- 
vention), Lindcll Hotel, Lincoln, Neb., January 23d and 
24th. 

Ohio Interurban Railway Association (annual meeting*. 
Algonquin Hotel. Dayton, Ohio, Tamiary 25th. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers (two-hundred- 
and-third meeting), 44 West Twenty-seventh Street, New 
York city, Tanuary 26th, 8:15 p. m. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

Marshall Field was not an electrical man, and 
yet we suppose there is not an electrical man of 
prominence in Chicago who does not feel a sense 
of personal loss at his death. He was a strong, 
reserved man, who kept his own counsel, but he 1 
was nevertheless a friend of progress and a com- 
manding figure in the influences that made for the 
prestige and betterment of the city. He early rec- 
ognized the advantages of electric light and power, 
and later became financially interested in the cen- 
tral-station and traction interests of Chicago. He 
was unquestionably the foremost citizen of the 
western metropolis, and was held in universal re- 
spect and honor. The death of such a man should 
be and is keenly regretted. 



Much interest is naturally manifested in the con- 
templated attempt to reach the North Pole to be 
made by Walter Wellman, who has been com- 
missioned by a Chicago daily newspaper to build 
an airship and undertake to proceed to the Pole 
in that manner from Spitzbergen. The celebrated 
aeronaut, Alberto Santos-D union t of Paris, will act 
as Mr. Wellman's aeronautic engineer in the con- 
struction and equipment of the airship, which is 
to be of the dirigible variety: Mr. Santos-Dumont 
may also accompany the expedition to pilot the ship. 
Communication with the outside world is to be 
maintained, it is hoped, by the aid of space teleg- 
raphy and the submarine cable. For this purpose 
a wireless station is to be established at Spitz- 
bergen, 550 miles from the Pole. This station will 
transmit the messages which Mr. Wellman may 
send to Hamrnerfest, Norway, 600 miles from the 
first station. From Hamrnerfest communication will 
be carried on with this country by means of the 
Atlantic cable. After what is declared to have been 
careful investigation, it has been decided that a 
sending apparatus to be carried on the airship can 
be made of necessary power to enable messages to 
be sent over the 550 miles between Spitzbergen 
and the Pole, granted, of course, that the Pole can 
be reached — and Mr. Wellman believes the chances 
of success are greater than the chances of failure. 
The effort is to be made next July or August or 
else in March or April of 1907, these two periods 
of the year being deemed the most auspicious. 
" There seems to be no question that the airship 
attempt, with wireless accompaniment, is to be 
made in good faith. Mr. Wellman has had pre- 
vious Arctic experience and is a man of ability 
and resolution. The project seems to be a very 
daring one, especially in view of the unfortunate 
history of the Andre expedition. An airship such 
as is proposed has never been built, while it is 
difficult to believe that apparatus capable of send- 
ing 550 miles by wireless can be carried in addition 
to the passengers and the other machinery, in- 
struments and stores. But the plan is boldly con- 
ceived at any rate; the latest appJications of science 
are relied .upon to bring success in the fascinating 
search for the Pole. We must be doubtful of the 
success of this most interesting plan, but neverthe- 
less one cannot refrain from a certain admiration 
for it. A gallant fight against the Terra Incognita 
is promised, and for our part we wish the air- 
ship voyagers a successful journey and a safe 
return. 



January 20, 1906 

of the telephone may be largely mitigated, if not 
entirely overcome, by a combination of efficiency 
with good sense and good manners. If this is the 
true lesson of the telephone, it is one which we 
shall none of us be the worse for learning." 

Nobody can gainsay the Times' conclusion. In- 
deed, it may be that nobody attempts to contro- 
vert the Great Mogul of journalism in anything. 
But, be that as it may, the defects of the telephone 
service in the British metropolis are not to be 
disposed of by mere banter; even the Times did 
not attempt that. The faults seem to be such as 
could be partly obviated by the proper training and 
supervision of operators — that is an important 
point; perhaps London needs a school for telephone 
operators such as that of the Chicago Telephone 
Company, recently described in the Western Elec- 
trician — and by the use of improved apparatus. But 
no doubt the telephone users need some training, 
too. For instance, there seems to be little system 
in handling the incoming calls in large establish- 
ments. We take it that private branch exchanges 
and extension service are not very common in 
London. The Times could no doubt do a real 
service to its readers by publishing a series of 
articles showing what a modern telephone service 
should be and how the public should take advan- 
tage of it. There is a telephone engineer in Lon- 
don, an Englishman, but well versed in American 
practice, who could write well on such a topic 
if prevailed upon to do so. 



Telephone conditions in London are such as 
to cause the judicious to grieve. And the august 
Times of that city, which, if not judicious — and 
we do not say that it does not possess that admir- 
able characteristic — is at least judicial, or at any 
rate ponderous (we shall carefully eschew the word 
pompous) — the revered London Times, we repeat, 
devotes one of its column-long editorials in a re- 
cent issue to saying so/ Our venerated contem- 
porary, in its stately phrase, declares that the vex- 
ations of the telephone service in London are "'very 
real and oftentimes very trying indeed." But, it 
pointedly asks, "Are they, after all, inherent in 
the use of the telephone and inseparable from it, 
or are they merely accidental and in large meas- 
ure remediable concomitants of it?" Skipping now 
to the end of the column for the answer (our 
American brevity will be excused, we trust), we 
find that there is an answer, and it is in these 
momentous words : 

"On the whole, then, it would seem that the evils 
which our correspondent associates with the use 



Electric fans, by a little thought, may be made 
to do service in winter as well as in summer. As 
a valued correspondent points out, any machine 
which is allowed to stand still from half to two- 
thirds of every year is on principle a luxury, for 
the fixed charges upon it tend to assume too large 
a proportion of the total cost of possession and 
operation. While luxuries have their place, it is 
nevertheless a fact that if the owners of fan motors 
more generally realized their value in the cold 
season, the result would be mutually gratifying to 
both the central-station manager and the consumer. 

In the winter the ventilation of dwellings and 
mercantile houses is a far more difficult problem 
than in the summer. The fan motor can be used 
to great advantage in such cases, for the circulation 
of air in closed rooms is difficult to maintain by 
natural means. The installation of a fan near a 
radiator in a room which is not easily heated 
often distributes the warmth most satisfactorily, and 
a little experimenting with a slightly opened win- 
dow in one part of a room and an electric fan 
in another enables one to adjust the ventilation 
to a nicety. In some of the newer hotels ian 
motors are used with great success in maintaining 
an even 1 draft at open fireplaces and in preventing 
the flow of smoke into apartments in case the di- 
rection of the wind is unfavorable. Everyone knows 
the convenience of the fan motor in evaporating 
frost as it gathers upon window panes, and in 
many confectionery stores the electric fan is em- 
ployed to keep a constant circulation of air over 
trays and counters, so that the various candies 
may be kept cool and fresh in confined quarters. 

The ventilation of photographic dark rooms, the 
drying of plates, and the supply of fresh air to 
and the removal of odors from lecture tables, lab- 
oratories and kitchens, are as important in winter 
as in summer. In the domestic laundry the dry- 
ing of the family washing on stormy days may be 
greatly hastened by the use of a fan motor. The 
ventilation of steam-railroad cars in the winter is 
seldom satisfactory, and it would seem as though 
some improvement might be possible through the 
use of fan motors, at least on trains equipped with 
them for summer operation. Very satisfactory re- 
sults have been attained by using a fan motor to 
expedite the drying of cement-lined vaults in new 
buildings. In such cases the natural circulation of 
air is usually very poor, and by placing the fan 
on a box near the top or bottom of the vault door, 
leaving the alternate bottom or top space open for 
suction or exhaust, the vault can be dried out in 
a much shorter time than by the old plan of letting 
things alone. In the hospital and the sick-room 
the fan motor, if of a noiseless design, can be 
employed advantageously in the winter season. 
The whole subject h certainly worth consideration 
by enterprising central stations. 



fanuai s 20, h/i'i 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



Ohio and Indiana Electric Railway 
Associations to be Merged. 

The a mI meeting ol Hi' Ind 1 11 1 R 

way A isociation wa hi Id in thi I 1 1; 1 ' 1 1 

Indianapoli i, on I. ai | nth Pn idi nl I 

I [enrj pre iding I In a 101 iation nb d ii 

of con olidating « ith the I (hi n 

the n: ■ of ili'' 1 <nli.il 1 1 11 • iiirh.in I-'. nl.'.. 1 

ciation \ W Bradj . pre idenl ol ihc Indiana 

1 11 1 1. 11 1 impanj , and 1 h an ol thi 

committee api 1 fi 1 « ith a imilai 

mittec .-I the < Uiio El Railwaj \ 01 iation, 

1. p il thai the t« I" Id .1 ii in 

fcrencc : 1 < 1 • I after canvi ■ the itui with a 

hum h 1 .in- :i i possible decided in fai 1 thi plan 

of consolidation. 

Mr. Brady explained the purposes ol the consoli 
dation and the advantages expected to bi derived 
from the employmcnl of a permanenl iccrctarj to 

c pile and diffuse information concerning the 

various intcrurban companies, their facilities for 

transportation, knowlcdgi and u e ol tl ■ 

changeable mileage tickel i, - 01 :tins line . 1 d 

II,. said the mosl serious objection was that the 
jurisdiction was made coextensive and thai the dis- 
tance was a matter of concern to the meml 1 

Southern Indiana, bul he though) these did no) 
counterbalance the manj advantages promised by 
the amalgamation, He said meetings should be 
held alternately in Ohio and Indiana and lei fri 
ipuaii than heretofore. There was some discussion 

of the report, bul generally favorable to the rci 

mendation, and the report was then concurred in 
by the members. 

A committee consisting of ('. I. Henry, C. C. 
Reynolds, I'.. C. Emmons, W. G. Irwin and A. W. 
Brady was appointed with power to act in the com 
pletion nf the consolidation of the Indiana and Ohio 
associations. The two state committees held a joint 
conference a) once ami formulated a plan ol con 
solidation, drafted a constitution and by-laws, and 
arranged all matters necessary for the amalgama 
linn, in be completed at the annual meeting of the 
Ohio association in Dayton on January 25th. 

Charles C. Murdock of the Terre Haute Traction 
and Light Company presented a comprehensive 
and interesting paper on the subject of "Turbines." 
Mr. Murdock said the turbine engine as against the 
reciprocating engine was more simple in operation, 
required less Hour space and was promising in the 
matter of a low-expense account. In comparing 
the American and the French turbines, he was f 
the opinion that the French turbine was not keep- 
ing up with the American machine in results, lie 
said the efficiency of the turbine engine depends 
upon superficial heat and vacuum, causing as little 
friction as possible. Mr. "Murdock took up the 
question of possible results from certain degrees 
of superficial heat and the effect in the matter of 
economy, and quoted some interesting figures de- 
rived from tests made by the turbine. The tur- 
bine installed in the Terre Haute plant, and with 
which they had obtained excellent results, cost 
$18,000. 

Mr. Murdock's paper was discussed by George 
H. Kelsay of the Indiana Union Traction Company 
and C. L. Henry of the Indianapolis and Cincin- 
nati Traction Company. Mr. Henry thought the 
adoption of the turbine was simply going back to 
original principles. Mr. Henry said he was favor- 
ably impressed with the simplicity of operation and 
results obtained from the turbines, and was get- 
ting ready to install them in the Rushville power 
station. After visiting a Chicago plant, where four 
large turbines were installed and in operation, be 
was convinced the turbine had come to stay. The 
low rate at which electricity is now being generated 
is surprising, he said, and be was delighted over 
the promise turbines have in store. 

Questions taken from the question box at a pre- 
vious meetings and submitted to A. W. Brady and 
J. A. Van Osdol of the Indiana Union Traction 
Company were answered by Mr. Brady, Mr. Van 
Osdol not being present. The first question related 
to the interpretation of the Indiana state law as to 
whether a conductor could be prosecuted for em- 
bezzlement in case he found a ticket of his com- 
pany upon the street or in his car and appropriated 
it to his own use, or sold or gave it away to an- 
other. Mr. Brady said a conductor wdio comes into 
possession of a ticket by reason of his connection 
with the operation of the line is in duty bound to 
return the ticket to the company with a view of 
returning it to the rightful owner, otherwise he is 
liable for embezzlement. 

The other question was. "What constitutes a 
legal tender in the payment of fare on an electric 
railroad?" Mr. Brady said there was no law on 
the subject in Indiana, and whether the amount 
tendered is reasonable is governed by circum- 
stances. He cited a case in California where the 
court held that the tender of a $5 gold piece was 
a reasonable tender for a five-cent fare. In New 
York the court held that a $5 bill was not a rea- 
sonable tender for such fare, and that the Pennsyl- 
vania court had decided likewise, insisting that $2 
in change was as much as ought to be required of 
a conductor. Mr. Brady thought street and inter- 
urban conductors should be supplied with a reason- 
able amount of change and said the amount of fare 
usually paid by passengers would determine the 
amount in a measure. He spoke of the practice of 



lull foi 

had a righl to retain tin bi 
due 

1 11 vlilho 

"lid.ii mplctcd, 

I he meeting adjou mi ■ 

Il :, 1)1 

at id thi bi i", 

brate the bii th ol Railway 



nil fca 

Indiana and Ol until it 

11, ludi 'ii- 

Mil higan II 

much beni fit is to 

of 1I1. Widdli 1 thai 

will nu hid, all ll of the 

Middle Stat 
A. \\ Bi "l • 1 

pcakci 1 harli I. I Icnry, pn 

Indiana association. Mr. Henry reviewed thi 
1 ion in, in .1 1 j ',1 Indiana, and aid il ■ 
ing to know that, .1 .1 rule, Indiana 
were promoted bj Indi in lian lucl 

aid ,il 1 "in idi 1 apital,' hi id d much 

credil 1 dui 1 11 id< capital in 1 di 

of thi interurbans in our itate, bul I take 
in calling attention lo the fact thai Indiana 
first I, 'in Indiana monej n- begin the devi 
of intcrurban roads, Looking back and 
ward," Mr. Henry said, "if I am to judg 
future by the past, we have a right t.. expi 

while wonderful progress has been mad' in the 
last eight years, even greater progress will be made 
in the coming eight years. The various lines will 
be linked up. better tracks and roadbeds will be in 
use and cars more comfortable and substantial will 
be constructed; higher speed and greater safety will 
be attained," 

E. C. Spring, president of the Ohio association, 
spoke modestly of the development in Ohio and 
said he was gratified with his visit to Indiana 
He concluded by predicting great things of the 
amalgamated association. The other speakers were 
F. B. Carpenter, C. A. Baldwin, H. S. Drake and 
Ernest Bross. 



Northwestern Electrical Association. 

The fourteenth annual convention of the North- 
western Electrical Association was begun in the 
Great Northern Hotel in Chicago on January 171I1, 
the meeting being called to order by President 
Charles H. "Williams of La Crosse. Wis. The eon 
vention was held in Chicago this year, instead o f 
in Milwaukee as in previous years, on account "f 
the Electrical Show, which many of the members 
wished to attend. A fair proportion of the members 
were present at the opening meeting. 

President Williams read a short address, which 
was to the point. Touching on the subject of the 
appointment of committees, he said that it was 
his belief that committees should not be appointed 
for investigating any question of operation or pol- 
icy which might be investigated by individual mem- 
bers. He did not believe it good policy 1" 
appoint committees on a lot of subjects simply be- 
cause other representative organizations of the kind 
were in the habit of doing so. When some really 
very important problem comes up. however, let a 
committee be appointed, that committee to expend 
its best efforts and get results that count. 

Secretary Thomas R. Mercein was present, but 
said that he would be unable to present his report 
on financial matters until the next day, owing to 
the press of work which he has had as manager 
of the Electrical Show. He read the report of the 
committee on legislation, of which Mr. S. B. Liver- 
more of La Crosse. Wis., is general chairman. 

Considerable discussion arose concerning the leg- 
islative committee, and it was deemed wise by- 
some that an attorney be appointed in each state- 
covered by the association to look after the cen- 
tral-station interests at the various state capitals. 
Some believed this step was hardly necessary 111 
states other than Wisconsin, since they each bad 
their own individual association to look after the 
central-station interests. In Wisconsin, however, 
there is no state association, and it was believed 
that there an attorney was greatly needed. Work 
thus far in that state needing the services of a 
lawyer has been done gratuitously by one of the 
central stations operating there. The point was 
brought up in this connection that the attorney be 
appointed by some central station, acting, however, 
for the interests of the association, for in that way 
•the arguments of the attorney, it seems, have more 
weight. The whole matter was. upon motion, left 
to the executive committee, which was to report 
before the close of the convention. 

Mr. H. D. Goodwin, official stenographer of the 
association, was appointed assistant secretary dur- 
ing the convention to act for Mr. Mercein. who 
would be compelled 10 be absent much of the time 
on other business. 

As a committee on membership the president ap- 
pointed J. H. Harding of La Porte. Ind. W. H. 









Magnetic Wells. 

I he 

in whii 

as nail 

ally a well i- found in 

I he water III the ■. 

of the water should 

filled at the well and I about 

if; pace: from the well, whci ; be at 

from any ma 

uld then 

•Ii some conn. 
magnetism.* If the steel is no) magncl 
then be placed itnmi m the 

lid allowed I" reman 
minutes, afu-r which it should In; wiped dry and 
again t, 

The officers of the United - al Sur- 

vey would be pleas,.! 

the subject of magnetic well- from drillci 
owner: .■■ have knowlcd 

this character. 



Year's Earnings of Chicago Freight 
Tunnels. 

The Illinois runnel Company has made it- re- 
port of earnings to thi comptroller of Chic - 
the year hio.s. - the ordinance granted 

the Illinois Telephone and Telegraph Com) 
June 15. 1903. The report place- the total 1 
for the year at $108,300.68. This amount thi 
nam- does not consider large ehensivc 

a system of tunnels, but it state, that the plant 
is not yet in practical operation, and the report 
goes on to show the reason why. 

In November. 1004. the report -ays. the com- 
pany changed its plans and decided I" o 
tunnels to connect with all the freight hou 
cated in the district north of Eighteenth Street. 
east of Halsted Street and south of India,:.: - 
To do this the company was compelled to complete 
20 miles of additional tunnels to make th 
nections. During the period of this construction 
it was found impractical to put the plant in op- 
eration. Therefore no business was dene except 
hauling excavation from a number of new buildings. 

the report says that on November 1. 1004. the 
company bad completed 103.1 - tunnel 

From November 1. 1004. to December 31, 
constructed [09,169 feet additional, making a total 
completed on December 31, 1905. of 212.7-1 feet, 
or 40.3 miles. An interesting clause in the report 
is the statement that in the next few months the 
plant will be in practical operation. Of the total 
gross earnings, amounting, as stated, to $108 1 
the city received five per cent, compensation. 



Electrical Trades Association of 
Chicago. 

The annual nn linner of the Electrical 

Trades Association "f Chicago will Ik- held in the 
Coliseum Annex. Chicago, on the evening of Janu- 
ary 24th. Unusual interest is being manifested at 
this time and the anticipation is the largest meeting 
of credit men in the electrical trade ever held. 
Manv electrical manufacturers and jobbers, from 
Cleveland to Denver, and from Detroit to New 
Orleans, will be in attendance. 

At the dinner James Wolff, Chicago representative 
of the New York Insulated Wire Company, will 
act as toastmaster. and the programme includes 
responses to be made by representative m 
Hirers and jobbers from the central, western and 
southern territories. The Chicago association num- 
bers 155 members, and the records for the last 
year will show remarkable work accomplish 

mbers through co-operative protection of 
credits. 

Fred P. Vose, Marquette Building. Chicago, is 
secretary and general counsel for . 
and further details with reference to the meeting 
may be bad on application to him. 



S8 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 20, 1906 



Northwestern Cedarmen's Association. 

The tenth annual meeting of the Northwestern 
Cedarmen's Association was held at the Nicollet 
Hotel, Minneapolis, Tuesday, January 9th. The 
meeting was well attended and the business was 
transacted in a rapid manner. This has been the 
first year under the reorganization, and the re- 
sults accomplished by a permanent secretary -have 
satisfied the members that the benefits received 
are worth the added expense. The decision to co- 
operate with the northern pine associations in 
handling overweight claims was an important re- 
sult of the meeting. 

The meeting was called to order at 10 a. m. by 
President M. K. Bissell. Secretary M. O. Nelson 
presented his report on the year's work. The fol- 
lowing facts, taken from the report, will be found 
of interest. Under the present conditions of cedar- 
men's records it was impossible to get uniform 
reports of the sales for 1904, the stocks cut and 
purchased for 1905 and the stocks on hand January 
1st. In the summary of sales for 1904, the reports 
that cannot be reduced to detail make up a total 
of about 603,000 seven-foot to 18-foot posts and 
290,000 20-foot and up poles. 

It was the wish of the association last April 
that the canvass for green stocks put in for 1905 
be continued throughout the year, or until every 
producer and wholesaler had made, report. This 
canvass has been pursued with the same relentless- 
ness with which the others have been pushed. It 
has been suggested that each wholesale concern 
provide a special clerk to take care of the de- 
mands of the association secretary, but it is not 
known that this has been acted on as yet by any 
member. 

To the request for report of sales for 1904 have 
come 74 responses ; to that for stocks for 1905, 63 
responses, and to the call for dry stocks on hand 
January 1st, 50 responses. The fact that 50 whole- 
salers responded to the call within a .single week 
is very good proof that the cedarmen want this 
information and are willing to co-operate in giving 
it. The plan, whereby the estimate of posts and 
poles put in the current winter was obtained, is one 
suggested at the last April meeting, and discussed 
previous to that time by the association. This is 
to divide the cedar-producing territory into districts, 
giving to some wholesaler, who is familiar with 
that district, the task of estimating the cut of the 
winter there and the cut of the previous year. This 
obviates the overlapping of estimates and covers 
all the territory, though in a rough way. These 
estimates are based on average logging weather. 
Last year the estimate was made up from reports 
of individuals, each operator giving a report of his 
own cut only. In the report at the end of the 
logging season the secretary is ready to use either 
or both methods, as the association may think best. 

Three important committees have been called on 
to act during the year. In May the trades rela- 
tions committee met a similar committee of the 
Lumber Secretaries' Bureau of Information in Chi- 
cago and formulated a reciprocal trade agreement 
that later was abrogated by the retailers' associa- 
tions, and nothing further has been done in the case. 

A meeting of the railroad committee with Mr. 
Becker of the Western Weighing Association, to 
bring about a better understanding regarding the 
treatment of overweight claims in his office, was 
held, with results known to most of the members. 

The third committee to report is a special com- 
mittee appointed to act in conjunction with the allied 
lumbermen's associations of the country in bringing 
a complaint before the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion to compel the railways to make an allowance 
for the cost of equipping their flat or gondola 
cars for the carrying of lumber, and to compel 
them also to make allowance in weight for this 
equipment. 

Another matter spoken of by the secretary in 
closing was the death of two members during the 
year. "Never in the history of this association have 
we been called on to mourn the death in one 
year of two so prominent and almost indispensable 
members as were E. E. Naugle and Daniel Mac- 
Gillis." 

In the afternoon session the committee, on rec- 
ommendations for the "eastern classification book," 
consisting of A. T. Naugle, H. S. Gilkey and 
George J. Backus, made the following report : 

"Your committee recommends that the secretary, 
in making his classification of freights for the states 
of Indiana and Oh!o, be instructed to name the 
rate from Hermansville ; also the proportional rate 
from Chicago to all points in the above-named 
states, and in making the rates for Illinois and 
Wisconsin to name the Hermansville rates and also 
the rates from the Minnesota transfer. In naming 
the rates from the Minnesota transfer we have 
taken into consideration the fact that a large num- 
ber of cedar poles are being produced in North- 
western Minnesota along the Minnesota and In- 
ternational railway, and as these points have no 
outlet through Duluth the interests of the Minne- 
sota shippers will be better served by giving the 
rates from the Minnesota transfer than from Du- 
luth." The report was adopted. 

President Bissell read an invitation to the asso- 
ciation to hold its next annual meeting in Chicago 
at the time of the electrical show. 

J. E. Rhodes, secretary of the Mississippi Valley 
Lumbermen's Association, was introduced to make 



a brief statement of the workings of the new 
bureau for the conduct of freight claims before 
the Western Weighing Association. He stated that 
excellent results had been secured in this way, 
reducing the number of claims and causing a re- 
form in the method of weighing practiced for- 
merly, as the association's inspector, J. F. Chambers, 
had discovered and called attention to several 
abuses. 

H. S. Gilkey moved that the Northwestern Cedar- 
men's Association co-operate with the Mississippi 
Valley Lumbermen's Association for the next six 
months in handling freight claims. This was car- 
ried unanimously. 

The report of the pole committee was presented 
by H. W. Reade. M. H. Coolidge, for the inspec- 
tion committee, reported that inspectors had been 
called upon during the year by members in three 
or four cases to adjust differences, and had suc- 
ceeded in each case. Similar requests from persons 
outside the association had been refused. The com- 




mittee did not recommend any change in the present 
specifications. 

On motion of A. T. Naugle, amended by E. L. 
Clark, it was voted to increase the initiation fee 
after July 1st, next, from $25 to $100. 

On motion of A. T. Naugle the association ex- 
tended a vote of thanks to the secretary, M. O. 
Nelson, for his efficient services during the last 
year. 

H. S. Gilkey moved that E. H. Valentine, having 
retired from active business, be made an honorary 
member of the association, and this was carried. 

A nominating committee of three was appointed 
to present names for officers and directors. The 
chair named A. T. Naugle, Hall Brooks and Ole 
Erickson as such committee. After a short recess 
the committee reported in favor of the following 
gentlemen for the offices indicated : 

President, Marshall H. Coolidge ; vice-president, 
P. W. Raber ; treasurer, W. B. Thomas ; directors 
for three years, A. T. Naugle and W. T. Watkins. 

The report of the committee was adopted and 
the ballot cast for those named. President-elect 
Coolidge took the chair, and thanked the associa- 
tion for the honor. A rising vote of thanks to 
the retiring president, M. K. Bissell, was ordered. 

H. S. Gilkey was called on to give his views on 
the market situation. Mr. Gilkey said it was need- 
less to state that conditions in the market were 
the best for a number of years, probably the best 
ever known. Post prices have not been wholly 
satisfactory, but a good demand recently had re- 
duced the surplus, and prices are firmer. The out- 
look for business for a coming year never was 
better. Conditions in the woods, on the other hand, 
are as bad as ever known, with no freezeup until 
the snow came, which has left the bottoms soft, 
and hauling is very slow and difficult. It prob- 
ably means an earlier breakup in the spring. After 
this the convention adjourned 

After adjournment the directors , held a brief 
meeting and re-elected M. O. Nelson as secretary 
for the ensuing year. 

Among those in attendance at the meeting were 
the following-named gentlemen : 

Backus, George J., Dumas-Backus Lumber Company, Minne- 

Bissel], M. K., Erickson & Bissell, Escanaba, Mich. 

Bliss, A. S., R. Connor Company, Marshfield. Wis. 

Bowring, W. P., C. H. Worcester Company, Chicago. 

Bradley, T. P., Duluth Log Company, Duluth, Minn. 

Brooks, Hall L., Tomahawk, Wis. 

Clark. E. L.. Valentine-Clark Company, Chicago. 

Coolidge, Marshall H., Marshall H. Coolidge Company, 

Minneapolis. 
Dixon, H. M., Cloquet Tie and Post Company, Cloquet, Minn. 
Erickson, Ole, Erickson & Bissell. Escanaba, Mich. 
Genge, R. R., Francis Beidler & Co., Chicago. 
Gerich, J. E.. MacGilHs & Gihbs Lumber Company. 
Gilkey, H. S., Pendleton & Gilkey, Minneapolis, 
llayden, J. i'\. Mississippi Valley Lumberman. Minneapolis, 
[[user, E., Beaver Dam Lumber Company, Cumberland, Wis. 
Lcitch, J. G., Francis Beidler & Co., Escanaba, Mich. 
Martin, 'L. R., Duluth, Minn. 
McDevitt, J. A., Cloquet Tie and Post Company, Cloquet, 

Minn. 
McMeal, H. B., Telephony, Chicago. 
Miller, J. P., Minneapolis Cedar and Lumber Company, 

Minneapolis, 
Miller, William, Minneapolis Cedar and Lumber Company, 

Minneapolis. 
Mueller, William, William Mueller Company, Chicago. 
Naugle, A. T„ E. E. Naugle Tie Company, Chicago. 
Naugle, Joseph, E. E. Naugle Tie Company, Chicago. 



Nelson, M. O., secretary Northwestern Cedarmen's Associa- 
tion, Minneapolis. 

Olcott, F. L., Beaver Dam Lumber Company, Cumberland, 
Wis. 

Olson, L. E-, Dumas-Backus Lumber Company, Minneapolis. 

Page, L. A., Page & Hill Company, Minneapolis. 

Partridge, H. F., T. M. Partridge Lumber Company, Minne- 

Paulson, Lester, Duluth Log Company. Duluth, Minn. 

Raber, P. W., Raber Si Watson, Chicago. 

Reade, H. W., Pittsburg and Lake Superior Iron Company. 

Schalck, Frank K-, Western Electrician, Chicago. 

Shaw, G. B., E. E. Naugle Tie Company, Chicago. 

Thomas, W. B., Manistique, Mich. 

Watkins, W. T-, Pillsbury- Watkins Company, Minneapolis. 

Wells, Daniel, Fop! River Lumber Company, Wells, Mich. 

Werner, F. W., Pillsbury- Watkins Company, Minneapolis. 

Convention Notes. 
The Valentine-Clark Company was well repre- 
sented by E. L. Clark. 

L. A. Page of the Page & Hill Company of 
Minneapolis was on hand. 

J. E. Gerich of the McGillis & Gibbs Company 
of Milwaukee was much in evidence. 

The Minneapolis Cedar and Lumber Company 
was represented by Messrs. William and J. P. 
Miller. 

T. P. Bradley and L. C. Paulson of the Duluth 
Log Company came down from Duluth to attend 
the convention. 

H. F. Partridge represented the T. M. Partridge 
Lumber Company of Minneapolis, and was in con- 
stant attendance. 

The convention did not fail to bring from Toma- 
hawk, Wis., one of the popular men of the busi- 
ness — Hall L. Brooks. 

The Cloquet Tie and Post Company of Cloquet, 
Minn., again sent its welcome representatives — J. A. 
McDevitt and H. M. Dixon. 

The popularity of Marshall H. Coolidge was de- 
monstrated by the satisfaction felt by his election 
as president of the association. 

The Dumas-Backus Lumber Company of Min- 
neapolis was well represented in the persons of 
George J. Backus and L. E. Olson. 

R. R. Genge of the Francis Beidler Company of 
Chicago was present in the interests of his com- 
pany, as was also J. G. Leitch of the Escanaba 
yards. 

One of those present who always takes a promi- 
nent part in the meetings of the association was 
A. T. Naugle of the E. E. Naugle Tie Company 
of Chicago. 

H. S. Gilkey of the Pendelton & Gilkey Com- 
pany, without whom no cedarmen's convention 
would be complete, took his usual active part in 
the proceedings. 

The ever good-natured and jovial "Mueller" of 
the William Mueller Company, Chicago, was on 
hand to help brighten the occasion — an accomplish- 
ment at which he has no equal. 

The C. H. Worcester Company was naturally 
represented at the convention, Secretary W. P. 
Bowring attending. Mr. Bowring was engaged 
much of the time in greeting his many friends. 

W. T. Watkins, president of the Pillsbury-Wat- 
kins Company of Minneapolis, was one of the men 
present who is always sure of a warm welcome at 
these meetings. In attendance with Mr. Watkins 
was F. W. Werner of the same company. 

H. W. Reade, secretary and treasurer of the . 
Pittsburg and Lake Superior Iron Company of 
Escanaba, was one of the heartily welcomed mem- 
bers who was constantly in demand. Mr. Reade 
is one of those gentlemen whom to know is a real 
pleasure. 



Electric Power for Large Iron Mine. 

The Penn Iron Mining Company of Marquette, 
Mich., has contracted for a complete hydro-electric 
plant to be installed at the Sturgeon Falls. The 
first contract is for apparatus that will furnish 
2,000 horsepower, later to be followed by an addi- 
tional 2,000 horsepower. The current used will be 
for the purpose of operating hoists, compressors and 
pumps afEast Vulcan, West Vulcan and Curry mines. 
The motor size will range from 450 horsepower 
down to 15 horsepower. Pumping will be taken 
care of by two centrifugal pumping sets of capacity 
for 1,800 gallons per minute, directly connected to 
motors. The dam at which electricity is to be gen- 
erated is located six miles from the more distant 
mines, and the transmission lines will be erected for 
the total capacity of 4,000 horsepower, 13,200 volts, 
three-phase current. The dam is now under con- 
struction. It is to be of concrete across the mouth 
of Sturgeon River, where its banks come within 175 
feet of each other. The dam is anchored in the 
rock of the river bed. It will be 31 feet thick and 
will give a head of 22 feet. This change to elec- 
tricity will mean an expenditure of about $250,000 
and will give the Penn company probably the most 
complete and up-to-date electrical plant in the Lake 
Superior region. 



January 20, [906 



rERN ELECTRK 






will be arranged al ■ 

ing a free pa 

ngth. 'I he cab » ill I" 



Further Details of Sarnla Tunnel 
Equipment. 

Further details of the single pha ic equip 

the Sarnia 1 1 :1, which wa id 

in the Western Elecl rician lai 1 wi ek, will bi 1 

with in!' r< st, 1 he lingli pha 1 W hou 1 loco 

motive were bi ieflj described in il"' pi 1 
article, bul some further featun ol theii coi 
linn may now I"- given. 

The prim ipal dimension! wiU be appro ii 
as follows: Length ovi r end ill , .7 Ei - 
inches; r i k ■ < 1 wheel base, 12 feet; width over all, 
nine feet six inchc . heighl from top ol rail t" 
top of cab, (•• feel six inches; diameter of driving 
wheels, 62 inches. 

I he operating apparatu 
the sides of the cab, Ii 
feet wide the entire 
lighted and heated by electricity, arrangement being 
made to screen the instrument lights while the 
locomotive is running. 

Westinghouse combination automatic and straight 
air and American driver brakes will be used. The 
air supply will be provided by a two cylinder mo 
tor-driven air compressor, having, with a five-inch 
stroke and speed of igo revolutions per minute, a 

ipai ity of 45 cubic feet of air per minute. Air 
reservoirs, signal outfits, whistle, bell with pneu- 
matic ringers, automatic pump governor, tools, in- 
struments, gauges, headlights, push poles and other 
details complete the auxiliary equipment. 

A motor will be geared to each axle, giving each 
unit an aggregate rated capacity of 750 horsepower. 
They arc of the Westinghouse single-phase alter- 
nating-current series-wound compensated type, 
whose successful development was first publicly 
announced in the notable paper read by Mr. B. G. 
Lamms before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers in New York, September 26, 1902. They 
are of the same general character as the motors 
selected by the New York, New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad Company for the operation of its 
line between New Haven and New York. Each 
motor will weigh complete approximately 14,500 
pounds, the armature weighing about 5,600 pounds. 

The motors are swung between the locomotive 
frame and the driving axles by a flexible nose 
suspension from two hangers supported by a truck 
transom, and passing through heavy lugs with 
helical springs above and below the lug. The mo- 
tors are held to the axle by means of caps which 
are split at an angle of 35 degrees with the per- 
pendicular, so that the greater part of the weight 
is borne by solid projections from the motor frame, 
which extend over the axle, rather than by the 
cap bolts. Large openings above and below pro- 
vide access to the commutator and brush holders. 

Within the cylinder of the motor frame there is 
built up a core of soft-steel punchings, forming a 
complete laminated field. The punchings dovetail 
into the frame and clamp between end rings of 
cast-steel. The field coils are wound with copper 




SECTION OF SARNIA TUNNEL. 

strap, insulated between turns and about the coils 
by mica and finished by taping and dipping, and 
are impregnated in the best grade of varnishes, 
providing a sealed coil which can withstand the 
most severe internal heat and is practically inde- 
structible under the usual conditions of heavy- 
railway service. 

In addition to the main coils, the field carries a 
neutralizing winding, which consists of copper bars 
placed in slots in the pole faces and joined at the 
ends by connectors of copper strap, so as to form 
one continuous winding, which is connected in 
series with the main field winding and with the 
armature circuit. 

The armature cores are formed of slotted soft- 
steel punchings, built up upon a spider and keyed 
in place. The spider is forced upon the shaft with 
heavy pressure and secured by a steel key. 

During operation a forced circulation of air, sup- 



, enters at thi 

I he 1 npment 

.iy unit may be controlled 
from eithei 
1 oupli d I from 1 

1 
by van itioi btained 

' 1 ol r "> the winding 

mi" h am 1 11 1 , ■ hii h 

trolley ii 1,000 

- ii Ii -:. er, ' 




taps are connected to unit switches, from which 
current is led through the preventive coils to the 
motors. Four unit switches serve to reverse the 
field of each motor. The unit switches are of 
standard Westinghouse design and are, in effect, 
pneumatically operated circuit-breakers of great 
power and reliability. 

Each locomotive unit will be equipped with a 
pneumatically operated pantagraph trolley to col- 
lect current from the overhead lines outside the 
tunnel and throughout the yards. The proportions 
of the pantagraph will be such that, when ex- 
tended, it will make contact with the trolley wire, 
22 feet above the rail, and, when closed down, the 
contact shoe will not extend more than 18 inches 
above the roof of the locomotive. The pantagraph 
will have a broad base and will be constructed of 
light and stiff material. 

A No. 000 grooved overhead trolley wire will be 
suspended from a single five-eighths-inch, high- 
strength, double-galvanized, steel-strand, messenger 
cable by hangers of varying length in such a man- 
ner that the trolley wire will be approximately 
horizontal. The messenger cable will be swung 
from structural-iron bridges, located throughout the 
yards, and are of suitable length to span the proper 
number of tracks, there will also be a small sec- 
tion of track equipped with a trolley line swung 
by catenary suspension from bracket arms, which 
are supported on lattice-work poles. 

The new equipment will handle that portion of 
the Grand Trunk railway system which connects 
the divisions terminating at Port Huron. Mich., and 
Sarnia, Ont., on opposite sides of the St. Clair 
River. The tunnel proper is 6,032 feet long and 
the line to be electrically operated measures 19,348 
feet from terminal to terminal. 

A pair of the new units will be capable of haul- 
ing a thousand-ton train through the tunnel with- 
out division. Mechanical considerations limit the 
advisable weight of train in the tunnel to these 
figures. Heavier trains can be • divided- or sent 
through together, with locomotives in front and 
behind. The service requires that each unit shall 
take a train of 500 tons through the tunnel block 
from summit to summit in 15 minutes. 

Six of these locomotives are to be furnished by 
the Westinghouse company. It is expected that the 
electric equipment will greatly relieve the traffic 
congestion now existing and due in a large measure 
to the necessity of dividing trains at the terminal 
points, and to "greatly simplify the operation of the 
road. Its opening will mark the progress of elec- 
trical methods in the railway field under conditions 
which seem peculiarly fitted to demonstrate its 
practical advantages in heavy service. 

The work of installation will be conducted under 
the supervision of Mr. Bion J. Arnold of Chicago, 
consulting engineer for the tunnel company, by 
whom the plans and specifications were prepared. 
Mr. Arnold, as is well known, was one of the first 
engineers in America to advocate the employment 
of the single-phase alternating-current system in 
railway service, and is at present a member of the 
commission in charge of the electrification of the 
New York Central Railroad system in New York, 
and has been closely identified with many electrical 
developments of great importance. 



The Dynelectron. 

briefly 
'itxan- 

Xcwark, N. J, A r< 

orluhop 

in tba' 

I in all 

the medium. B 

I namo. 
As ih lie unit 

• by 12 by 14 inch' 

■ I chambers. In the 

teed 48 cai+x,:. 

partially holli I 'ally, properly 

1 from the casting, and constituting the 

In the central cham- 

l"-r, which is silver-plated on it-, external face, 

1 each 
rmin.il. 
'•. con- 
f sodium hydrate, with the addition 1 
half of one per cent, of ferric oxide. The central 
chamber i- air tight, and the electrolyte cannot 
pass into it. Into this central chamber air is 
pressure of 10 : square 

inch, anil the air passes into the hollowed 
of the rods and through the pores of the carbon 
into the electrolyte. At the same time the elec- 
trolyte is heated to about 390" Fahrenheit, and 
when the cell is thus arranged, an electric current 
is generated and continues as long as the air pres- 
sure and temperature are maintained. 

Current obtained from each unit is approxi- 
mately 600 amperes at 0.9 volt, this being equal 
theoretically to 540 watts, or about three-quarters 
of an electrical horsepower. In practice there arc 
heat losses to be considered, and part of the cur- 
rent is normally used to drive the air compressor, 
so that a unit such as just described is to be con- 
sidered for practical purposes as equivalent to one- 
half horsepower. The current is proportional to 
the carbon surface, and since in the evolution of 
the present design the relation between the carbon 
surface and the dimensions of the cell have been 
continually improved, it may be ultimately possible, 
without increasing the amount of the heat, to re- 
duce the size of the cell still further. 

The electrical action of the dynelectron is cata- 




PARTS OF THE DVNELECTRON. 

lytic. The current is obtained from the constant 
dissociation and recombination of oxygen and hy- 
drogen as represented in the form of water and 
air. When the cell is working there is a constant 
interchange of molecules and atoms, but without 
any consumption of the electrodes, nor any perma- 
nent change in the character of the electrolyte. 
The process is cyclic. When the air, that is to 
say. the oxygen, contained in it, is forced through 
the pores of the carbon rods from the central air- 
tight chamber, into the outer compartments contain- 
ing the electrolyte, a thermo-electric action is set up, 
and the sodium hydrate becomes sodium dioxide, 
and water. The water is decomposed, with the 
additional assistance of the heat, into hydrogen and 
oxygen, the oxygen escaping into the atmosphere 
with other by-products of a gaseous nature. The 
excess of hydrogen reduces the ferric oxide to 
ferrous oxide, and the ferrous oxide is at once 
oxidized again by the action of the air, forced 
through the carbons. 

Theoretically, it might be an improvement to 
supply pure oxygen, but in practice the oxygen 
contained in the air is found sufficient. There is 
an evaporation of water equivalent to one pint per 
horsepower per hour, and this loss is supplied and 
kept regulated by an automatic float. The incom- 
ing water acts upon the sodium dioxide and forms 
sodium hydrate and free oxygen. Thus the process 
taking place in the cell is analogous to that going 



6o 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 20, ic 



011 in a storage battery. In the storage battery 
PbO is raised to Pb^O-. In the dynelectron cell 
FeO is raised to Fe 2 3j and possibly to a still 
more unstable compound. Reduced to chemical 
formula, the process in the dynelectron cell appears 
to be : Fe.Oa + 2NaOH + heat = 2FeO + Na.O, + 
H 2 0. 

Mr. Rcid's experiments have extended over 14 
years. One of the chief difficulties encountered was 
inability to obtain a carbon of such a grade that 
it would withstand the combined action of air 
pressure and heated liquid, and two years were 
spent in perfecting a process of manufacturing car- 
bon in an electric furnace, when Mr. Reid dis- 
covered that a new grade of carbon was being 
made at Buffalo. This carbon is now purchased 
in sheets and cut up jnto rods at Newark. 

Every part of the apparatus and every step in 
the process has been subjected to continuous tests 
and analysis. These tests are said absolutely to 
demonstrate that there is no disintegration either 
of the carbon or of the iron electrodes, nor any 
secular change in the chemical composition of the 
electrolyte, despite the continuous generation of 
current over a long period. A very refined test 
shows in some cases that there is a deposit of one- 
tenth of one per cent, of sodium carbonate on the 
surface of the carbon rods, but this deposit does 
not at all impair the efficiency of the cell. 

In the working of the cell an ingenious way is 
provided for the escape of gases. This consists 
of a number of fine-wire disks enclosed in a 
threaded cylinder attached to the top of the iron 
cell, and through which the gases can pass with- 
out permitting any water to be ejected under the 
air pressure. Readers in search of information as 
to the electrolytic action of hydrates in solution 
are referred to a paper on this subject read at 
the meeting of the Faraday Society, London, Eng- 
land, May 16, 1905. 



5,000 Kilowatts in Steam Turbines 
Ready for Shipment. 

To the ordinary observer the accompanying illus- 
tration, which shows a string of flat cars loaded 
at the West Allis (Milwaukee) Works of the Allis- 
Chalmers Company, would convey no especial mean- 
ing; but to the experienced engineer it is significant 
of a revolution which is taking place in the equip- 
ment of many power stations throughout the world, 
for foremost in the train are the bodies of two steam 
turbines, each of them occupying not more than 
one-half the floor space of its car, yet representing 




STEAM TURBINES READY FOR SHIPMENT. 

in their combined capacity the delivery, under nor- 
mal conditions, of nearly 5,000 horsepower. 

The development of this modern type of the ro- 
tary engine, in which the Allis-Chalmers Company 
has recently taken a leading part, has come about 
so rapidly that the possibilities of yesterday become 
the probabilities of today and the assured facts of 
tomorrow. Engineers everywhere are vitally inter- 
ested in solving the problem of the most economical 
generation of power, not merely in the quantity of 
fuel consumed but also in the floor space required 
for the machinery, the cost of skilled attendance, 
efficiency in transmission and the other factors 
which must be reckoned in when computing the 
total expense incurred for each unit of power de- 
livered. To these the steam turbine seems to offer 
a practical solution of the problem under certain 
conditions, which are not to be confounded with 
those in which reciprocating engines can be most 
, successfully operated, and they are taking careful 
note of every installation where the necessary data 
can be obtained. 

The Allis-Chalmers Company is turning out these 
machines as rapidly as its present shop facilities 
will permit, and the large extensions to its already 
great plant at West Allis have been dictated largely 
by the necessity of providing more room for this 
branch of manufacture. 

Meanwhile, the company asserts, orders for re- 
ciprocating engines have not ceased to come in, and 
the capacity of the company's works is being taxed 
to the utmost to keep up with the demand for its 
standard Corliss types. Most of the sales at pres- 
ent, both of turbines and reciprocating engines, in- 
clude orders for Bullock generators to be direct 
connected to them. The electrical apparatus is now 
built at the company's works in Cincinnati, but 
when the new 'West Allis shops are finished com- 
plete power units of all kinds will be constructed 
there. 



The New "Poke Bonnet" Reflector. 

A show-window lighting device that is high- 
class, adequate and economical, and at the same 
time can be handled with satisfactory profit is 
represented by the New "Poke Bonnet" reflector, 
illustrated herewith, which is an improvement of 
the reflector of this type described in the Western 
Electrician of January 6th. 

I his reflector is constructed in sections and on 
the trough principle. The sections are 14 inches 
in length and may be used singly or in series. 
"Because of the unusual brilliancy of the reflected 
light the sections can be mounted so as to leave 
open spaces between, thereby effecting a saving 




device, the connectome, manufactured by the Dale 
Company of New York, which furnishes a con- 
nection for the portable which is at once con- 
venient and at the same time does away with the 
flush receptacle. 

The illustration shows the construction of the 
device so plainly that little description is needed. 
It will be seen that the connectome furnishes at 
once a connection for the portable and for a light- 
ing fixture. It can be fastened to the wall or 
outlet box and is neat in appearance, becoming 
part of the fixture when installed. It does away 
with the necessity of splicing, soldering and taping 
wires, enabling a connection to be made from a 
point which is neatly concealed. It is made for 
straight electric or combination fixtures, for either 
single or double connections. 



High-voltage Electrically Operated Ol\ 

Circuit-breaker. 
The circuit-breaker shown in the illustration here- 
with was designed by the Westinghouse Electric 




VO TYPES OF THE NEW "POKE BONNET" REFLECTOR. 



upon the initial cost of the outfit, as well as for 
the later expense for operation. 

As each unit is adjustable, the various sections 
of the continuous installation can be arranged at 
any desired angle or angles, so as to throw the 
light rays in any direction, and where they are 
most needed. The reflectors can be located at the 
top, back, ends or front perpendicular corners 
of the window, whichever way may suit the taste 
or accord with the judgment of the individual mer- 
chant. However, the company recommends that 
the reflectors be placed at the top front of window, 
or just back of the transom bar, but in no case 
where the lamps themselves will be within the range 
of vision. 

These reflectors will also be found useful for 
illuminating the pictures in an art gallery, as the 
sections can be distributed in units, pairs, or any 
larger number, as they are most needed. 

The unusual strength of the reflected light from 
these reflectors is obtained by the use of a heavy 
spiral corrugated glass, having a silver-plated sur- 
face. In the estimation of those who have made 
a study of the subject, the reflected light which 
conies from the use of silver is more brilliant 
than that which is reflected from any other surface. 

The purpose of the corrugated surface is to break 
and distribute the rays of light so there will be 
no possibility of any shadows being thrown. 

Each of the 14-inch sections is equipped with 
twin sockets, and lamps of eight, 16 and 32 candle- 
power can be used. Just how many of these sec- 
tions would be required for a show window will 
depend upon the size of the window, its shape, and 
the class of goods which is to be exhibited therein, 
but as indicating what these reflectors are sup- 
posed to do, it may be said that four of the sec- 
tions equipped with eight 16-candlepower lamps 
will adequately light a window measuring 12 by 
six feet, filled with ordinary dry-goods merchandise. 

The fact that these complete sectional reflectors 
can be carried in stock, can be easily installed 
makes them a valuable article for the dealer and 
jobber to handle, as is pointed out by the manu- 
facturer, the National X-ray Reflector Company of 
Chicago. 



and Manufacturing Company primarily for the On- 
tario Power Company's work. It is intended to 
handle energy up to 6o,cco horsepower per three- 
phase circuit, and will open a circuit under any 
conditions of overload or short-circuit which may 
occur with a power house capable of delivering 
200,000 horsepower. The insulation to ground and 
between terminals is designed to withstand a break- 






The Connectome. 

In large buildings portables are extensively used 
as well as fan motors. These ordinarily require 
a flush receptacle, or else are attached in a lighting 
socket, thereby rendering the latter useless for the 
duty which it was originally intended to perform. 
The illustration shown herewith represents a new 




Till: CONNECTOME. 



HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRICALLY OPERATED OIL SWITCH. 

down test of 150,000 volts, and the insulation be- 
tween poles is twice that amount, since the poles 
are electrically separate. 

All three poles of the switch are closed together 
by means of a toggle joint operated by a single 
direct-pull solenoid. The switch is held in a closed 
position by the toggle being carried just beyond 
the center, and is tripped out by the tripping-coil 
armature striking this toggle and knocking it back- 
ward, allowing the switch to open by gravity. Each 
pole of the switch gives a double break, each break 
being approximately 17 inches. The closing mag- 
nets require approximately 5,000 watts direct cur- 
rent, while the tripping magnets require about 300 
watts. 

There are three oil tanks, made of boiler iron, 
lined with an insulating material, with barriers 
interposed between the stationary contacts. The 
contact parts are of the company's standard type 
C construction, having renewable arcing tins and 
contacts. The leads, with their insulation and the 
upper porcelain insulators may be readily removed 
from the switch, giving access to the contact parts 
for inspection and repairs. The top covers of the 
tanks are made of treated soapstone slabs, part of 
which are also removable. Each tank is provided 
with an oil drain, opening in the bottom, and an 
overflow just above the normal oil level. These 
openings are provided with standard three-inch 
pipe-flange threads, but no pipe is provided. Each 
tank has an oil-level gauge, and requires approxi- 
mately 160 gallons of oil. 

The total weight of each three-pole switch com- 
plete, the tanks being filled with oil, is approxi- 
mately 15,000 pounds. The oil alone weighs ap- 
proximately 4,oco pounds. 

A two-pole double-throw indicating switch is 
provided upon each three-pole oil switch for use 
in connection with the controlling and indicating 
devices. The circuit-breaker is not automatic in 



January 20, igo6 



WESTERN ELECTRIl 



il elf, an ovci load relay opi i ati d fron cri< 

forme ra bi ing 



Something about HarcJ-drawn Copper 
Wire. 

Thomas B. Doolittle dc an inli n tine 

manner in the I larvard E ngin I lal thi 

history, manufacture and pro] I liai d-dra n 

copper, l I"' « i it' i wa f; li u ■. ith til phi 

nomenon of the hardening ol drawn coppi 
the time he entci ed the field ol elcctricil 

therefore, when ii wa disci I i" him that 

coppi i was ""I onlj "in "i thi I" lui toi 

,,i elci ii icity Inn wa thi i 1m api I nd 

,,i per mile ohm, ii was only I' ii for him to deter 
mine whether "r not this hardening; process could 
In- made available in order that copper wire should 
I,, comparable in iron in it-, ability to stand the 

n f its nun weight when strung on poll i, 

and. in addition thereto, the weight of sleet or 
snow .-ind wind pressure. There was no mathi 
matical road to determine tins factor; therefore it 
wa, simply a case of "cut and try." 

First, the size of the finished product was fixed 
u|i..n I No. i-! Ii X S. gauge); then ii became a 
matter of experiment in determine the size "f the 
annealed copper rod which, when drawn in ibis 
predetermined size, should possess the proper ten 
silc strength and the required torsional property. 
It was also necessary in determine the number of 
"link's" or reductions that should intervene in the 
process of drawing in order that the structure or 
fiber of tin- metal should not be injured during the 
process. Tun much force would result in granulat- 
ing the metal and thereby impairing its tensile 
strength. Tin" experiments proved all that could be 
anticipated, and a sufficient amount of hard-drawn 
copper wire was manufactured to equip the lines 
necessary to connect all of the mills, offices and 
residences of officers of the Ansonia Brass and 
Copper Company, in whose wire mill these experi- 
ments were made. A telephone switchboard was 
set up in the brass mill of that company and an 
operator answered calls and made connections. 
This work was begun in November. 1877. 

Although the product is known in the trade as 
hard-drawn copper wire, and properly so known — 
as the name indicates its property of hardness and 
the method of manufacture — the name has no an- 
tonym or contra-term because soft-drawn copper is 
a misnomer ; the very process of drawing eliminates 
the quality of softness and makes it hard. 

Prior to its introduction for aerial electrical con- 
ductors there was very little, if any, call for the 
hard product. Copper wire was usually annealed 
after drawing and sold in that form. Copper al- 
loyed with other metal was and is now used in 
the manufacture of hard or "spring wire." 

Skepticism on the part of electricians and gen- 
erally in scientific circles, as to the practical value 
of this adaptation, prevented its being adopted to 
any extent, except the few circuits that Mr. Doo- 
little introduced into the Bridgeport (Conn.) tele- 
phone exchange until seven years afterward. 

In 1884 Mr. Doolittle was commissioned to con- 
struct an experimental metallic circuit of copper 
between New York and Boston. The wire for 
this circuit was drawn under his personal super- 
vision in the wire mill of the Bridgeport Brass 
Company. The total cost of this experiment was, 
in round numbers, $70,000. After the experiment 
was concluded the wires were turned over to the 
intervening telephone companies for local use and 
immediate steps were taken to build the New York 
and Philadelphia long-distance telephone line. The 
miles of hard-drawn copper wire now in use for 
all electrical purposes are counted by millions. 

The first recorded employment of copper as a 
line conductor was its use by Prof. Morse in his 
experimental telegraph lines between Washington 
and Baltimore. The ordinary market wire was 
used but for the reason that it would not sustain 
its own weight, it was abandoned and iron wire 
was substituted. The next of record was strung 
by the Western Union Telegraph Company in New 
Jersey. In this case also the ordinary copper wire 
was used, but an attempt was made to increase 
its tensile strength by twisting a pair of wires 
into the form of a rope. This did not prove a suc- 
cess and was abandoned for the same reason as 
the other. 

In the early seventies manv experiments were 
tried in attempts to make available for aerial line 
conductors the superior conductivity of Conner. In 
each case a steel wire was emnloyed for tensile 
strength. In one case a copper ribbon was wound 
spirally around the steel wire. On exposure to 
the elements a chemical action was set up that 
quickly destroyed the steel core. This ribbon was 
afterward tinned, but with unsatisfactory result. 
In another experiment the copper ribbon was folded 
longitudinally. The last and most successful in 
this line of experiment was the process of electro- 
plating the steel wire with copper. This was put 
in service by the American Rapid Telegraph Com- 
pany, but in a few years it also proved unsatisfac- 
tory and was abandoned. Therefore it will be seen 



hi 1.V7H Thi 

- 1 1 1 , ... 
adoptc .ii! 

Ii 

1 manufai tun 

I pr..d 

Ui 1 '.1 

1.. ing anm alcd il 

.Hhl lii 

le mean ol a hammer, in order il 

1 in d mi enough throug 

I- ;rappli ,1 on thi 1 p 

"I i" 1" drawn mi m. 'thud 

,,i tarting od bad a distin 

ad ui-'" 1 11 the reason that il 

likely to lap ' over in the process of draw- 

ing, lli' 1 

win-, iln • il. 1 trouble 

snine ill the in ill- 1 After li.-u iii« 

been drawn through a certain number of "holes 
the sin I. 1 (Ii. ivjn I. d to an 

cxtenl which rcquin thai il hould bi 

i" i"' - any further n dm 1 

The new process is substantially a 1 

1 li-- coppi r i I'-- ' r. 1 'i i\ the mi 

in the form of wire bars, which an- approximately 
54 inches long, wiili an average diameter of about 
'. ' 1 inches, and weigh about 200 pound 
Mi . :uv delivered as commercial copper wire- 
bars. 

The first operation is to put the bars into 
is termed a, "continuous furnace." the bars going 
in at one end of the furnace and taken nut at the 
other. In their passage through thej an 
to about 950° C, at the rate of about two bars per 
minute. 

I'lie heated bars are then put through a series 
of grooved rolls. Each succeeding groove being 
smaller, it results in a reduction "f the 
bar to a diameter of five-sixteenths of an inch. 
These are now called rods and are taken up "ii 
a reel in the form of a coil about 30 inches in di- 
ameter. These coils are then taken from the hot- 
rolling department and are cold at that time. They 
are then plunged into a bath of sulphuric acid and 
water for the purpose of removing whatever oxide 
has been formed in the hot-rolling operation. After 
about 20 minutes in this solution the oxide is re- 
moved and the rods are then taken and thoroughly 
washed with clean water under a high pressure 
from a hose ; after which they are immersed in a 
vat containing a lubricant of tallow and soap. I he 
' rods arc now ready for the drawing process. 

The rods are substantially drawn on what is 
termed by wire manufacturers a "continuous wire- 
drawing machine." That is to say. the five-six- 
teenths-inch rod goes in at one end of the machine, 
and after passing through several dies, each one 
reducing the diameter and hardening the wire, it 
finally is drawn around a block to the finished size, 
say 0.104 inch. 

In making this reduction the copper wire is re- 
duced in diameter from No. 1 wire gauge to No. 
12 wire gauge, or. in technical terms, the wire is 
"11 numbers hard." This process gives the wire 
the greatest amount of tensile strength possible 
from commercial copper and yet preserves its elas- 
ticity. The cost of production is enormously re- 
duced by the new process. Whereas, under the old 
process, a very skilled workman was required for 
each single drawing, an attendant is now able to 
care for several continuous drawing machines that 
are run at a speed unapproachable by the old 
method. In the smaller sizes of wire, diamond dies 
are employed, which, in themselves, represent a 
verv considerable investment. 

Commercial copper in its soft state has a tensile 
strength of about 28.000 pounds per square inch, 
with an elongation of about 36 per cent., and by 
the cold-drawing process above described the tensile 
strength -is increased by each number drawn and tile 
elongation is reduced; therefore when the copoer 
wire is drawn 11 numbers hard, it has a tensile 
strength of about 64,600 pounds per square inch, 
with an elongation of about one per cent. The 
wire is then taken from the wire-drawing blocks, 
so-called, and is carefully inspected for tensile 
strength, elongation, torsion and conductivity. The 
inspected wire is then carefully packed by wrap- 
ping each coil with burlap, so that it does not be- 
come bruised or damaged in any way by trans- 
portation. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 
LonK dlstan 



Finest Ever Printed In the United States. 

In a letter to the Western Electrician, dated Tan- 
uary 13th. the Farr Telephone and Construction 
Supply Company uses this appreciative language: 
"We also wish to compliment you on the New 
Years number of the Western Electrician, which 
is certainly the finest-appearing electrical journal 
that was ever printed in the United States. You 
certainly deserve great credit for getting out such 
an edition." 



■ 



Ui 



N'ew Yurk, January 



American Energy Triumphing over 
Misfortune. 
To ili. Editot 

Relative to the dan 
tory at I - plant 

i. I.ii t that I- 

We Will he 111 -, |Oth 

I Ijr ' 

tory, )='. 162 1 

ty, January 1 lib I . 
Aagration gaining rapid head 

, hunks and 

-n tierce that the 1 partment 

innati was required to fight the li 
Even while the fir. 
a meeting of as many a, possible of tli. 

■ f the company was called. 
and a resolution immediately passed in ...cure not 
"iily 1 new hut a larger factory, a. id to go ahead 
and n with all possible dispatch. 

i miittee appointed leased a new factory mi 
the curiier of Ninth and Sycamon 
too feet mi the ground, with six stnries and a 

ny luckily had a lot 
tery material in transit, and further urders were at 
once placed fur additional material. Consequently, 
by the time the new building 1- ready and occu- 
pied, which will In- aboul February 1st. thi 
Island Battery Company will have everythi - 
hand fur business. We can. therefore, assure the 
tradi that we will he ready promptly to fill all 
orders not later than February 10th. 'Orders will 
lie filled in the nriler which they are received. The 
company's temporary offices are at the corner of 
Third and Vine streets. Cincinnati. Ohio. 

R01 k Island Batteky Company, 
By M. A. Loeb, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Cincinnati. January 16. 1906. 



Co-operative Insurance for Electric 
Railway and Lighting Properties. 

The incorporation of the American Railway In- 
surance Company and the Associated Railway O'lii- 
panies' Insurance Company of Cleveland, each with 
a capital stuck of J-'OO.OOO. has be< 
The incorporators are the same in bulb cas 
follows: Horace E. Andrews. Henrv \. Everett 
A. E. Akins. Warren S. Bicknell, Charles \V. Was- 
son, John J. Stanley, all of Cleveland; C. G 
rich of Minneapolis, Minn.. J. C. Hutchins of De- 
troit, Mich.. J. H. Hogsett and Henry X - 
The companies will write on both sprinkler and 
unprotected risks, including all properties of elec- 
tric-railway and light companies, such as car houses. 
power houses, rolling stock and lighting plants. 
The rates will he made as low as possible and will 
be determined by an inspection and rating bureau. 
of which Mr. Staats is manager. The business, in 
tact, will be conducted upon a co-operative basis 
entirely in the interests of the railroad and light- 
ing companies. The stock has .been largely ar- 
ranged tor. subscriptions being received from vari- 
ous portions of the country, all by railroad and 
lighting people. 



Opening of the Simplon Tunnel Post- 
poned. 

The official opening of the new international rail- 
way line through the Simplon tunnel, after having 
been advertised for April 1, 1906. is now reported 
by Consul Keene of Geneva as being postponed 
until May 1st. by action of the Swiss authorities. 
After having been for a considerable time under 
discussion, the mode of traction between Brigue 
and Domo d'Ossola is to be electrical, in accord- 
ance with a decision recently made by the federal 
department of Swiss railroads. 

Iln Swiss system of traction now in use on the 
railroad Berthoud-Thoune, in the canton of Berne. 
will he applied with up-to-date imorovemenrs on 
nplon line. The Berthoud-Thoune system 
was illustrated and briefly described in the Western 
Electrician of January 6th. The first two electrical 
engines will be tried on the Italian electrical lines 
of Valtellina. 



62 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 20, 1906 



Electricity in Irrigating Large Sugar 
Plantation. 

Sugar is manufactured extensively on the Island 
of Kausi, Hawaiian Territory, where there are a 
number of large plantations, which, however, must 
in some cases be irrigated. Following is a descrip- 
tion of an electrically operated irrigating system to 
be installed on one of these plantations. 

The primary driver will consist of a specially de- 
signed impulse waterwheel operating under a fall 
of 400 feet of water conveyed in penstock pipes from 
a mountain stream and delivering its power con- 
tinuously to a Bullock alternating-current generator, 
direct connected, at six maximum speeds, which 
are secured by the use of six different sets of 
buckets arranged on wheels of varying diameters. 

Mountain streams are not very numerous in the 
Hawaiian Islands and are usually in comparatively 
inaccessible places, rendering it impossible to lead 
the water by means of flumes or ditching to the land 
to be irrigated. Furthermore, it is frequently the 
case that, while the quantity of water available is 
small, the head is comparatively great, thus enabling 
a large amount of power to be obtained. Under 
such conditions an electric generator driven by a 
waterwheel may be installed at the falls and the 
power generated transmitted from there to a distant 
pumping plant located but a few feet above sea 
level, which obtains its supply from wells or under- 
ground tunnels. At such points the quantity of 
water available is usually abundant. The funda- 
mental engineering problem is therefore to utilize a 
small quantity of water under a high head to raise 
a large quantity of water to a comparatively low 
head. 

As is the experience with mountain streams else- 
where, the quantity of water available for power 
varies considerably at different seasons; hence it is 
desired at all times to utilize, as far as practicable, 
the maximum water supply, and in order to get 
the full benefit from the quantity available at any 
time it has been necessary to evolve a scheme by 
which the speed of the pump can be varied in pro- 
portion to the flow at the source of power. 

The head being constant the velocity of the water 
at the delivery nozzle is constant, and the horse- 
power varies directly with the water supply. By . 
changing the dimensions of the wheel carrying the 
buckets the rotative speed of the generator is 
changed, while the speed of the water remains 
constant at all times. With constant field strength 
on the generator the. voltage will be directly propor- 
tional to the rotative speed, and, as the cycles are 
also proportional to the rotative speed, it will be 
seen that the volts and cycles vary in a fixed ratio 
to each other. 

The energy from the generator being delivered 
to an induction motor, the speed of the motor, and 
therefore of the pump, will change in the same 
proportion as the speed of the generator. As both 
the frequency and the voltage change in the same 
ratio, the induction motor will at all times be 
operating under conditions corresponding to those 
for which it has been designed. The generator is 
rated at 300 kilowatts, three-phase, 60 cycles, and 
will have a normal speed of 450 revolutions per 
minute. 

About five miles from the power station will be 
located the pumping plant. Here is to be installed 
a Bullock induction motor of 225 horsepower and 
this, by means of rope transmission, will drive a 
duplex, double-acting Riedler pump, having a ca- 
pacity, against 250 feet head (including friction), 
ranging from 1,750 gallons per minute, when the 
waterwheel has five cubic feet per second supply 
of water, to 2,800 gallons a minute (4,032,000 gal- 
lons per 24 hours), with a supply of eight cubic 
feet a second at the wheel. The speed of the pump, 
operated at its full capacity, will be 116 revolutions 
a minute. 

The generator will have its exciter, of eight kilo- 
watts, direct connected to it, and the exciter has 
been so designed that it can deliver the full volt- 
age and current required for excitation even at the 
minimum speed. By means of an automatic regu- 
lator the exciter voltage will be maintained con- 
stant at all speeds of rotation, and it will, there- 
fore, be unnecessary to change the adjustment of 
the generator rheostat when the speed of rotation is 
changed. In addition to the automatic regulator a 
hand-operated field regulator will be installed for 
use in an emergency. It was the original inten-^ 
tion to use at the pumping station a synchronous 
motor which would require a 50-horsepower motor 
for starting, as well as an exciter, controllers and 
apparatus for throwing the starting motor in or 
out; but it was found that the sysem could be sim- 
plified by the use of an induction motor. The oper- 
ation of the plant remains otherwise practically the 
same, and of course the induction motor requires 
neither a starting motor nor exciter, but merely 
controlling apparatus. The efficiency of the whole 
plant will be the same with an induction motor as 
with a synchronous motor, while in simplicity of 
construction, reliability of operation, small amount 
of attention required and also in the matter of first 
cost the induction motor has the advantage. Neces- 
sary by-pass valves are provided for use in start- 
ing up. Either side of the pump may be run sep- 
arately when desired. 

The plant was furnished and installed by the 
Allis-Chalmers Company. 



Auxiliary Telephone Circuits. 

By Charles H. Coar. 
Demand for auxiliary interior telephone apparatus 
is growing, and it is not to be wondered at when 
one considers that the ordinary doorbell, the speak- 
ing tube, the errand boy and many other slower 
methods of communication are being gradually 
supplanted by this class of equipment. To de- 
scribe the evolution and adoption of the many 
different systems would consume much space, so the 
purposes of the following is to bring to mind some 
of the possibilities and operating arrangements of 




a few such circuits without discussing in any man- 
ner their commercial aspects. 

Interior telephone systems are now usually de- 
signed to operate from a centralized battery which 
often furnishes the current for both ringing and 
talking purposes. In some circuits two cen- 
tralized batteries are used — one for ringing and 
one for talking. It is the most common practice 
to utilize an ordinary vibrating bell for signaling, 
but when the distance between any two of the tele- 
phones in the one system is much over 1,000 feet 
the better practice is to use a magneto method of 
signaling. When it becomes necessary to use mag- 
neto current for ringing purposes the ordinary 
practice is to equip the telephones with local-bat- 
tery talking apparatus. Some circuits are designed 
to operate in conjunction with trunk lines to a 
local telephone exchange in addition to other 
duties. 

Fig. 1 illustrates one arrangement of an interior 
system which employs a centralized battery both 
for ringing and talking purposes. Switch contacts 
are provided for five stations, three of which are 
shown in the circuit. Each station is equipped 
with a transmitter and induction coil arranged in 



FIG. 2. AUXILIARY TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. 

conjunction with a hook switch and receiver, also 
a vibrating bell or buzzer (B) associated with the 
push button and lower contact of the switch hook 
as shown. The switch (S) is provided to make 
connections to the various lines. An impedance 
coil (I) is arranged in series with the battery taps 
to each transmitter to obviate any cross talk and 
also to cut down the battery consumption. 

The stations in this system call each other by 
placing the switch (S) on the numbered contact 
of the station desired and pressing the push but- 
ton which closes the circuit through the battery 
and bell of the called station. Both persons then 
take down their receivers and talk. In the opera- 
tion of this circuit it is necessary to return the 
switch lever (S) to the "home" contact after using 
the telephone, otherwise it will be impossible for 
this station to receive any incoming calls. It is 
also necessary that the receivers be in place. Both 
of these facts are made evident in Fig. 1. 

To overcome the objection of returning the 
switch lever to the "home" contact manually, sev- 
eral mechanical devices have been perfected which 
operate when the receivers are hung up. In other 
circuits a rearrangement of the apparatus is 
effected in such manner that this detrimental fea- 
ture is overcoine. 

A rearranged circuit is shown in Fig. 2, which, 
with the exception of the bell circuit, is identical 
with that shown in Fig. 1. It will be noticed in 
connection with the circuit shown in Fig. 2, that 
the bells are directly connected to the "home" con- 
tacts, in which position they can be actuated 
regardless of the position the switch lever may 
occupy. Therefore it is not necessary that the 



switch lever occupy the "home" contact in order 
to receive its calls properly. Otherwise the opera- 
tion of the circuits shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is 
identical. 

The circuit shown in Fig. 3 is employed on 
occasions where a subscriber wishes to have several 
extension telephones arranged in such manner that 
they can secure through connections to the tele- 
phone exchange at all times other than when he is 
using the telephone. This is also done in order 
that the conversations from the main telephone 
will be secret in so far as the extension telephones 
are concerned. 

Fig. 3 shows an arrangement for connecting a 
main telephone to the exchange line in the usual 
manner, while the extension telephones (1), (2) 
and (3) are so connected that one side of the cir- 
cuit to these instruments has its continuity de- 
pendent upon the position of the hook switch in 
the main telephone. It is necessary that the re- 
ceiver be hung up at the main telephone before the 
extension telephones can utilize the line, as the 
connections depend on the lower switch hook con- 
tact in this telephone. The push buttons and bells 
are provided to summon persons to the different 
extension telephones should an arrangement of this 
kind be desired. This is often convenient when 
one person answers all the calls, and then bv aid 
of the push buttons and bells calls the desired per- 
son to an extension telephone. As shown in the 
circuit, one side of the telephone line is used as a 
common return for the bell service. This should 




preferably be the side that is cut off when the 
main telephone is being used. 

Fig. 4 illustrates one arrangement which is suit- 
able for a private line of considerable length oper- 
ating from a regular exchange battery, preferably 
centrally located with regard to the length of the 
line. This arrangement can be worked to good 
advantage between two stations situated in widely 
separated portions of a city. A regular central- 
energy telephone is used, and the sub-stations call 
each other by means of a push key located at the 
telephones. It is necessary that a line of this 
description extend through an office or exchange 
where ringing and talking currents are available. 

In the circuit shown in Fig. 4, the apparatus 
located in the exchange consists of a retardation 
coil having two windings of 200 ohms each, these 
windings being associated in series with two 50- 
ohm windings of a balance relay and battery in 
such a manner that the current for talking pur- 
poses is fed through these windings to the line 
conductors at such times as the relay windings 
tend to neutralize each other. This relay neutrali- 
zation occurs when the current flow through both 
windings is equal, as is the case when the receivers ' 
are off the hooks at the instruments, presuming 
of course that the line is well insulated. In this 
circuit when a push key is pressed at a sub-station 
it places a local ground on the sleeve or negative 
side of the line at this station, thus providing a 
path for the battery current to flow through one 



S^b-SlM.oix 



S4t-s1.it 11 




FIG. 4. PRIVATE LINE OPERATING FROM EXCHANGE 



winding of the balanced relay which operates it, 
causing the armature to close contacts with the 
ringing generator (G). As the relay armature 
closes contact with the ringing current, both tele- 
phone bells which are connected to the tip side 
of the line are operated in multiple to local earth 
connections. A ground on the sleeve side of the 
line will, if it is of low resistance, allow sufficient 
current to flow through the relay winding to oper- 
ate it and ring the bells, so it is absolutely neces- 
sary that the insulation be kept to a high standard. 
If the local grounds pick up sufficient earth cur- 



January 20, igo6 

rents to cause noi | (ran mi ion tl bi 

arranged in i ui h manni i thai thcj n ill be di 
. onnei u d wh< n the sw iti h hool i raised 
Sometimes il i desirable to have interioi 

ti in arranged in Buch manner thai the difl 

telephones have conned with a regular tele 

phone exchange by mean : of a ti unk lini I hi i 
;n i omplii In -I in several differcnl ways, bul tin 

li' ii< i piji in r is to arrange the appai il h 

;i way thai the diffcri nl inti i ioi teleph :an call 




TALKIHQ - £ATr£HY 



the exchange without receiving aid from any inter- 
mediate set. 

It is also highly desirable for transmission pur- 
poses to retain the use of an induction coil for 
trunk-line conversations, and, unless all the tele- 
phones in the interior system be equipped with 
regular exchange apparatus, it becomes necessary 
to place the coil permanently in the trunk line. 
One system of this description is shown in Fig. 5. 
and is arranged in the following manner: Each 
interior telephone (i), (2) and (3) consists of a 
receiver and transmitter arranged to operate in 
series by means of the switch-hook contacts with 
the outer springs of the keys (C), (A), (il, (2), 
(3) and (R), associated with this telephone. The 
outer springs of these keys are bonded together in 
common, as shown in the diagram. 

The keys at each telephone, with the exception 
of the (R) key, are arranged to be self-restoring, 
or in such manner that when one key is pressed it 
releases all other keys at this telephone to resume 
a normal position. This is accomplished by means 
of a sliding plate cam through which the key 
plungers operate. In the diagram the various keys 
at each telephone are for the following purposes : 
The key (C) is used in calling the exchange, as 
will be explained later; the key (A) is used in 
answering all calls; the keys (1), (2) and (3) 
are station keys and are used in calling the stations, 
and the (R) key is used for ringing. 

In this system two separate batteries are used — 
one of 20 volts for talking purposes and one of 12 
volts for ringing purposes. The talking battery 
has a bank of condensers equal to approximately 
10 microfarads connected across its terminals to 
reduce cross talk, and the current supply is fed 
permanently to the various lines of the interior 
■ system through battery taps having 100 ohms re- 
tardation in series with them, as shown in the dia- 
gram in Fig. 5. These retardation coils reduce any 
cross talk and lessen the battery consumption. 

The ringing battery is also supplied throughout 
by conductors common to all the telephones from 
which single taps are connected to the ringing 
keys (R), as shown. One ringing battery tap is 
brought up to a lower insulated switch-hook con- 
tact, where connection is made with the telephone 
bell when the switch hook is normal. As men- 
tioned before, trunk-line connections are provided 
each telephone and the arrangement in this in- 
stance is to equip the trunk line with a suitable 
induction coil and apparatus in order that trans- 
mission over the trunk line be as nearly perfect as 
possible. During all conversations over the trunk 
line the telephones receive their current supply from 
the telephone exchange. The trunk line is also 
provided with a bell or other suitable means for 
receiving incoming calls in addition to a clearing- 
out signal (S), which is utilized to give notice of 



ERN ELECT 

nk line 

irunk 
trunk 

nf 1 1 j • 1 

to talk 

would ' pi 

— — . — Tr=rr> ''" ''' 

' — 'l|l t i o n it 

would the auto- 

ringing key 
( IO, while the 

rcnl i" flo 

(3) to the 1" II 
: I 
1 inging 1. mi ry, thu 
the signa 

calling person can riir. 
eceivei i of! thi 
in which position he 
to tell from ringing induction 

.■, Ii> ill. r the I.. -II of a called 
station is ringing or not. All 
the buttons and keys an 
matically released by subse- 
quent calls. In using the 
trunk line the key (C) is 
pressed, which connects the 
telephone apparatus by means 
of the key contacts through 
the induction coil properly for 
good transmission. 
Incoming calls over the trunk line are answered 
first at the mam interior telephone, which may 
be assumed to be station (1). From station (1) 
the desired person is called by means of the in- 
terior system, and after he has ascertained what 
is wanted he places his telephone in connection 
with the trunk line and completes the call. As 



R/HG/HG- BATTERY. 




APARTMENT HOUSE. 



a precaution against confusion the trunk key. (C) 
should be normal at all times they are not in 
actual service. 

One of the more modern uses that telephones 
are put to is in conjunction with flat buildings or 
apartment houses, where in some instances they 
have superseded the call bell and speaking-tube 






push 
apart- 
large 

and a 

Bat, in 

addition to equipping the tenants' apartment* with 

telephone are 

. which is used to 

II when he it wanted 

from the push 

1 in the vestibule or at the janitor's 
telephone, as shown. Two talking wires arc con- 
md used in 1 

in addition to the bell 
which i and a 

mding push button. 

A '" talking and 

ringing purposes, and the 1 pref- 

1. phone, where 

it can be maintained more conveniently. In this 

the tenant's or janitor's bell can be rung 
from the vestibule, and the janitor can ring any 
of the tenants or be called by them. It is also 
possible for any two of the tenants to intercom- 
municate with each other by calling the janitor, 
who can call the desired tenant and hold them in 
connection by means of his telephone apparatus. 
Systems of this kind can be designed to meet almost 
any condition. They arc not expensive to install 
or maintain, and are a great improvement over 
any arrangement of speaking tubes. 

Since the installation of interior systems neces- 
sitates the stringing of a comparatively large num- 
ber of wires to each station connected, it is well 
to plan out a course of procedure which can be 
adopted to good advantage while doing the work. 
It is the usual practice to install wires of different 
color and adopt a color code by which the various 
lines can be easily identified. Such wires as arc 
used for battery feeds are well insulated and usu- 
ally have a higher carrying capacity unless the 
system be confined within a small space. It is 
good policy to use some form of a junction box 
or terminal strip where taps are taken from the 
main cables for the various telephones. These 
boxes or terminals will be the means of making a 
much more presentable and permanent installation, 
in addition to the advantages such construction 
offers in the location of any subsequent fault. The 
apparatus of these systems should be so installed 
that the least possible chance for trouble exists, 
especial care being exercised to avoid dampness or 
wearing effects. Much depends on the position 
chosen for the location of the batteries, which are 
usually dry cells. These should be located in a 
position free from dampness or any excessive heat. 



TELEPHONE MEN. 



J. J. Maloney has taken charge as manager of 
the local exchange at Albert Lea. Minn., of the 
Northwestern Telephone Exchange Company. 

C. M. McClure becomes general manager of the 
Carolina Telephone Company at Tarboro, X. C, 
succeeding E. A. Holderness. who will continue as 
secretary- E. S. Paddison becomes auditor of the 
company. 

N. O. Wood, manager of the Southern Bell Tele- 
phone Company in Greensboro, X. C, has resigned 
to go to Asheville, to take charge of the new- 
plant of the Asheville Telephone Company. His 
successor is R. L. Boyd of Raleigh. 

M. B. Overly- has resigned as manager of the 
United States Telephone Company of Cleveland, to 
take charge of the construction of the Independent 
lines from Louisville to the gulf, which are being 
backed by a syndicate headed by Ed. L. Barber 
of Wauseon, Ohio. 

The following promotions and appointements 
were made by the Bell Telephone Company of 
Canada, becoming effective on January 1st: L. B. 
Macfarlane has been appointed general manager, a 
new position; C. F. Sise, Jr., has been appointed 
general superintendent; W. H. Hayes has been 
named the district manager of the districts of 
Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and districts Xos. 3 
and 4 will be combined under J. L. Richmond. 



^ 



Telephone News from the Northwest. 

The Osceola Farmers' Mutual Telephone Com- 
pany of Osceola, Wis., has been organized with 
$25,000 capital stock. 

The Grant County Telephone Company of Mil- 
bank, S. D., contemplates a bond issue of $30,000 
for the purpose of extending and improving its line. 
The company has built 400 miles of wire since May- 
last. 

The Farmers' Telephone Company at Hecla, S. D., 
will build a line into Aberdeen. 

The Minnesota Mutual Telephone Company has 
sold its lines at North Branch. Minn., and vicinity 
to the Tri-state Telephone Company. 

The Bridgewater ( S. D.) Union Telephone Com- 
pany lias sold it> system to J. J. Henrich. 

The Ettrick (Wis.) Telephone Company has filed 
articles 01 incorporation with a capital stock of 
$8,000. K. A. Knutson heads the list of stock- 
holders. 

K. McLean and others propose to build a tele- 
phone line from Miles City, Mont., down the Yel- 
lowstone River to Shirley. 

The Mutual Telephone Company of Des Moines, 
la., has announced that it will spend $30,000 in 
improvements to its system in that city during the 
ensuing year. The company expended $375,000 on 
its system in 1905. 

The Western Electric Telephone Company has 
authorized the expenditure of $200,000 in improve- 
ments to its lines during the year. The company's 
headquarters are at Des Moines, Iowa, and B. C. 
Way is secretary. R. 



Indiana Telephone Items. 

The. Pocket Telephone Company of Evansville 
has applied for a franchise in Evansville. It is 
generally believed that franchises will be granted 
to both the Cumberland Telephone Company and 
the Pocket Telephone Company on equal terms. 

The city attorney of Princeton insists that the 
Cumberland Telephone Company is without legal 
rights in the city, and the City Council has asked 
the company to accept a franchise, the terms of 
which the company says are far too exacting and 
burdensome. In the meantime the Independent in- 
terests are preparing to contest for the field. 

The report that the Hope Telephone Company of 
Hope had been taken over by the Bell interests 
is denied by the officials of the Hope company. 
Hie officials say that they had a proposition from 
the Bell interests, but nothing was done to war- 
rant the report given out. 

The telephone situation in Indianapolis remains 
unchanged, although the indications point to a 
strenuous efforts to increase rates and otherwise 
modif}' the existing franchise. The people are 
not opposing the wishes of the Indianapolis com- 
pany so generally as when the proposition was 
first made. They freely admit that the greatly 
extended service is worth more now than when it 
was first installed with a few thousand patrons. 
The new Board of Public Works, it is said, will 
increase the rate, and if so the council, it is 
thought, will ratify the increase. S. 



Ohio Telephone Notes. 

City Solicitor Northup of Toledo has prepared a 
bill for introduction in the General Assembly at 
Columbus, which will give city councils power to 
regulate telephone rates and readjust them every 
seven years. This bill has been brought about 
through the decision of the courts that city coun- 
cils cannot fix a price for telephone service under 
present laws and that where a company voluntarily 
agrees upon a price it cannot be held. 

Owners of the Oberlin Telephone Company of 
Oberlin are considering the advisability of install- 
ing an automatic board in their exchange. 

The annual meeting of the Cuyahoga Telephone 
Company will be held on February 7th. 

The Parkman Telephone Company has been 
taken into the Geauga County Telephone Associa- 
tion, which makes it possible for Chardon to give 
service over almost the entire county. 

Owners of the Queen City Home Telephone 
Company of Cincinnati will endeavor to secure a 
franchise at Hamilton. A fight has been made by 
the Independents for a franchise in that city sev- 
eral times, but they have not been successful in 
getting the rights they desire. C. 



Southeastern Telephone Developments. 

The Asheville (N. C.) Telephone Company has 
prepared plans for a handsome new plant and 
building in that city, which will provide offices, 
rooms for switchboards and general storage space, 
the structure being three stories. 

The Southern Bell Telephone Company is cut- 
ting in its new $200,000 plant in Lynchburg. Va., 
just completed. The plant is one of the most mod- 
ern in the South, and will be ready for operation 
in a few weeks. 

At the semi-annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Georgia Telephone Company at Savannah. 
Ga., the directors declared a semi-annual dividend 
of 2 ,/ 2 per cent. 

The Thomasville (Ga.) Telephone Company has 
been bought out by the municipality, and the town 
authorities will operate the svstem in the future. 

L. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

Oregon Independent Telephone Asso- 
ciation. 

Independent telephone companies owning a net- 
work of telephone wires spreading throughout the 
state of Oregon giving connection between the 
principal cities and towns and focussing in Port- 
land were united under the name of the Oregon 
Independent Telephone Association in Portland on 
January 4th. The purpose is to work as a unit 
to improve the Independent service in Oregon and 
to compete for business against the Pacific States 
Telephone Company, owner of the Bell lines. 

For several years the Independent companies 
throughout the state have been trying to cain an 
entrance into Portland and have repeatedly ap- 
plied for franchises. The construction of the auto- 
matic system now , being installed by the Home 
Telephone Company has settled the difficulty. This 
company will be the chief factor in the new organ- 
ization and will give to the other Independents the 
Portland connection of which they are desirous. 

At the meeting the following men were present : 
F. PI. Stow, Home Telephone Company ; W. D. ■ 
DeVarney, Corvallis Telephone Company ; S. C. 
Hughes, Forest Grove Telephone Company; O. G. 
Wilkes, Hillsboro Telephone Company; J. W. Con- 
don, Dalles Telephone Company ; P. L. Brown, 
Silverton Telephone Company ; Henry C. Chappelle, 
Woodburn Telephone Company ; A. B. Flint, Scholls 
Telephone Company, and C. H. Morris. Dalles Tel- 
ephone Company. There are also Independent sys- 
tems at McMinnville, Albany, Browneville. Le- 
banon, Scio, Stayton, Turner, Chemawa, Newborg, 
Dayton and Sheridan. All of these companies will 
be asked to join the association. In addition to 
these the Home Telephone Company has been 
granted a franchise in Salem, and has applied for 
franchises in Eugene, Baker City and Pendleton, 
and these cities will also be connected with the 
Independent system as soon as the lines are in- 
stalled. 

The meeting was called at the instigation of 
W. D. DeVarney of Corvallis. A constitution was 
drawn up and adopted and the following officers 
were elected : President, F. H. Stow ; vice-president, 
S. C. Hughes ; secretary and treasurer, P. L. Brown. 
The executive board is composed of F. H. Stowe, 
P. L. Brown, J. W. Condon. C. H. Morris and O. G. 
Wilkes. The constitution is modeled after that of 
the Indiana Independent Telephone Association. 
The executive board is composed of F. H. Stow, 
panies owning 3.SS8 telephones actually in use. It 
is estimated that there are about 14.000 Independ- 
ent telephones in the Willamette Valley alone. 



GENERAL TELEPHONE NEWS 

L. R. Olson and others have organized a rural 
telephone company at Rake, la. 

The Kansas Independent Telephone Association 
will meet in Wichita, Kan., on January 22d and 
23d. 

The Western Independent Telephone Company, 
Kansas City, Mo., has been incorporated, with a 
capital stock of $50,000. 

The Ridley Telephone Company of Davenport. 
Okla., has been incorporated with a capital stock 
of $5,000 by R. C. Ridley, W. -R. Ridley and others. 

The board of regents of the University of Cal- 
ifornia has decided to place a complete private 
telephone exchange in the university at Berkeley, 
connecting all departments. 

The Palisade Mining Company, through R. F. 
Grisby, president, has petitioned the town authori- 
ties of Calistoga, Cab, for a franchise to maintain 
and operate a telephone line in Calistoga. 

At the annual stockholders' meeting of * the Mo- 
renci (Mich.) Telephone Company directors were 
elected and W. W. Crabbs was chosen president 
and manager. The secretary's report showed a 
substantial growth. 

The following-named telephone companies have 
been incorporated recently : Rice Telephone Com- 
pany, Hill City, Kan. ; Palco Telephone Company, 
Palco, Kan.; Atlanta and Naples Telephone Com- 
pany. Bryan's Mill, Texas ; Adele Telephone Com- 
pany, Adele, Mont. ; Neola Mutual Telephone Com- 
pany, Neola, Kan. 

A strong remonstrance has been filed by the Citi- 
zens* Telephone Company of Grand Rapids, Mich., 
against the license ordinance now before the coun- 
cil, which provides that all local corporations shall 
pay a tax of 10 cents per year per pole. This will 
affect the street-railway company, the telegraph and 
the telephone companies. It has been estimated 
that there are from 35,000 to 40,000 poles involved. 

A New York dispatch says that Attorney-general 
Mayer, after a hearing in New York, denied the 
application to have the attorney general begin legal 
proceedings to annul the charter and franchise of the 
New York Electric Lines Company, which was incor- 
porated in 1SS2 to do a general telephone business. 
This company, with a franchise granted to it by 
the 1SS3 Board of Aldermen, was acquired recently 
by the Greater Eastern Telephone Company, which 
desires to use the franchise for business in Man- 
hattan and the Bronx. 



January 20, 1906 
CORRESPONDENCE. 

Great Britain. 

London, January 3. — Although not coming within 
the general purview of such notes as these, the 
political situation in Great Britain at the present 
time is not without interest to engineers generally 
and electrical engineers in particular. The late Con- 
servative government for the first time since 1S88 
made an attempt to deal with the law relating to 
electric supply in 1903, again in 1904 and yet again 
in 1905. The net result of all three attempts was 
to engender a* feeling of disgust at the obvious man- 
ner in which the whole proceedings were carried 
out, viz., with no intention of accomplishing any- 
thing, and, as has been repeatedly pointed out, in 
1905 we were working under the same general laws 
that governed us in 1S88. In so far as the various 
public departments have been concerned, praise- 
worthy efforts have been made to bring things up 
to date ; but naturally such efforts are limited with 
the old laws still in force. In addition there are • 
many directions in which legislation, as it affects 
the electrical industry, needs reform. 

Therefore the policy of the new government is 
being watched with interest, and a few indications 
.have so far been given as to the intentions of the 
Liberal part}' in this connection. Apart from legis- 
lation of a general character, much needs to be 
done. The compilation of municipal accounts is 
an important item, and the ease with which the 
real condition of affairs can be hidden from the 
general public has often been drawn attention to. 
Therefore, from the municipal electric-supply point 
of view, one views with interest and satisfaction 
that the new president . of the Local Government 
Board has drawn a reference and is appointing a 
committee so that ratepayers and taxpayers shall 
have their accounts presented in such a manner 
that he who runs may read and may have the 
knowledge which is not now always revealed as it 
should be. 

A further interesting point raised by the new 
prime minister himself has reference to a more 
practical use of the waterways of Great Britain. 
The promise of a royal commission to inquire into 
the matter demonstrates a desire to deal with 
pressing home affairs, which has not altogether 
been in evidence for some years past. There is not 
a single instance of any magnitude in which me- 
chanical traction of any kind in Great Britain has 
been adopted, in spite of the considerable mileage 
of canals which exists, and yet British electrical 
engineers are fully acquainted with the results of 
experiments with electric haulage and towing upon 
canals in America and on the Continent. It is not 
wholly legislation that has prevented the develop- 
ment of the use of our canals in the past, but no 
government hitherto has taken the initiative toward 
giving the manufacturer the full advantage of 
freight carriage by these waterways. 

The first subway tramway in London is now 
complete and has been inspected by the Board of 
Trade. The line is less than a mile in length and 
runs under the new thoroughfare in the heart of 
London known as Kingsway. When it reaches the 
end of the new street it emerges to the surface 
and will continue as such to the northern part 
of London, as far as the horse lines in these 
districts have been reconstructed for electric trac- 
tion. The whole of the northern horse lines will 
not come into the hands of the council until April 
this year, but certain new lines have been laid 
which will enable a service to be run from the cen- 
ter of London — where hitherto no tramway has 
penetrated — to a verv populous district in the north. 
Single-deck cars will be used. 

' Everyone here interested in traction matters re- 
grets exceedingly to hear of the death of Mr. 
Yerkes at a time when he was almost on the verge 
of witnessing the final fruits of his labors to 
introduce some law and order into the very 
chaotic condition of locomotion in London a few 
years ago. As has been reported in these notes, a 
complete electric service of trains is now being run 
upon the Inner Circle, a problem to which Mr. 
Yerkes specially devoted himself. And so suc- 
cessful has he been that with a headway of but a 
few minutes there is excessive overcrowding during 
the "rush" hours night and morning, when the 
trains carry double as many passengers standing 
as there are sitting. 

But a still further triumph for Mr. Yerkes would 
have been for him to witness the opening of the 
several tube railways in London which he under- 
took to finance after they had lain for many years 
practically derelict. The two longest of these lines 
give most important cross-country connection be- 
tween .the north and the west, southwest and south 
of London. Some new all-steel cars for these tube 
railways have recently attracted some notice, and a 
few figures will be interesting when compared with 
the rolling stock now used upon the Inner Circle. 
The steel cars have an over-all length of 41 feet 
&y 2 inches, an extreme width of 8 feet 8 inches, a 
height from floor to roof of 7 feet 6 inches, wheel- 
base 5 feet, seating capacity 54, weight 35.55° 
pounds, and weight per passenger seated of 657 
pounds. Similar figures for the Inner Circle rolling 
stock, which is mainly wood, are. over-all length, 
35 feet 8 inches, an extreme width of S feet 9 
inches, height from floor to roof 8 feet 5 inches, 



January 



tgo6 



wheel base 6 fci I 6 im hi , • iting ■ apacity 52, 
weigh! of -i7, f >*>" pound . and w< ighi pi 1 pa 1 ngi 

1 ati -I 918 pounds. S ■■ ol th •. tccl cai 

have jnsi been delivi n '1 

■\ w intei iporl 1 club was 01 <\ in I on don in 

< In r tmas week, win re all kind 1 ol garni an 

nightly held— thanks i<> the good servio 

elei 1 1 ic arc. 1 , 



New York. 



New York city, Januarj 13. J is unequivocally 
denied thai there arc no pending negotiations i"i 
tin' purchase ol" the Brooklyn Rapid 'Iran il bj the 
[nterborough Rapid Transil Company, Al the 

same 1 1 Mir neither Augusl Belmont nor Antl 

N. Brady can be induced to talk mi, the matter. 

The appraisers appointed to a certain tin- dam 
ages i" adjacenl property caused by the construi 
tion of tlir Brooklyn subway have mail'' an award 
of $1 againsl "an unknown property owner" in 
order thai a test case may !»<■ taken to .1 uperioi 
courl with respeel in an instance of disputed own 
ership. Awards to ili<' total amounl of $33,000 havi 
been announced in other cases. 

\n organiza 1 oi citizens at Prospecl Hill, a 

Brooklyn suburb, is taking steps t,, ..run- the 
placing of all wires underground a in I in regulate 
the conditions of any new traction franchises affeel 
ing their locality. They even think that tin- Rapid 
'Iransii Commission should be abolished. A similar 
organization in the Bedford district is fighting a 
proposal to run a surface line down Bedford Ave- 
nue and is preparing an appeal \<> the Legislature. 
The Bedford residents state thai "while street- 
rail ways are factors in the upbuilding of a city, 
they are usually a liar to its improvement." On 
the Other band, the Ridfiewood Board of Trade lias 
adopted resolutions ealling for the eonstruction of a 
subway to Jamaica via Myrtle Avenue and Rich- 
mond Hill. 

The Behr Monorail Company has applied for a 
franchise to construct a line for suspended cars 
from Flatbush Avenue to Coney Island. 

Senator Page on Wednesday introduced at Al- 
bany a new bill to regulate the price, quality and 
pressure of gas sold in New York city. The bill, 
which Ms some prospect of success this time, fixes 
the price of gas at 80 cents per thousand feet in 
nearly all parts of the Greater city. 

Arthur Williams, general inspector of the New 
York Edison Company, after investigation of some 
complaints that since the price of electricity was 
reduced in July the monthly bills have increased 
to small consumers, avers that his company is en- 
tirely willing to investigate free of charge any 
inaccuracies, but at the same time he states that 
since the new tariff came into operation the com- 
pany has been losing a large share of is income. 
Mr. Williams produced data gathered by his clerks. 
Comparisons were made in batches of 50 patrons in 
different localities. The chief object was to see 
whether these patrons were adding to their con- 
sumption of current. Fifty customers in the East 
Sixties showed a reduction in the bills amounting 
to 25 per cent. In another section an increased 
consumption of 12 per cent, was shown, with a 
decrease in the bills of 19 per cent. Fifty West 
Side houses showed an increased consumption of 
ii per cent., and a decrease of 22 per cent, in the 
bills. Another batch of 50 patrons sliowed that 
there was less than one per cent, increase in the 
use of electricity, and that the decrease in the 
money paid the company was fully 33 per cent. 
Mr. Williams said there were two facts which 
could not be denied. One was that only the legal 
rate was being charged, and the other was that 
his company was willing to correct any error in a 
bill as the result of a meter being out of order. 

The New York Edison Company reports an ag- 
gregate motor installation connected with its mains 
of 106,126 horsepower. The estimated number of 
motors is 40,000. 

A bronze statuette of the late Samuel F. B. 
Morse has been presented to the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art. 

Jacob Curtis, for 30 years telegraph and telephone 
operator at Bellevue Hospital, died at the hospital 
on Friday. He was an expert operator and did 
some extraordinary work in coding names during 
the Westfield disaster of 1871. 

A. A. Ernst, E. Beckman and others have incor- 
porated the Engineering, Light and Illumination 
Company of this city, with a capital of $20 % coo. 

The Duplex Ignition Company, to manufacture 
electrical spark plugs, has been incorporated with 
a capital of $3,450. 

H. L. Doherty, J. C. Andrews and H. C. Dreyer 
have incorporated as the Gas Securities Company 
of New York for the purpose of promoting gas 
and electric companies. The authorized capital is 
$1,100,000. D. W. W. 



Dominion of Canada. 

Winnipeg, Man., January 13. — A proposal has 
been made to the city of Winnipeg that an issue 
of bonds be put on the market to raise money to 
cover the expenditure of the city's electrical de- 
partment. A new power house will shortly be 
required. The Winnipeg high-pressure system is 
about to become a certainty, as the city has se- 
lected the site for the pumping station, and work 
will be pushed immediately. The proposed pump 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

■""I cng hou •• will Ik equipped i 

ola I ■ - 1 -.i ill.' worl .'. ill amount 1 



of two 

W pi 

i"' nl 1.. the Winiii| 

■■■•■ I 

applii 'i 1- tli :. ■ .ri,- ■ 1 
" i 

1,. 1 11 i, 1. 

I Im I 

I i'i" Street Rail 

il 
In .11 1. .1.1 im H i.m mon 1. 

1 1 e to fun 

total hi $125,1 ' i-M ed on the plant 

i" trail urn the pi 

< Irillia, < im . ha I 
the ( Intario I i 

benturi thi ccai hi imp i m 

trie-light plant and to mal 
1 1 1 1 planl 1 1 1 1 1 1 bj tin muni 

'I In' City 1 11 il ni 1 oronto ha i nl ;i ed into a 

contract with the I oronto Eli i tr pany to 

Unlit the treel v. ith opi n an lamps for a term 
of five ii'.n al $69.35 l"' r ''gin l"' 1 annum 
pre Mm pi ice is $74.82. 

The location and plana for the Western Ontario 

ion of the Toronto, Hamilton and Niagara 

Pou 11 1 'ompany have been filed with thi m 
of railways for approval. The proposed e ten ion 
does mil al preseni go wesl ol 1 ondon ii toui hi 
Brantford, Gait, Paris, Woodstock, Iiirmiv.I1 and 
other manufacturing centers between Hamilton and 
London. 

Willie Chipman of Toronto has prepared com- 
plete plans nn<l estimates to develop waterpower 
situated u miles from Prince Albert and to convey 
it to Prince Albert for light, bent and power pur- 
poses. Plans will be shortly submitted to manu- 
facturers for estimates on necessary electric equip 
ment. H. 



Ottawa, Out., January 13. — For the last four 
years the town of Almonte, Out., has owned and 
operated the electric-light system of the town, fur- 
nishing business and domestic light as well as street 
lamps. During this period the yearly profit is said 
to have been about $1,500 after providing for oper- 
ating expenses, interest, repairs and a sinking fund. 
In addition to this the citizens are getting their 
lights at prices 25 per cent, less than what they 
formerly paid the private company. 

One of the most interesting papers read before 
the Dominion forestry convention, held at Ottawa 
on the 10th. nth and 12th hist., was that of Mr. 
C. B. Smith of the Temiskaming railway, respecting 
waterpowers. Referring to damage to forest, by 
sparks from the locomotive, lie said that the rem- 
edy lay in the substitution of electrical energy for 
steam, and he ventured the opinion that such 
would be the policy of many of the railroads within 
a short time. He showed the economic advantages 
of electrical operation, particularly in the vast sav- 
ing in coal. This not only applied to railways bttt 
to manufacturing industries, the development of 
which has been retarded by the great lack of fuel 
and the great cost of importing coal. In south- 
western Ontario the lands are now cleared for farm 
purposes, thus rendering almost useless the water- 
powers on the rivers. As this land is too valuable 
to permit reforestation, the district will have to 
depend on Niagara for its electrical energy, 

Negotiations are stated to be in progress between 
the management of the Canadian Pacific railway 
and a leading electrical power-development com- 
pany in the province of Quebec with a view to sup- 
plying the electrical energy which the railway will 
require when it begins to operate its trains by- 
electricity. W. 

Ohio. 

Cleveland. January 12. — G. M. Pierce, an official 
of the Cleveland and Sharon Traction Company, 
states that the road from Middlefield. Ohio, to 
Sharon, Pa., will be completed the coming summer 
and that a line will be built between Warren and 
Jefferson, as planned. 

Judge A. C. Thompson of the United States 
District Court has entered decrees of foreclosure 
against five of the roads in the Appleyard system. 
and unless certain judgments are satisfied within 
five days from that time, they will be sold. Gen- 
eral B. R. Cowan, clerk of the United States court, 
and Attorney A. B. Vorhies were appointed com- 
missioners to conduct the sales. The upset prices 
fixed upon the various roads are as follows : Ur- 
bana, Bellefontaine and Northern, $175,000: Day- 
ton, Springfield and Urbana, $300,000: Columbus. 
London and Springfield, $250,000; Central Market 
Street railway of Columbus. $150,000; Columbus. 
Grove City and Southwestern. $35,000. 

At the meeting of the mayors of Ohio in Co- 
lumbus a few days ago it was recommended that 
a bill be passed by the present Legislature per- 
mitting the renewal of street-railway franchises to 
other than existing companies. This is for the 
purpose of getting around the trouble encountered 
a short time ago in attempting to grant a renewal 



of Dunkirk h 

iii.'iii 

I he < levcland, Al 

Bedford, and tl 

land. 

ton In. 

$100,000 by II. B. An 



Michigan. 

d Rapids, Mich.. January 13.— Thi 

pany'. fi 

M. B. Wheeler has filed his acceptance 
I franchise, which, as it no 

ti ulti- 
mate franchise fee of $500. 

has decided to install a new electric ele, 
Hall and will soon advertise for bid 
estimated cost 1 been placed at $5,000. 

I Im 1. rand Rapids-Muskcgon Water Power Elec- 
tric Company has taken out a permit for tl 
tion of a brick sub-station for p 
I hi cost 1- given at $6,000. 

The M. B. Wheeler Electric Companj 1 
awarded the contract fur the electrical equipment 
of the .Michigan Plaster Company's plant at Grand- 
ville. The company will install a generator, switch- 
board and six large motors. The comp; 
also secured the contract for installing an 
plant at Hackley, Wis., for the Hackle. . 
Bonell Company. This will consist of a [J-kilowatt 
generator, engine, switchboard, and wiring 
incandescent lamps. 

M. Fitzpatrick of the Globe Hotel of Alp. 
contracted for machinery for a private lighting 
plant, which is to be installed at once 
horsepower gasoline engine and dynamo are in- 
cluded in the outfit. 

Judge Fred W. Mayne of Charlevoix prop 
behalf of a syndicate, to furnish electricity to 
key at the rate of four cents a kilow: 
lighting and 2 J _- cents for commercial purp. - 
distribution to lie ill the hand, of the city. He 
also proposes to buy the Petoskey lighting plant, if 
it is offered for sale. The power is to be generated 
at a dam on the Pigeon River, in Cheboygan 
County. Though the rate offered is lower "than 
Petoskey can produce it. the proposition will be 
opposed, it is said, by those who believe in mu- 
nicipal ownership. 

The Port Huron Light and Power Company an- 
nounces a decided reduction in the rate tor com- 
mercial lighting. Last spring the company made a 
cut in its rules for resilience lighting, amounting to 
a reduction of 20 per cent. January 1st a differ- 
ential rate was made to apply to ,-.|| lighting ; 
except residence lighting. The new rate will be 
15 cents a kilowatt-hour for the first 30 hours 
used per month for lamps, and five cents a kilo- 
watt-hour for all current used in excess of that 
amount. The present rate is straight 15 cents. 

The Pere Marquette Light and "Power Company 
ha. given notice that its officers will appear 
the Shelby council and ask lor a franchise to sell 
electricity for lighting and power purposes. The 
com]. any already controls the lighting system at 
Pentwater and has asked the Hart council for a 
franchise and contract. The company js capitalized 
at $150,000. If there is not enough demand to use 
up its 1. 100 horsepower, another company will be 
organized, it is said, to operate an electric road 
between Hart and Pentwater. B. 



Indiana. 

Indianapolis, January' 13 — The Indianapolis. Xew 
Ca.tle and Toledo Electric Railway Company has 
opened a suite of offices i 1 the Traction Terminal 
Building in Indianapolis. The company will begin 
the construction of a through line from Indianapo- 
lis to Toledo, with radiating branches to several 
Indiana towns early in the spring. The preliminary- 
work and financing is all done. D. M. 1 
president and C. S. Hernley secretary. 

Franchises were secured during the last week 



66 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 20, 1906 



through Tipton and Clinton counties for an elec- 
tric railway between Tipton and Frankfort. 

A 15-mile electric line is to be built at once to 
connect Matthews and Marion. The line will be 
built by the Marion, Matthews and Muncie Trac- 
tion Company. 

The Louisville and Southern Indiana Traction 
Company closed a deal this week for a site in Jef- 
fersonville on which to build a large plant for gen- 
erating electricity. The site adjoins the building 
now used to supply the electricity for the various 
utilities controlled by the traction people in Jeffer- 
sonville and New Albany. 

The Wabash Valley Traction Company has sur- 
veyed a route on each side of the Wabash River 
for the extension of the company's line from Lo- 
gansport to Lafayette, and there is now a spirited 
fight between the citizens of the east and west side 
of the river for the road. The same condition exists 
in the case of the Indianapolis, Columbus and 
Southern Traction Company, which has surveyed 
a route on each side of White River for its Sey- 
mour extension. 

The Holland Palace Car Company of Indianapo- 
lis has been placed in the hands of a receiver. The 
company was organized in 1903 to manufacture 
sleeping and buffet cars for use on traction lines. 
After building two elegant cars disputes arose over 
patent rights and the company became insolvent. 
In this connection it is the belief of several promi- 
nent traction men that sleeping cars are imprac- 
tical on electric railways for many reasons. They 
say cars are too narrow for double berths. There 
will be, however, elegant parlor and cafe cars run 
on the Indiana and Ohio system. 

The electric railways operating in the city of 
Indianapolis pay taxes on a valuation of more than 
$4,228,740. 

The final survey of the Vincennes, West Baden 
and Petersburg traction line has been completed 
and the company will remove its office from Vin- 
cennes to South Bend. Work on the construction 
of the road will begin February 1st. 

The American Window Glass Company of Hart- 
ford City has combined the five electric switch- 
boards formerly operated on each side of the tank, 
and now one man can operate 10 blowing machines, 
whereas 10 men were required before. Other 
changes have been made through the introduction 
of electricity that will greatly reduce the cost of 
making glass. 

The lighting plant of the new Federal Building 
in Indianapolis was completed last week and for 
the first time the whole building from basement to 
garret was brilliantly illuminated. Government In- 
spector Fourcha was greatly pleased with the plant. 

A special course of lectures on "Alternating-cur- 
rent Electricity," covering 10 weeks, has been ar- 
ranged by the Indianapolis Young Men's Christian 
Association, the first to be given this week by 
P. G. Winter, electrical engineer for the Jenny- 
Electric Company. There will be an elementary 
class and an advanced class. S. S. 



Southeastern States. 

Charlotte, N. C, January 13.— A policy is being- 
worked up by commercial and other bodies in 
Baltimore, Md., to provide for all future times 
against litigations and misunderstandings relative 
to the entry into the city of interurban lines. The 
Washington, Baltimore and Annapolis electric rail- 
way has sought such entrance into the city, while 
the United Railways and Electric Company oper- 
ates all of the city lines and routes. The new 
arrangement is said to be of broad principles and 
in no way antagonistic to any existing corporation. 

At a meeting of the directors of the Macon ( Ga.) 
Electric Railway and Light Company, contracts 
were confirmed for about $85,000 improvements in 
the local system. New machinery will be installed 
and the capacity of the plant enlarged. 

The Georgia Manufacturing and Public Works 
Company of Marietta has been organized to take 
charge of the Marietta Electric Company and other 
utilities, the capital being $600,000. Moultrie Ses- 
sions is president of the company. 

The town of Yorkville, S. C, is to be lighted by 
electricity from the Catawba Power Company's 
plants on the Catawba River. 

The Southern Light and Power Company of 
Atlanta, Ga., has applied for the right to do busi- 
ness in that city and a number of surrounding 
points. The company may increase its capital at 
will to $1,000,000, and proposes to furnish light, 
heat, etc., and do a general electrical business. 

The United Railways Company and the Wash- 
ington, Baltimore and Annapolis railway have set- 
tled their differences regarding the use of the third 
rail, and a bill has been introduced in the second 
branch of the City Council of Baltimore providing 
for a third rail on the disputed streets. The Wash- 
ington, Baltimore and Annapolis has secured prop- 
erty in the heart of the business section of Balti- 
more for terminals, it is said, and if the desired 
ordinances are passed it is believed that the pro- 
posed improvements will be forthcoming. L. 

Texas. 

Austin, January 11. — The proposition to build an 
interurban electric railway between Austin and Lock- 
hart is still under consideration by a syndicate of 
New York men. Engineer C. P. Scrivener has 



completed the preliminary survey. The principal 
difficulty is in providing means for crossing the 
Colorado River. 

J. W. Russell and associates who recently ob- 
tained contFOl of the street-railway system at Bon- 
ham are preparing to make important improvements 
and extensions. 

It is said that the Houston-Galveston interurban 
electric- railway project is now on a solid financial 
footing and that the road is finally to be built. 
The original plan of running the line direct to Vir- 
ginia Point, across the bay from Galveston, has 
been changed and the road will run from Houston 
to Laporte via Genoa. 

The project of building an electric railway from 
Brenham to some point on the Missouri, Kansas 
and Texas railroad has assumed definite shape. 
The citizens of Industry have organized for the 
purpose of lending substantial encouragement to 
secure the building of the proposed line to that 
place. B. E. Knolle of Industry can give informa- 
tion in regard to the proposed line. 

Emmett Landry is promoting the organization of 
a new electric-light and power plant for Beaumont. 

McCarthy, Starnes & Co. of Lufkin will install an 
electric-light and power plant in that place. 

The Houston Lighting and Power Company, with 
a capital stock of $1,000,000, has obtained its char- 
ter. The incorporators include A. H. Ford of New 
York, Henry P. Dart of New Orleans and J. W. 
Terry of Galveston. W. H. Chapman remains with 
the new company as general manager. H. 



build into the city from the north and the Chicago 
and Milwaukee Electric Railway Company from 
the south. The former company has also asked for 
franchises at Sheboygan, Fond du Lac and other 
towns. 

Noah Newbanks of Pierre, S. D., and Frank 
Fischer of Fort Pierre have applied for franchises 
in the two cities for an electric railway which will 
connect the two towns. 

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company is preparing plans for the West Side Heat 
and Light Company, which proposes to build a 
3,000-horsepower light and power plant in the West 
Side of St. Paul. 

C. W. Heckel of Prescott, Wis., will apply for a 
franchise for an electric-light plant at Farmington, 
Minn. 

A stock company has been formed at Waterville, 
Minn., and will incorporate for the purpose of 
building an electric-light plant to cost about $8,000. 
C. H. Birch is president of the new company and 
C. A. Backman, secretary. R. 



Mexico. 



City of Mexico, January 10. — The installation of 
a hydro-electric plant at the falls of the Piaxtla 
River in the state of Sinaloa is to be made by the 
Compania Minera Guadalupe de los Reyes, which 
owns several mines in the Cosala district. The 
plant will have a capacity of 5,000 horsepower and 
will cost about $800,000. The plans for the plant 
were prepared by Robert McF. Doble, an electrical 
and hydraulic engineer of San Francisco. 

It is announced that engineers of La Electra, S. A., 
the Spanish light and power company of Guadala- 
jara, are studying a project to utilize the power of 
the Santiago River between Las Juntas and San 
Cristobal and transmit the current to Aguascali- 
entes, a distance of more than 100 miles. 

Miguel A. Lopez of the City of Mexico has ob- 
tained a concession from the federal government for 
the erection of a large electric power plant on the 
Yaui River near Sahuaripa. It is stated that the 
proposed plant is to provide power for mines and 
industries of the Sahuaripa district. 

Paul Ginther of Santa Rosalia has gone to Paris, 
France, on business connected with the organiza- 
tion of a French company to develop his hydro- 
electric plant on the Conchos River, 27 miles above 
Santa Rosalia. About $50,000 has been expended 
upon the preliminary work. A large amount of 
engineering work, such as surveys, maps, plans and 
estimates, has been done. 

The concession of L. Iwansky of Parral for an 
electric power plant in the Parral district has been 
taken over by Pittsburg men and a company is 
being organized. The company will also erect ore- 
reduction plants in the Parral district with an ag- 
gregate capacity of at least 1,000 tons daily. The 
work of installing a temporary electric power plant 
near Parral has been started. 

James H. Lasdon, an electrical engineer, has been 
investigating the situation in Durango on behalf of 
an American syndicate with the view of installing 
a new electric-light and power plant for the city 
of Durango. It is also proposed to construct an 
electric street-railway system in Durango. 

The authoritive announcement is made that La 
Electra, the light and power company of Guadala- 
jara, in which Spanish capital is principally inter- 
ested, will issue additional bonds to the amount of 
$2,000,000. It is estimated that the rebuilding and 
equipping of the company's street railway, the con- 
struction of a new power house at the falls of 
Juanacatlan and the construction of a central sta- 
tion in Guadalajara will cost bout $3,000,000. 

W. D. H. 



Northwestern States. 

Minneapolis, January 13. — The Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company will construct a new transformer 
station at Lake Street and Chicago Avenue, Minne- 
. apolis, which will distribute power to all car lines 
south of Lake Street, including the new interurban 
line to St. Paul. The new building will be of brick 
and concrete, 40x72 feet in size. 

The St. Anthony Falls Power Company has be- 
gun work in connection with the project of estab- 
lishing a big electric plant at St. Anthony Falls, 
Minneapolis, and developing about 6,000 more horse- 
power for manufacturing purposes. William de la 
Barre, chief engineer of the company, will have 
charge of the work. 

The City Council at Muscatine, Iowa, has granted 
track and terminal facilities to the Cedar Rapids 
and Iowa City Railway and Light Company for a 
line from Iowa City to Muscatine. This insures 
the building of the road and work will be started 
early in the spring. 

Two franchises for electric street-railway lines 
have been asked of the Milwaukee council. The 
Milwaukee Northern Railway Company proposes to 



Pacific Slope. 

San Francisco, January 12. — The first of the 
nine space-telegraph plants to be installed in the 
near future on the Pacific Coast has been shipped 
to Point Arguello, Cal., where it will be erected 
by electricians from the Mare Island Navy Yard. 
The Union Gas Engine Company of San Francisco 
has constructed for the Navy Department eight 
gas engines for the hew stations. Each of the 
generating sets consists of a Westinghouse 150- 
volt direct-current generator direct connected to 
a Union gas engine using kerosene. The installa- 
tions will vary from a three-kilowatt generator 
driven by a seven-horsepower double-cylinder en- 
gine to a 15-kilowatt generator driven by a 30- 
horsepower three-cylinder engine. A sectional mast 
150 feet high will be erected at Point Arguello 
Station. 

The Metropolitan Laundry Company of San 
Francisco is to have one of the largest plants in 
the United States, covering a lot of 275 feet square. 
All of the machinery will be electrically driven by 
motors taking current from a direct-generating 
plant to be installed in a power house separate 
from the main building. The contract for the com- 
plete oil-burning steam-driven generating plant has 
been awarded to the Risdon Iron Works of San 
Francisco for $41,025. This includes two 150-kiIo- 
watt generators, switchboards and all electrical work 
except the motors and wiring. 

The North Mountain Power Company of San 
Francisco, which has a hydro-electric plant near 
Junction City, Trinity County, Cal., and transmits 
power to Eureka at 30.000 volts, has closed a con- 
tract with Hunt, Mirk & Co. for an additional gen- 
erating unit. This will be installed in the auxiliary 
steam plant at Eureka, which carries a good deal 
of the lighting load of Eureka. The additional 
installation includes a 500-kilowatt Westinghouse- 
Parsons turbo-generator set, three-phase, 2,400 volts 
and 60 cycles. 

The Town Trustees of Palo Alto, Cal., have 
called for an election on Janury 24th to vote upon 
the proposition, of issuing bonds to the amount of 
$QQ,coo, of which $50,000 will be used in improv- 
ing the municipal lighting plant and water system. 

The Mono Power Company has been incorporated 
in San Francisco with a capital stock of $3,000,000 
by J. G. Quinn, J. P. Allen and associates. 

The City Trustees of San Luis Obispo, Cal., are 
advertising for bids for a franchise to construct 
and operate an electric-lighting and distributing 
system in San Luis Obispo. Bids will be opened 
on February 6th. 

John L. Murray of Olympia, Wash., has ap- 
plied to the Olympia municipal authorities for a 
franchise to construct a pole line and lay conduits 
for the distribution of light, power and heat in 
that city. Mr. Murray plans to erect a plant at a 
cost of $10,000. 

A. Welch of Salem, Ore., has been granted a 
franchise to construct and operate an electric-light 
and power system in Corvallis, Ore. 

The Washington Water Power Company of Spo- 
kane, Wash., is arranging to double-track all its 
important street-railway lines in Spokane. 

The Spokane Electric Railway Company has been 
incorporated at Spokane, Wash., with a capital stock 
of $250,000. The incorporators are Francis H. 
Cook, D. C. Cook and Austin Gubson. 

H. W. Goode of Portland, Ore., has purchased 
the entire corporate stock of the Vancouver Elec- 
tric Light and Power Company of Vancouver, 
B. C. About $50,000 will be spent in improving 
the system during the present vear. 

W. D. Valentine. J. M. Duke, M. V. Kellogg. 
S. L. Phillips, John H. Marble, J. D. Lederman 
and others of San Francisco are promoting the 
organization of a company to construct and operate 
space-telegraph systems. The company will have a 
large capital stock and will be incorporated under 
the laws of Oregon. A. 



PERSONAL 

Bernard Hartley, for 10 years manufacturer of 
electrical apparatus, has accepted a position with 
W. Scheidel & Co. of Chicago, manufacturers of 
N-ray apparatus. Mr. Hartley is well known 



January 20, igo6 



BLBi I I' K.IAN 



throughout the VV. .1, ami hi. 111. ml ...ill w ill 1 

success in his new work. 

Charles W. Hurd ha been appointed city clcc- 
n ician !.i : tillwati i , Minn. 

R, 1 1. Sharp ha n ligni d a eeri 

Mi. Peopli ' i Light, 1 1, mi and Powi i ' i 

Springfield, Ohio. 

Owing to ill health, Mr. A, P, Seymour, via 
president and treasurer of Pas ■ & Seymour, Inc., 
Solvay, N. Y., has retired from busine . and will 

hereafter make his home in Southern Calii a 

Mr. Seymour's stock has been acquired l>y the intci 
. sts v. hi It have bi en idi ntified ■.•. ith the i ompan; 
Bincc iis inception 15 years ago. 

Irvine; Monllrop ..f lh.- I'...l.m l.li.on Company, 
representing the stcam-turbim committee of the 

X'.ii ;il Electric I ,ighl A 1 ... iation, 1m ailed for 

Europe 1.. investigate turbines, li is the intention 

of lh' 1 coi hi..' this year to report mi the p 

..f the steam turbine here .'i".! abroad; also 1 

elude in iis work an investigation of gas turbim 

Friends of William J. Hammer of 153 We 1 
Forty-sixth Street, New York, will he grieved i" 
Irani .if 1 lie death of his wife, Mrs. AH.. \\ 
White Hammer, which occurred on January 12th. 
Mrs. Hammer was in her forty third year and had 
been suffering from a tubercular complaint for 
two years. The funeral took place at Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Warren Bicknell, president of the Lake Shore 
Electric Railway Company, was presented at his 
home in Cleveland with a handsome hall clock. 
Every man in any way connected with the company 
had contributed to the fund for the purchase. Mr. 
Bicknell retired from the presidency of the com- 
pany mi January 161I1. He has served in the office 
two years and a half. Mr. Bicknell has been 
elected president of the Cleveland Construction 
Company of Akron, and the headquarters of the 
company will he moved to Cleveland. 

E. W. Lloyd has been made contract agent of 
the Chicago Edison Company, succeeding John F. 
Gilchrist, promoted to be assistant to the president. 
Mr. Lloyd has been assistant superintendent of 
construction, and takes high rank in the staff of 
capable men which has made the Chicago Edison 
Company successful. He is an authority on the 
sale of electricity for industrial purposes, and as 
chairman of the committee on "Purchased Electric 
Power in Factories" his reports to the National 
Electric Light Association have permanent value. 

Friends of James G. Pomeroy, western sales 
manager of the Adams-Bagnall Electric Company, 
will be sorry to hear that Mrs. Pomeroy and 
daughter Catherine were injured in a wreck near 
the terminal station at St. Louis last week. Mr. 
Pomeroy, with his wife and daughter, were start- 
ing on a trip to the Pacific Coast. They were in 
the Pullman car Harcourt, attached to a Wabash 
train, and in the wreck the car they occupied 
fell 15 feet to the granite pavement. Mrs. Pomeroy 
was badly injured, but her condition is now re- 
ported as not serious. Miss Catherine received 
some painful cuts in the face and Mr. Pomeroy 
escaped uninjured. 

Marshall Field, who died on January i6th, was 
the foremost citizen of Chicago, and perhaps the 
world's greatest merchant. He leaves a vast for- 
tune and a name synonymous with business honor 
and integrity. While not directly connected with 
electrical pursuits, he took a lively interest in the 
progress and development of the electrical indus- 
try. Among the earliest isolated electrical plants 
in Chicago were those installed in his retail and 
wholesale establishments, although subsequently 
central-station service was substituted. Mr. Field 
was a large stockholder in the Chicago Edison 
Company. With him in New York when the end 
came was Robert T. Lincoln, first vice-president 
of the Chicago Edison Company, and an intimate 
friend. 

The electrical fraternity will be pleased by the 
knowledge that Governor Deneen of Illinois, in his 
effort to rid the state 
charitable institutions of 
politics and place them on 
a thorough business basis, 
has chosen Bernard E. 
Sunny of Chicago, west- 
ern manager for the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, to 
be president of the board 
of trustees of the Kan- 
kakee Insane Asylum. 
The acceptance of Mr. 
Sunny, who is a very 
busy man, was only se- 
cured after much persua- 
sion on the part of the 
governor. Mr. Sunny is 
not without experience in 
public affairs. He was 
formerly president of the Civic Federation of Chi- 
cago, was prominent in the charter-amendment 
movement and is a delegate to the present charter 
convention. He was also at one time a trustee 
of the St. Charles Home for Boys. 




ELECTRIC LIGHTING. 

St. Bi ,!,, Mil, i,., will 

plant 

1 ■ 

1. N, Smith a,.. 1 1 

plant. 

1 1,, li... City (Kan.) 1 

ha 1. ■ 1. ii 

I he Riverside 1 

Abilene, Kan., ha !•■ 1 1 1 

jtock of $50,000. 

I" 1 1 ■ ' ' I Ikla.) Electric Light, 

and ti • 1. ..i.n, . 
capital of $15,000. 

II 1 reported that the Metropolil 

■ ' • ',,. ,,1 1 m ., 1 nv, Mo., will 

11 clectrii lighl plant foi Burlington Junction, Mo, 

1 al ■ City, 11., ■ .' .. M ,| ;in 

electric-light plant for a population of ro 
15,000. J. C. Sheffield of the Board of 

Public Worl 

I'. A. Piatt, W. L Jenks and II. I.. Handley of 

1 1 n ton, in , li..'.. in, '.1 poi ated a th< 1 1 ■ 

lias and Electric Company. The capital is placed 
at $200,000. 

The Empire Construction Company of Birming- 
ham, Ala., has been incorporated to operate electric- 
lighl plant, waterworks and steam I 
C. Smith is president. 

Mi.- electric-light plain, gas plant and street-car 
system in Muscatine, fowa, belonging to local per- 
sons, has been sold, il is reported, to a 
represented by .1. II. Brown and George Mi 
Chicago, for $750,000. 

A conspicuous departure in the lighting of canals 
is that of the Welland Canal, near St. Catherine, 
Ont. Over 600 alternating-current series arc lamps 
have been provided by the Canadian Wcstinghouse 
Company. and these have been in operation for 
the last few months, and have given good service. 

The Pere Marquette Railroad Company is pre- 
paring to light its own premises in Bay City, Mich., 
by electricity. Dynamos and boilers will be in- 
stalled in tli£ new warehouse now being constructed 
to light warehouse, passenger depot and yards. 
The lights in use will be the equivalent of 700 16- 
candlepower incandescent lamps. 

It is rumored in electrical circles in Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich., that there is a strong possibility of a 
consolidation between the Edison company and the 
Grand Rapids-Muskegon Electric Water Power 
Company. This rumor has not been confirmed, but 
it is said that the latter company has not shown 
any particular anxiety about securing a franchise 
into Grand Rapids, in spite of the fact that the 
company has promised to deliver power in the city 
by the end of February. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

The Omaha (Neb.), Bellevue and Southern In- 
terurban Company has been incorporated to build 
a trolley line from Bellevue to Fort Cook, Neb. 

The Butte Electric and Gas Company of Butte, 
Mont., is having plans drawn for the construction 
of an electric railway to the Galliton mining district. 

Hugh Holmes, president of the Ottawa (Kan.) 
Finance Company, is promoter of the electric road 
to be built from Olathe to Ottawa. The road will 
be built in 10-mile sections. Contracts will be let 
at once. 

The stockholders of the York (Pa.) Street Rail- 
way Company and its 10 affiliated companies have 
re-elected Captain W. H. Lanius as president, and 
the following-named directors: J. W. Stacey, 
George Billmeyer, W. F. Bay Stewart, George P. 
Smyser, Grier Hersh and W. A. Himes. " 

Hodenpyl, Walbridge & Co. of New York, who 
bought the Bloomington and Normal street rail- 
way, heating and lighting system for $1,000,000, 
have sold the property to the McKinley syndicate, 
which is building and operating interurban lines 
throughout Illinois. The purchasers already own 
the Consumers' heat and light system and inter- 
urban franchises in Bloomington. 

Arguments have been concluded in the Supreme 
Court at Washington, D. C, on the Chicago trac- 
tion cases. Owing to the length of the record 
and many of the legal questions involved the court 
is likely to take some time over the case. The 
Chicago City Council at its meeting this week 
voted to take up the various ordinances and amend- 
ments, in committee of the whole on Thursday of 
this week. 

H. H. Vreeland, president, and Orin Root, gen- 
eral manager of the New York City Railway Com- 
pany, declare that the Madison Avenue surface line, 
which is an underground-trolley system, instead of 
having proved a failure during times of storm in 
winter, has been more capable of handling its traf- 



il»- men 

inn linl 

trie III;' 

' 

out. 

\t a meeting of the dir.-. n.r • f the Metropolitan 
ated Railroad I 

begin an immediate investigation of tl 

..ill report the result 

committee will decide between a new 

i $500,000 or a contract witli the I 
Edison Company. The latter organization 
equipment in 

an requires. 

port of the gross earnings of the I'nitcd 
Railways Company of St. L01 d year 

shows an aggregate of $X.43o,044. While this rep- 
resents a decrease of about $1,500,000 from the 
1004 figures, it shows a big gain over the 1 
for 1003. which may be regarded as a normal year. 
The 1904 earnings were exceptionally large be- 
cause of the heavy traffic on the St. Loui 
railways incident to the World's Fair. Ti,. 
ings for the last year have shown a gain of about 
15 per cent, over the 1903 figures. The common 
stock of the I'nitcd Railways Company of St. Louis, 
SiX.000.000 of which was purchased by the North 
American Company last spring, representing the 
control, has nearly doubled in market value since 
tlu North American Company bought it. 



POWER TRANSMISSION. 

The Niagara Falls Electrical Transmission Com- 
pany is asking leave to increase its capital from 
$1,000,000 to $5,000,000. and to construct transmis- 
sion hues of capacity sufficient for at least 50,000 
electrical horsepower. The company distributes the 
current generated by the Electrical Development 
Company of Ontario, Canada, among the contigu- 
ous counties in New York state. 

Articles of incorporation for five companies will 
be filed soon in San Diego, Cad., it is said, the 
capital aggregating $6,000,000. The companies have 
been formed for the purpose of developing the 
waters of the San Luis Rev River, and building 
dams and reservoirs to generate electric power for 
the Pacific Light and Power Company of Los An- 
geles. It is planned to complete the first dam in 
14 months. 

The Coosa River Electric Power company of 
Anniston, Ala., will issue $300,000 of 23-year 
bonds for development work. The plans have iieen 
made so that the work of building dam and 
powerhouse and contracting for the electric and 
hydraulic equipment for a capacity of 7,500 horse- 
power can be proceeded with at once in order to 
have plant in operation by January 1. 1007. Robert 
R. Zell is engineer in charge. The company's 
office is in the First National Bank Building. 
Birmingham, Ala. 

Water has been turned onto the two large tur- 
bines in the power plant of the Animas Power 
and Water Company of Durango. Colo. After an 
expenditure of two years of time or more and 
$1,000,000 in money, the plant is at last supplying 
its customers in Silverton, and as far as Ouray. 
with electric power. The plant is located on the 
Animas River, at a point about 12 miles from 
Durango, and is destined to be one of the largest 
electric generating plants in the West. H.~" T. 
Henderson, who originated all the plans for the 
plant and who is the general superintendent of the 
company, says that even now they have orders for 
much more power than can be delivered. The 
company will increase the present height of its 
dam to 100 feet, which will enable the reservoir 
to hold 35^ billion cubic feet of water. This will 
cover an area of I,i6o acres. When the plant is 
finally complete it will generate 40.000 horsepower. 
This will involve the expenditure of $3,000,000 and 
five years of time. The plant will supply power for 
the mines of the entire southwestern portion of 
Colorado. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 20, 1906 



PUBLICATIONS. 

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company is distributing a large assortment of ad- 
vertising blotters of pleasing design. 

Tin- Allis-Chalmers Company of Milwaukee has 
issued a new bulletin on the Tremain steam stamp. 
Other machinery described includes ore crushers, 
vanning machines, etc. 

A circular has been issued by the Indiana Dyn- 
electron Company of Indianapolis which explains 
accurately what the dynelectron is and the possibili- 
ties which the future may hold for it. 

Direct-current generators made by the Robbins 
lS; Myers Company of Springfield. Ohio, are de- 
scribed in a recent bulletin. These generators are 
designed with special reference to their use in 
small isolated incandescent lighting plants. 

The National Electric Company of Milwaukee 
has issued another of its tasteful mailing cards, 
this time devoted to the type N motor. The motor 
illustrated is one of the i.coo built for the Union 
Electric Light and Power Company of St. Louis. 

Single-phase induction motors of one-tenth to 
one-eighth horsepower, built by the Emerson Elec- 
tric Manufacturing Company of St. Louis, form 
the subject of a new bulletin. These motors are 
of the "condensed" type, full-load automatic start. 
The bulletin tells all about them. 

The H. T. Paiste Company of Philadelphia, Pa., 
is distributing bulletin No. 2S, which is devoted 
to fusible hanger boards, Paiste panelettes and 
Paiste taplets. Some interesting illustrations of 
these devices are contained in the bulletin, together 
with clear and accurate descriptions of the parts. 

Sprague direct-current type-D motors are made 
the subject of an unusually attractive bulletin issued 
by the Sprague Electric Company of New York. 
The type-D machines are described in detail, with 
dimension drawings, and a few examples of their 
use shown by several half-tone illustrations in the 
back of the bulletin. 

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company has placed on the market a new line of 
core-type transformers, known as the type C, which 
are described in circular No. 1126. They are sim- 
ply an addition to the many standard forms, so 
that Westinghouse transformers of any desired 
form and construction may he obtained to meet the 
varying demands of present-day light and power 
service. 

Bulletin No. 265 of the Stanley-G. I. Electric 
Manufacturing Company, on the subject of the 
Paragon factory-type electric sewing-machine trans- 
mitter, has just been issued. The Paragon trans- 
mitter embodies a device in which the drive be- 
tween the sewing machine and the transmitter it- 
self is positive. A gentle pressure on the treadle 
opens a switch and starts the motor. Further pres- 
sure gradually speeds up the machine. 

An assortment of new advertising literature is be- 
ing distributed by the General Electric Company 
of Schenectady, N. Y., one of the most attractive 
pieces being a catalogue describing varnished cam- 
bric cables. The frontispiece of this book is a 
reproduction in colors of a panel bearing samples 
of General Electric cables. There are also con- 
tained some valuable tables relating to wire and its 
properties. Illuminating engineering as applied to 
interior lighting is the subject of a special bulletin 
which contains some attractive illustrations, showing 
efficiently lighted interiors. Other literature de- 
scribes 220-volt direct-current enclosed arc lamps, 
double push-button flush pocket switches, competi- 
tion knife switches, field coils, pole-line oil switches, 
ett. 



SOCIETIES AND SCHOOLS. 

Prof. George Davidson, president of the Geo- 
graphical Society of the Pacific Coast, and a mem- 
ber of the faculty of the University of California, 
has received a telegram from Raoul Amundsen, 
who made his way through the Northwest Passage, 
asking about the facilities for making his final mag- 
netic observations in San Francisco. A reply has 
been sent that facilities and help will be given by 
the University of California and the California 
Academy of Science, the Technical Society and the 
Geographical Society of the Pacific Coast. 

The two-hundred-and-third meeting of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers will be held 
in the assembly room of the New York Edison 
Company. 44 West Twenty- seventh Street. New 
York, on January 26th, at 8:15 p. m. The follow- 
ing papers will be presented and discussed : "Cen- 
tral-station Economics," by Henry G. Stott, super- 
intendent of motive power, Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company; "A Self-exciting Alternator," 
by E. F. Alexanderson, electrical engineer of the 
General Electric Company. Schenectady, N. Y. 

At the annual dinner of the Pike's Peak Poly- 
technic Society, held in the Antlers Hotel in 
Colorado Springs recently, Bion J. Arnold of Chi- 
cago was the guest of honor. Professor William 
Strieby, president of the society, introduced Air. 
Arnold, who. as the speaker of the evening, talked 
on the electrification of steam railroads. On this 



subject, with which Mr. Arnold is so familiar, he 
spoke very encouragingly of the future for electric 
power on steam railroads. His remarks were 
largely along the line of his presidential address 
at the convention of the Institute in St. Louis, and 
he repeated that, with the single-phase motor and 
the steam turbine a reality, the transmission prob- 
lem is about solved. He gave an interesting de- 
scription of the work of electrifying the terminals 
of the New York Central and the Pennsylvania 
lines in New York city. 

The tenth annual meeting of the National Fire 
Protection Association is to be held in Chicago, 
May 22d to 24th. In addition to the usual pro- 
gramme covering discussion and adoption of rules 
and specifications covering fire-protection topics, a 
commemorative address on the organization, aims 
and purposes of the association will be delivered by 
Uberto C. Crosby, United States manager of the 
Royal Exchange Assurance, who is one of the found- 
ers of the association, its only honorary life mem- 
ber, and who has been identified with fire-protection 
work covering a longer period than is represented 
by the history of the organization. An additional 
feature of interest in connection with the meeting 
will be the demonstrations to be given in the new 
testing station of the Underwriters' Laboratories. 

The thirty-sixth annual catalogue of the Worces- 
ter Polytechnic Institute has just been issued, con- 
taining the usual information regarding courses of 
study, teaching force, equipment, students and 
alumni. The addition of courses in electrical engi- 
neering, having to do especially with electric-rail- 
way and power-plant engineering is noted, together 
with the addition to the faculty of Albert S. Richey 
as assistant professor of electric-railway engineer- 
ing, under whose direction these new courses have 
been developed. The catalogue shows that over 
70 scholarships are available for the students of 
the Institute, that the total registration is 388, an 
increase of over 40 per cent, in two years, and 
that of the 1.034 living graduates, scattered well 
over the civilized world, by far the great majority 
are engaged in work for which they were fitted 
by their institute course. 



MISCELLANEOUS, 



The first space-telegraph station in Montana is 
to be erected in Great Falls. Later other stations 
are to be set up in the state and at points in Idaho, 
Wyoming and the Dakotas. These stations will be 
part cf the transcontinental system which, it is 
said, the De Forest company is putting in. 

The Chicago automobile show will be held in 
the Coliseum and First Regiment Armory Febru- 
ary 3d to 10th. In order not to be outdone by the 
managers of automobile shows in other cities, Sam- 
uel A. Miles, who is directing the local exhibition, 
has arranged for columns of plaster paris with 
cross-pieces and huge electric globes, which will be 
touched up with green and gold and installed in 
the two big buildings. 

The cable vessel Burnside, which has been doing 
valuable service under the Army signal office, will 
be equipped with a $23,000 pick-up gear, which will 
enable the ship to pick up an injured cable at a 
depth of one and one-half miles. The Burnside will 
remain at Seattle during the coming winter, pend- 
ing the installation of the improved mechanism, and 
in the meantime will be held in readiness to answer 
emergency calls for repairs along the Alaskan cable 
line. 

The p"ublic ownership commission of the National 
Civic Federation met in New York city on January 
10th and made final arrangements for the investiga- 
tion which it will undertake in this country and 
in Europe as to the comparative merits of public 
and private ownership of water supply, electric 
light and gas lighting and street railways. It was 
decided by the commission to investigate public and 
private plants in a great many towns and cities in 
.the United States. 

There is said to be an unusual building boom 
in Kansas City, Mo. Most of the new houses are 
being wired for electricity, as it has become com- 
monly known that houses so built command better 
rents and better prices if put for sale. W. L. 
Hutchison of the Kansas City Electrical Construc- 
tion Company says : "It is a fact that the custom 
of wiring a house for electricity is becoming more 
general. During the last year we wired over 500 
single houses and apartment buildings. It costs 
about $40 to wire an ordinary eight-room house 
and about $30 for an apartment of the same size. 
This includes speaking tubes, bells and switches. 
Steel conduits are being used quite generally in 
electrical work They are more expensive, of course, 
but the wiring when so constructed lasts indefi- 
nitely." 

In the region of McCall's Ferry, Pa., where the 
work preliminary to that of constructing a large 
power plant and dam by the McCall's Ferry Water 
and Power Company is in progress, flowing ice in 
the river recently interfered with the engineers and 
workmen in crossing the stream. The Susque- 
hanna River at that point is a quarter of a mile 
wide and the volume of water which descends from 
the upper regions of Pennsylvania and from val- 



leys in New York state is at a point known as 
"The Neck" thrown into a narrow space, rock-bound 
on either shore. When the ice is floating it is im- 
possible to cross the river. A one-inch cable was 
taken from the company's equipment and dragged 
across the river, a majestic chestnut tree on each 
side being selected for fastening the cable. Two 
hundred men at either end and 50 horses were used 
in making the. cable taut. A basket was then 
rigged to the cable with a roller attachment for 
its operation. In this tiny car, swinging high above 
the surface of the treacherous river, the engineers 
and workmen make their transits across the stream. 



TRADE NEWS 



The Electric Cable Company of Bridgeport. 
Conn., has filed articles of incorporation. The au- 
thorized capital is $500,000. The incorporators are 
Edwin W, Moore of New York, F. H. Cowles of 
Greenwich, and J. N. Shreve of Scarsdale, N. Y. 

The Stanley-G. I. Electric Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Pittsfield, Mass.. has established an office 
at 505 Postal Telegraph Building, Kansas City, 
Mo., for the purpose of more conveniently and 
more quickly taking care of its many customers in 
the state of Kansas. 

The increasing business of the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company in the ter- 
ritory covered by its Columbus (Ohio) office has 
necessitated its moving into larger quarters. The 
company is now located in Room 923 Columbus 
Savings and Trust Building. 

The Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, Navy 
Department, is inviting sealed proposals until Jan- 
uary 30th for furnishing the Boston navy yard 
with nine electric motors and 13 controlling panels 
of 220 volts, embraced in schedule 323, obtainable 
at the navy pay office in New York or upon ap- 
plication to the bureau at Washington. 

On account of the great increase in the demand 
for its Bijur "High-duty" elements, the General 
Storage Battery Company has decided to enlarge 
its factory at Boonton, N. J., by erecting buildings 
furnishing an additional 48,000 square feet of floor 
space, and to install hydraulic and steam or gas- 
generating machinery, aggregating over 1,000 horse- 
power. 

The New York Central Railroad is reported to 
have awarded to the General Railway Signaling 
Company of Rochester, N. \\, a contract for inter- 
locking and block signals amounting to $2,000,000. 
The equipment is intended for the zone of electric 
motive power extending about 2$ miles from the 
Grand Central Station. The system of signals is 
said to be the most comprehensive ever devised by 
any railroad. It is designed to insure the highest 
possible degree of safety to the traveling public. 

The National Engineering Company, successor 
to McGrew & Bruning, consulting engineers, an- 
nounces its incorporation. The new company has 
its headquarters in the Brunson Building, Colum- 
bus. Ohio. The personnel of the company is J. A. 
McGrew, president, H. D. Bruning, vice-president 
and general manager, and F. C. Caldwell, secretarj- 
and treasurer. The company does a general engi- 
neering, construction and architectural business. 
J. N. Bradford is chief architect. E. A. Hitchcock 
chief engineer of the mechanical department, Mr. 
Caldwell chief engineer of the electrical depart- 
ment, C. E. Sherman chief engineer of the railway 
and municipal department. A. H. Heller, construc- 
tion engineer of the bridge and structural depart- 
ment, and Frank Haas chief engineer and fuel 
expert of the mining department. 



BUSINESS, 



The Boston Incandescent Lamp Company, Dan- 
vers, Mass.. maker of incandescent lamps, supplied 
the lights exclusively for Steeplechase Island, 
Bridgeport, Conn., also a large number of lamps to 
Steeplechase Park, Coney Island. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company states 
that, on account of the compressor business being 
offered it exceeding its manufacturing capacity 
(amounting to only 400 compressors during the 
year 1905), arrangements are now under way for 
increasing the capacity of its compressor works at 
Franklin, Pa., so as to give it an annual output of 
between 650 and 700 compressors. The machines 
this company manufactures are gradually taking 
the lead, thus necessitating increased facilities for 
taking care of the business offered. A large vol- 
ume of business was lost to the company during 
1905 on account of inability to make deliveries. 

An important order recently secured by the 
Canadian Westinghouse Company was obtained 
from the Vancouver Power Company of Vancouver, 
B. C This order included a 1.500-horsepower 2,200- 
volt revolving-field engine-type generator, which will 
be direct connected to a Pelton waterwheel. This 
is a duplicate of the generators now in operation 
in the power plant of this company, and will op- 
erate in multiple therewith. The order includes 
switchboards and air-blast transformers of 550- 
kilowatt capacity. There is also included in the 



January 20, 1906 



WESTERN ELECTRII 






order :i 1,000-kilowatt Co-cycle rolarj 
operate a( 550 roll This converter will I 
power for railway work ;m<] will !<■: controlled di 
rcct from the switchboard. 

The Green Fuel Economizer Company ol 
teawan, N. Y., originator and builder of the fuel 
economizer, some time ay,<> began thi mar 
of fans, blowers and exhausters on a large scale. 

'I Ik 1 p.-my reports a large numbci ol 

ui h apparatus recently, among the largest of 
which are two 310-inch induced-draft fan to thi 
A ican l»i tricl Si. ■am Healing Company of 

Minneapolis, Minn., a 280 inch heating and ven- 



-'.• Clark, Kim- 

No. 85, New York eity. In additi 
1 ompari 

dating apparatui and several large 

'i he wondi 1 ful thii • ' oul 
li'-. rthern Elcctrii al 

with 
which the mai bine band can ah- 1 
ol hia equipment, whether il 
>Wcr drive or [,000-horiepowcl 
ilation of the motor-controllei 



1 
troller with minimutn 



ILLUSTRATED ELECTRICAL PATENT RECORD. 



halted (United State* Patent Office) January g, /god. 



809,300. Switch Plug with Electrical Fuse. Vie: 
ander Hepkc and Kurt Dicncr, Berlin, Ger- 
many. Application filed July 20, 1904. 

Two contact bodies arc fixed to the plug body, 
through which contact bodies the current enters and 
leaves the plug. Fuses arc placed within the plug body. 

£09,301. Electric Multiple Fuse Plug. Alexander 
Hepke and Kurt Diener, Berlin, Germany. Ap- 
plication filed July 20, 1904. 

A plug body has two outside contact bodies, through 
which the current enters and leaves the plug, fuses being 
situated within the plug body. 

809,302. Transformer Cut-out. John P. Hethering- 
ton, Logansport, Ind. Application filed January 
27, 1905. 

A primary circuit, a secondary circuit, a transformer 
connected to receive current from the primary circuit 
and to deliver the transformed current to the sec- 
ondary circuit, an auxiliary transformer and means for 
automatically introducing I lie auxiliary transformer into 
the system' in parallel with the first transformer and 
cutting it out therefrom arc the essential parts of the 
system. 

809,300. Electroplating Apparatus. Arthur W. 
L'Hommedieu, Chicago, 111., assignor to Charles 
F. L'Hommedieu, Chicago, 111. Application 
filed April 22, 1905. 
Combined with a plating tub adapted to contain a 
plating solution and arranged to be rotated upon an 
upwardly extending axis are anodes arranged around 
the inside surface of the tub, a resident cathode- 
arranged near the axis of the tub, a non-conducting 
support for the material to be plated, electric connec- 
tions for the anode and resident cathode and means for 
rotating the tub. 

809.311. Fireproof Wire. Amanda M. Lougee, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Application filed November 5, 1903. 

A permanently flexible armored electric conductor of 
indeterminate length has an external size adapted to the 
usual requirements of office buildings. Its component 
parts are held integrally and permanently together by 
adhesion, the parts including a wire, an asbestos jacket 
for the wire rendered moisture proof by an enveloping 
coating of cement, inclosed by a tightly woven jacket 
of wire embedded on both sides in waterproof and fire- 
proof insulation. 

809.312. Process of Making Fireproof Conductors. 
Amanda M. Lougee, Boston, Mass. Application 
filed May 23, 1904. 

The method of manufacturing a fireproof electric con- 
ductor cable is described. 

809.313. Protected Conductor. Amanda M. Lougee, 
Boston, Mass. Application filed May 23, 1904. 

An inner conductor wire is enveloped by a vulcaniz- 
able compound containing a maximum quantity of insulat- 
ing ingredients adjacent the wire, and an increasing 
quantity of fireproofing ingredients toward its outer side. 
A coarse mesh woven-wire jacket filled and permeated 
on both sides with a vulcanizable compound contains 
fireproofing and insulating ingredients, a superimposed 
fine mesh woven-wire jacket, permeated on both sides 
with a vulcanizable compound containing also fireproof- 
ing, insulating and waterproofing ingredients, the whole 
being vulcanized together as a one-piece article. 

809,356. Oscillating Electric Fan. Herbert S. 
Brown, New York, N. Y. Application filed 
July 27, 1904. 

The fan and motor are suspended from a bracket so 
as to rotate and deliver the air in all directions. 

809.379- Adjustable Support for Telephones. Her- 
bert L. Knight and Burton W. Sweet, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, assignors to the Williams- Abbott 
Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio. Applica- 
tion filed April 15, 1905. 

An adjustable device for supporting the parts of a 
telephone is described in the patent, 

809,394. Electrically Operated Portable Drill. Adolph 
Pedersen, Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to the Van 
Dorn-Elliott Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Application filed September 19, 1904. 

A multipolar motor within a hollow casing drives the 
drill shaft. 

809,423. Telephone. Charles G. Burke, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., assignor of one-half to John Q. A. 
Whittemore, Boston, Mass. Application filed 
September 16, 1901. 

A local transmitter comprising a battery and a trans- 
mitting circuit is connected to a main-line circuit. The 
receiver comprises a diaphragm, a core for operating 
the diaphragm being provided; also an induction coil 
surrounding the core for magnetically affecting the core 
and having two coils, one of the coils formed of coarse 
wire of few turns and connected in series with the local 
circuit, the other of the coils formed of fine wire of 
many turns and connected in series with the coil of 
coarse wire and the main line. 

809,433. Rotary Electric Switch. John Dugdill, 
Failsworth, Manchester, England. Application 
filed March 15, 1905. 

A rotary switch comprises a spring drum, a support, 
contacts on each of the parts and means for permitting 



the coi 
th di 



nt when 



. the other direction. 

809,453. Higl ' ibuter for In- 

[iw . Leon J- Lc Pon- 

to the Poly- 

pha ■ [gnition I ipany. Application 

i, ,j t ,. 

II- mi i>t ■ ol D Rparlrfng device for internal combus- 
tion engines arc dcscrlb 

Sofj,_j(rf). Mm tor Controller. Vdolph Pedersen, Clcvc- 
i.nni, 1 Ihii i, a ignoi to th< Van Dorn-Elliott 

!■ 1 I ompany, < levcland. Appli ■ 

May 26, i'.' 

Means foi automatically breaking the armature circuit 
when the magnetic llux of the motor reaches a prede- 
termined quantity are described. A manually operable 
switch disk >-■ adapted, when it is actuated to its "off" 
position, to closi thi break in the circuit made by the 



the 






lost thi break i 

cans. A short-circuiting switch 
and rendered operative during 
tch disk to its "on" position. 



' the cii 
of the 



,468. Flexible Electrical Conductor. G< 
Schmidmer, Nuremberg, Germany. Application 

filed May 4, 1904. 



9,515. Electrical Railway Signaling System. Mil- 
ton H. Loudon, Kansas City, Mo. Application 
filed June 29, 1905. 

An electrical railway signaling system embodies a 
normally closed main circuit including a source of elec- 
trical energy, a rheostat, visual and audible signaling 
mechanism and a solenoid magnet opcratively connected 
with the engineer's brake valve. A normally open local 
circuit includes a telephone and a Morse sounder. 
Means actuated by the telephone receiver either open 
or close the two ' 




809,460. 



S09.529. Electric Laundry Iron. Earl H. Richard- 
son, Ontario, Cal., assignor to the Pacific Elec- 
tric Heating , Company, Ontario, Cal. Applica- 
tion filed April 25, 1905. 

A laundrv iron having a hollow body with extra metal 
portions in* each corner and means in the metal at each 
corner" for directly heating the exposed corners of the 

iron is described. 

809,560. Combined Sparker and Governor for Gas 

Engines. David F. Graham and Frank A. Fox, 

Stamford, Conn., assignors to the Eisenhuth 

' Horseless Vehicle Company. Middletown, Conn. 

Application filed March 11, 1903- 

Details are described. 

So9,5/S. Sparking Plug. William Ottaway, Aurora, 

111., assignor to the Aurora Automatic Ma- 
chinery Company, Aurora. 111. Application filed 
February 15, 1904. 

ement passes through 
the cylinder. 

809.59;. Bell Push, Pull. Etc. Lawrence S. Wilks, 
Whipps Cross, England. Application filed May 

1, 1905. 

A form of illuminated push-button for door bells 
is described. 



Trollev Win . Baker, 

: filed February 24, 



tudinal slot 

length and forming , 



long*. 



crnnk 



ting tbc channel 
trance opening. 

> Attachment. Edward D. Rockwell, 
Bristol, Conn. Application filed May 17, 1905. 

A trolley harp arranged to removably receive a trol- 
ley wheel ha» an emergency contact having an upwardly 
extending part provided with a groove for the reception 
:rr and lupports extending laterally from 
the contact and arranged to be received by tbc wheel- 

iry- vapor Elec- 
tric Lamp-. Percy H. Thomas, East Orange, 
X. J, assignor to the Cooper Hewitt Electric 
Company, New York, X. Y. Application filed 

April _ 



tbc ctcctrodes, are a carbon fill 

with apparatus and a ballast also in scries with 

the apparatus, the ballast having a positive temperature 
coefficient. 

809,672. Automatic Indicating and Regulating Hy- 
gromcter. Stuart W. Cramer, Charlotte, X. C. 
Application filed January' 9- 1905. 
A hygrometer provided with an expansible and eon- 
tractible member has the following essential parts: A 
arm on the shaft connected to the member, a 
secured to the shaft, a needle pivotally tup- 
l connected to the crank arm beyond its pivotal 
support, a tongue for making contact therewith, a grad- 
uated scale, an electromagnet for operating a 
source of electrical energy and electrical connections 
between tbc needle of the hygrometer, the magnet and 
the source of electrical energy. 

809,693. Mechanical Movement. Gray \Y. John- 
ston, New York, X. Y. Application filed March 

-27. 1905- 

A solenoid disposed upon a frame carrying contacts 
is associated with a member pivoted upon the frame to 
swing into engagement with the contacts alternately. 
A cure is slidably mounted in solenoid and a link is piv- 
oted to the core and having a part engaging cam surfaces 
on the frame. Frictional means hold the pivoted member 
in cither of its extreme positions, whereby the pivoted 
link is cammed into engagement with alternate earn 
surfaces upon the pivoted member at successive actua- 
tions of the core of the solenoid. 

809,700. Thermostatic Switch for Incandescent 

Electric Lamps. John V. A. Kimmey. Jr., 

New Haven, Conn. Application filed April 1, 
1905. 

A bracket is connected with an incandescent electric 
lamp, a bowed plate being secured at both ends to one 
face of the bracket. A contact screw is mounted in the 
bracket and normally in contact with the bowed plate, 
electric connection being made between the bowed plate 
and one wire ->i the lighting circuit and between the 
bowed plate and the bracket, the bowed plate adapted 
under heat developed directly by the power of the current 
of the lighting circuit to expand and move out of electric 
contact with the bracket whereby the circuit is broken. 
i See cut on next page.) 

S09706. Electric Alternating-current Machine. Karl 
A. Lindstrom, Vesteras, Sweden. Application 
filed June 29, 1905. 

An alternating-current machine has the armature wind- 
ing placed in more or less open slots in the armature 
core, and poles of the magnetic field so placed in relation 
to the two halves of an armature winding that the waves 
of tension of higher order, the so-called overtones, in- 
duced by certain of the poles in the armature circuit on 
account of the discontinuity of the magnetic field caused 
by the slots in the armature core, arc displaced practi- 
cally half a period in relation to tlje corrcspondnig over- 
tones induced by the other poles. 

809,707. Pneumatic Train-control System. John B. 
Linn, Schenectady. X T . Y., assignor to the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, Schenectady, X. Y. Ap- 
plication filed October 16, 1902. 

A motor controller of the separately actuated contact 
type comprises successively operating contactors adapted 
to be operated by fluid pressure, means for admitting 
the compressed fluid to the first of the contactors, means 
whereby each coptactor automatically admits the com- 
pressed fluid to the next, a pneumatic valve controlling 
the flow of compressed fluid to each contactor and means 
for operating the valve to check the progression of the 
contactors. 



9,72s. Electrical Heating System. Arthur D. New- 
ton, Hartford, Conn., assignor to the General 
Electric Company. Schenectady, N. Y. Applica- 
tion filed July 9, 1904. 

The method of arranging the heating circuits of an 
electric car arc described in the patent. 

9.742. Storage-battery Plate. David P. Perry, 
Chicago. 111. Application filed June 8, 1903. 

A storage battery grid is composed of superimposed 
plates having upwardly extending projections adapted to 
form a terminal for the battery plate, and having also 
strengthening or re-inforcing portions tapering down- 
wardly from the terminal. 



yo 



809,743. Cross-arm for Carrying High-tension Wires. 
Evan E. P. Petery, Indianapolis, Ind., assignor 
of one-half to Samuel Bowsher, Indianapolis, 
Ind. Application filed August 19, 1904. 

The cross arm is made entirely of glass, the arm 
having holes for bolting it to the pole, and having inte- 
gral pins terminating with integral insulator knobs, the 
knobs having circumferential grooves and downwardly 
and outwardly flaring flanges integral with the knobs 
between the grooves and the arm. 

809,747. Hanger or Ear for Overhead Electric Trol- 
ley Wires. Abraham Richardson and 'I nomas 
S. Jones, Blackpool, England, assignors of six- 
eights to Joseph Heap, Henry Heap, James 
Bailey, Thomas Brierley, Robert Billington and 
James Haydock, Blackpool, England. Applica- 
tion filed February 6, 1905. 

An ear or hanger for supporting or holding up electric 
conductor wires, constructed with two jaws to grip the 
wires has upwardly extending shanks to the jaws with 
an inclined recess, a loose nut placed in the recess, a 
collar placed over the shanks and the insulator bolt 
fitting into the nut and a flange thereon abutting against 
the collar to draw the nut up and force the collar down. 

809,762. Telautographic and Other Electric Circuits. 
George S. Tiffany, New York, N. Y., assignor 
to the Gray National Telautograph Company, 
New York, N. Y. Application filed April 22, 
1901. 

A reversing switch, the contacts of which are in con- 
nection with the positive and negative poles of the source 
of electrical energy, is one feature. There are also a 
shunt forming a connection between the poles of the 
source of electrical energy, a circuit connecting to the 
reversing switch and to the shunt, the shunt having a 
resistance on each side of its point of connection to the 
circuit and an adjusting resistance between one of the 
poles of the source of electrical energy and the point of 
connection of the shunt and the reversing switch to the 
line leading to the pole. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

9,798. Means for Controlling Overhead Electric 
Carriers. Henry M, Harding, New York, N. Y. 
Application filed April 21, 1902. 

A means for controlling overhead electric carriers 
consists of a main conductor, a section at eacli end 
thereof, a resistance between each of the sections and the 



line of 



tha 



ufficient 
the loaded 




and means for fully energizing the 
19,799. Overhead Electric Carrier. Henry M. 
Harding, New York, N. Y. Application filed 
October 12, 1903. 

Details of an electric telpher system are set forth. 

(9,825. Electric Meter. William J. Lloyd, Pitts- 
field, Mass., assignor to the Stanley Electric 
Manufacturing Company, Pittsfield, Mass. Ap- 
plication filed May 10, 1904. 

In an alternating-current meter are a U-shaped core, 
potential coils carried thereby, a C-shaped core having 
intermediate projecting poles facing the poles of the first 
core and its ends extending into proximity to the poles 
of the first core, a current coil carried between the pro- 
jecting poles and a conducting disk disposed between 
the cores. 

9,831- Telephone Transmitter. John Z. Miller, 
Erie, Pa. Application filed October 19, 1904. 

In a telephone transmitter there is a non-vibrating back 
plate, a washer of fibrous and non-conducting material 
forming a container, a dampener mounted on the back 
plate and an electrode arranged within the washer, the 
electrode being of less thickness than the washer. Gran- 
ulated conducting malt-rial is placed in the cavity with the 
electrode, a ring of conducting material being arranged 
outside of the washer and mounted within the case but 
insulated from the case and back plate. A diaphragm is 
mounted on the ring and in electric contact with the 
ring, being connected with the back plate through the 
electrode and material in the cavity and the washer. 

9.835- Alternating-current Machinery. Addams 
S. McAllister, New York, N. Y. "Application 
filed March 2, 1905. 




i aluminiti 




anode a 


electrolyte 




noting 


d boric a 


id. 


(See cu 



£09.770. Asymmetric Cell 
dorf-Berlin, Germany 
4, 1904. 

In an 

a cathode 



809,774. System of Control. Frank E. Case, Schen- 
ectady, N. Y., assignor' to the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed 
June 12, 1905. 

In combination with a motor circuit are a pneumatic 
controlling system, a circuit breaker in the motor circuit 
and means operable upon the exhaustion of the pneumatic 
control li ng system while the motor circuit remains ener- 
gized to trip the circuit breaker. 

809,787. Alternating-current Motor. Max Deri, 
Vienna, Austria-Hungary, assignor to the Stan- 
ley Electric Manufacturing Company, Pittsfield, 
Mass. Application filed May ~2, 1904. 

In an alternating-current motor are a single-phase 
primary winding, a rotor winding short circuited at a 
number of points indivisible by the number of _ poles of 
the motor, commutator brushes arranged on a line at an 
angle to the line of magnetization produced by the 
primary winding and connections from the brushes to the 
source of current substantially in phase with the primary 

809.793. Electrostatic Voltmeter. James Ferguson, 
Glasgow, Scotland, assignor to Kelvin & James 
White, Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland. Application 
March 29, 1904. 

type compri 



ting 



alternating-current machine having 

1 a commutator are a field winding, 

:ling adapted to nullify the rotor 

and means for controlling the power factor of 

different speeds. 

Apparatus for the Production of Calcium 
Carbide. Edgar F. Price, George E. Cox and 
James G. Marshall, Niagara Falls, N. Y., as- 
signor to the Union Carbide Company, Niagara 
Falls, N. Y. Application filed October 19, i9°4- 

In an electric furnace for the production of calcium 
carbide and in combination with a feed supply of lime 
and carbon are electrodes consisting of graphite rods of 
reduced cross section, means for supplying to the elec- 
trodes an electric current of sufficient amperage 

high current density in 



reduci 

the rods ai 
of the ele 



(Se. 



rode 



for 



the electrodes and effect the 
leans for substantially exclud- 
the charge from the sides of 

ithdrawing heat from the ends 
from the zone of reduction. 



809,847. Controller for Turbines. Frederick Samuel- 
son, Rugby, England, assignor to the General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Appli- 
cation filed July 3, I9°5- 

In an electric circuit controller there is a cam cylinder, 
switch members adapted to be actuated by the cam 
cvlinder in predetermined order and means for causing 
the switch members to open the circuit with a quick 



A voltmeter of the electrostatit 

a coating of insulating material 
of the case, a coating 



the 



on the" 
d system 



. rface of the insulating coating, a fin 

of cells within the case, vertical back of 
material fitted to each set of fixed cells, a coating of 
conductive material on the exposed surface of the back 
and a movable system of vanes' to , which the conductive 
coating of the backs is permanently connected. 

809,794. Railroad System. Hannibal C. Ford, Ja- 
maica, N. Y. Application filed September 12, 
1905. 

The track is divided into sections, and electrical con- 
following 

809,796. Electric Target-setting Apparatus. Gustav 
Grabosch, Berlin, Germany, assignor to the 
Phoenix Elektrotechnische Gesellschaft M. B. H., 
Berlin, Germany. Application filed July 1, 1905. 

In a target-setting apparatus is an electromagnet, a 
core slidable therein and a target shiftable directly by 



809,852. Ball-bearing Trolley-wheel Bushing. Mah- 
lon Shaaber, Reading, Pa. Application filed 
April 4, 1905- 

Details are described. 

809,864. Insulated Receptacle for Panel and Switch- 
boards. William C. Tregoning, Plainville, Conn., 
assignor to the Trumbull Electric Manufactur- 
ing Company, Plainville, Conn. Application filed 
February 18, 1905. 

In combination with a panel or switchboard provided 
with circuit terminals are a pair of contact members re- 
movably attached to a panel and connected respectively 
with the circuit terminals, a tubular insulating casing 
ng the contacts and resting upon the panel 



l.x-kine. 1 






ne of the contacts 


nd the 




isulating member 


tor 


locking the latter 


n posi- 


tion upo 


the panel. 









,865. Combined Telegraph and Telephone Sys- 
tem. Carlo Turchi, Ferrara, Italy. Application 
filed April 15. 1903. 

Combined with a telegraph and telephone system are a 
wire, telegraph 



the 



hiding 



'hiding adja 



the- 



e and divided 
ches of the clo 



the 



ches, 



closed 
of the 
having 



January 20, ic 



opposite dii 

of the close 
in the mic 






the winding 



the 



809,873- Panel Cut-out and Receptacle. Frank T. 
Wheeler, Plainville, Conn., assignor to the 
Trumbull Electric Manufacturing Company, 
Plainville, Conn. Application filed February 18, 
1905- 

Associated with a panel or switchboard provided with 
circuit terminals are a pair of contact members removably 
secured to the base and connected respectively with the 
circuit terminals, one of the contacts clamping the other 
in position upon the panel, and an insulating casing in- 
closing the contacts removably interlocked with respect 
to one of them and resting against the panel. 

809,878. Starting Device for Electric Motors. How- 
ard B. Wilson, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to 
the General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N. Y. Application filed March 10, 1904. 

An electric motor and means for starting it comprise 
a self-reducing resistance connected in the motor circuit 
and automatic means for cutting the resistance out of 
circuit i when its ohmic value is reduced to a predeter- 

809,904. Emergency Electric-lighting Arrangement 
for Theaters and Similar Buildings. Fritz 
Brand, Berlin, Germany. Application filed March 
21, 1905. 

An electric emergency lighting system for buildings 
consists of several sources of energy located in the base- 
ment of a building, a number of circuits extending from 
floor to floor throughout the building, the circuits being 
removed from and being independent of each other 
throughout their length and lamps connected in the cir- 
cuits in the respective stages or floors of the building. 

809.508. System of Control. Frank E. Case, Schen- 
ectady, N. Y., assignor to the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed 
October i, 1904. 



elude 



Motor controllers 
irection of rotation of the motors upon 
ars, controller actuating means includin: 
ower local to each car. A pneumatic tra 



for determining the 




TELEPHONE. 



809,917. Electric Heater for Oil Wells and Method 
of Making Same. Benjamin F. Gardner. Chi- 
cago, 111., assignor to the Petroleum Electric 
Producing Company, Chicago, 111. Application 
filed April 5, 1905. 

An electric heater comprises a metallic pipe, a non- 
vitreous insulating covering on the pipe, a layer of non- 
metallic resistance material incased in the insulating 
material and electrodes embedded in the resistance mate- 
rial, one of the electrodes being connected to the source 
of electric current and the ot her being grounded- 

PATENTS THAT HAVE EXPIRED. 

Following is a list of electrical patents (issued 

by the United States Patent Office") that expired 

on January 15, 1906: 

396,086. Synchronizing Device for Dynamo-electric Ma- 
chines. Carl Hoffman, Berlin, Germany. 

396,121. Thermo-magnetic Motor. Nikola Tesla, Smiljan, 
Lika, Austria-Hungary, 

396,124. Suspended Switch for Electric Rail wars. Clark 
H. Wells. Kansas City, Mo. 

396,149. Unipolar Dynamo-electric Machinery. Rudolph 
Eickemeyer, Yonkers, N. Y. 

396,176. Electric Coupling for Hose Pipes. David T- Simp- 
son, Pittsburg, Pa. 

396.195. Armature for Dvnamo-electric Machines. Leo Daft, 
Plainfield, N. J. 

396.196. Insulator Support for Electric Conductors. Leo 
Daft, Plainfield, N. J. 

396,199. Electric Appliance for Discharging Guns. Brad- 
ley A. Fiske, U. S. Navy. 

396,207. Electric Signaling Apparatus. William Henion, 
Ritchev. 111. 

396.212. Electrical Bodv Wear. John V. Long, lersey City, 
N. J. 

396.213. Secondary Battery. Orazio Lugo, New York, N. Y. 

396.214. Secondary Battery. Orazio Lugo, New York, N. Y. 
396,269. Electro-dynamic Machine. Carl Coerper, Cologne, 



Prus; 
396,270. Process of Electric 

Detroit, Mich. 
396,310. Traveler for Electr: 



Chic 



III. 



Welding. Charles L. Coffin, 
: Railway. C. J. Vandepoele, 



396.311. Hooked Suspender for Electric-railway Conductors. 
C. J. Vandepoele. Lynn, Mass. 

396.312. Suspension Device for Electric-railway Conductors. 
C. J. Vandepoele, Lynn, Mass. 

396,31 3- Adjustable Crossing and Switch for Overhead Con- 
ductors. C. J. Vandepoele, Lvnn, Mass. 

396,314. Commutator Brush Carrier for Electric Motors. C. 
J. Vandepoele, Lynn, Mass. 

396.3^9- Galvanic Battery. Paul R. De F. DTIumy, Clap- 
ham Rise, County of Surrey, England. 

396,342. Galvanic Battery. Bernhard Scheithauer, Halc-on- 
the-Saale, Germany. 

396,355- Dynamo-electric Machinery. Isaac T. Dvcr, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

396,356. Magnetic Separator. Thomas A. Edison. Llewcllvn 
Park, N. J. 

396,365. Railway Signal. W. C. Paul and Oscar D. Klein- 
steuber, Milwaukee, Wis. 

396,367. 396,368. 396,369- Secondary Battery. I. L. Roberts, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



EVERY SATURDAY 



the 



Vol. XXXVIII. 

Steam-turbine Power Station In 

Clyde Valley Near Glasgow. 

I'.y Frank C. Perkins. 

Of the four leading British power Bchemes which 

were begun during 1905 the Clyde Valley power 

plants, near Glasgow in Scotland, form one of 

the most interesting examples, \n electric power 

plant using steam turbines directly coupled to 

electrical generators of 2,000 kilowatts capacity each, 



CHICAGt », JAN1 VRV 27, 1906 






walls and Italian mosaic floor. Fig. 2 is an ex- 
terior view of the plant The turbine and 
Ming room 1 ■ tjuippi 1 1 
ratoi '< hi '■ 
having a maximum capai ity tti and 

1 mill output of 2)000 

mm opi rate al a pei d of t.soo rei lul 
minutes, the turbini being of the double-flow type, 
ivith ■ ti am 1 nti 1 ins it thi 
.-,i the ends, I he •••• m 



citing current from two direct -connected unit* (Fig. 
7j kilowatts each. con«i«ting of a compound 
vertical type engine, 11 by 10 by 11 tncfac*, directly 
■I multipolar dynamo. 
;-rate at a »|>ccd of 290 rrvohitioni 
p<r minute. Supplying urrcnt of 125 

-•".■mre. 'Ihc instrument pandl and oper- 
ating bench board are mounted in a gallery, at 
shown in I 

pplying »tcam to the steam 




STEAM-TURBINE 

has recently been constructed at Yoker and an- 
other at Motherwell, the latter 15 miles from Glas- 
gow, and the former about five miles from Glasgow, 
with a number of sub-stations for supplying an 
area of several hundred square miles along the 
Clyde Valley in Scotland. The Yoker electric 
power station, shown in the accompanying illus- 
trations, was installed by the Clyde Valley Electric 
Power Company, Limited, supplying energy for 
light and power purposes for manufacturers, mer- 
chants and general commercial service in the ter- 
ritory above mentioned. For this distribution there 
are six feeders which leave the basement of the 
power station supplying current to the district be- 
tween Scotstown and Clydebank, as well as Temple. 
The turbine room, which is shown in Fig. 4, is 
about 43^2 feet wide and more than 250 feet long, 
constructed of iron and steel, with glazed-brick 



3000 Horsepower Turbo-senerators in Clyde Valley Power Plant. 
TION OF THE CLVDE VALLEY ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY 



GLASGOW. 



house three-phase design, with rotating field, sup- 
plying a current having a frequency of 25 cycles 
and a pressure of 11,000 volts. The current is 
conducted to the switchboard galleries, which are 
three in number, at one end of the generating 
room. The oil switches and feeders are arranged 
on the first floor and first gallery, while the upper 
gallery is devoted to the resistances, bus-bars and 
measuring instruments. The switches are electric- 
ally operated by the same current as is used for 
exciting the field of the alternator, the turbine 
units also being stopped and started from these 
points of control. 

The engine room will ultimately accommodate 
another large unit of 3,500 kilowatts and another 
smaller unit of 2,000 kilowatts, making a total 
output for the station of nearly 10,000 kilowatts. 

The turbo-alternator units are supplied with ex- 



turbines, is equipped with four water-tube boilers 
of the Babcock & Wilcox double-drum type, each 
having a heating surface of more than 4,000 square 
feet and provided with superheaters capable of 
raising the temperature of the steam to 140 F. 
The boilers are equipped with Roney mechanical 
stokers, driven by Westinghouse engines of five- 
horsepower capacity, operating at a speed of 400 
revolutions a minute. 

Turbine condensers are of the Mirrlees \\ atson 
vertical-surface design, having a cooling surface of 
6,250 feet for each condenser, each turbine exhaust- 
ing directly into its own condenser, the latter be- 
ing provided with a steam-driven dry-air pump of 
the two-stage type. 

Circulating water for the various condensers is 
taken from" the Clyde River, passing into a well 
iS feet in diameter by gravity, the depth of the 



72 

water being nine feet below, with two 30-inch 
pipes supplying the well from the river, and a 
three-foot pipe for drawing the water out by means 
of a steam-driven centrifugal pump. Into the hot 
well the condensed water is pumped by a motor- 
driven centrifugal pump, operating at a speed of 
625 revolutions per minute, the motor having a 
capacity of six horsepower, and being of the shunt- 
wound type, with vertical shafts. The feed pumps 
each have a capacity of nearly 10,000 gallons an 
hour against a boiler pressure of 175 pounds to the 
square inch. 

The Chicago Electrical Show. 

The Chicago Electrical Show is a great success. 
As the days allotted for the exhibition passed, in- 
terest in the many new and interesting things to 
be seen at the Coliseum increased, and the spacious 
building was well filled with sightseers both after- 
noon and evening. So gratifying has been the pat- 
ronage that the show has received, that the man- 
agement without doubt will make it in the future 
an annual event. A review of the success of the 
exposition at the close of the first week showed 
that the benefit to electrical and allied trades had 
been marked, and many of the concerns had booked 
substantial orders through the interest aroused in 
their products by their exhibits at the Coliseum. 
To the "mere visitor" there was much to attract 
and hold the attention, and he who left the hall 
without a much wider understanding of the scope 
of the electrical industry did so because he had 
no inclination to learn. 

One of the features of engineering interest at 




WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

eter. The two-ampere size burns singly at IOO 
to 120 volts and in series at 200 to 240 volts. 
A three-ampere lamp is also made for -use singly 
at 100 to 120 volts. The lamps are for indoor or 
outdoor service and are so simple that the carbons 
may readily be changed by the house servant. 
Their special application to workshop and factory 
lighting is said to have already been proved in 
Europe. 

Two of the Sarco lights were displayed by the 
Manhattan Electric Supply Company. The light 
burns impregnated carbons having a metallic core 



the show was the appearance of the new flame 
arc lamp, which as yet is not widely known in 
this country. There were two exhibits of this 
lamp made, one by the Siemens-Schuckert Com- 
pany of Berlin, Germany, and one by the Manhat- 
tan Electric Supply Company of New York. 1 he 
latter exhibited what is known as the Sarco light — 
a German lamp, for which the Manhattan company 
is agent in this country. 

The Siemens flame arc was shown in two styles. 
The larger lamps, to the number of eight, were 
used in illuminating the hall,, and there were also 
two of this size in the Siemens-Schuckert booth. 
At the latter exhibit there was also a smaller 
size, called the Liliput lamp. The large lamps op- 
erate two in series upon a no-volt direct-current 
circuit, and when thus connected give from 4,coo 
to 5,000 candlepower each, with a current consump- 
tion of 11 amperes. The carbons are of the core 
type, made by a process which is a secret with 
the company. The arc is formed at the lower ends 
of the two carbons, which are placed at an in- 
clination from the vertical position, the carbons 
passing through two openings in a refractory ma- 
terial, which serves to deflect the upward rays 
to a useful downward direction. The mechanism 
of the lamp is comparatively simple, more so than 
the ordinary arc lamp. 

The length of time during which a lamp will 
operate at a single trimming depends upon the 
length of the carbons. Those exhibited at the Elec- 
trical Show were provided with 10-hour carbons. 
The company also builds lamps using 17-hour 
carbons. These lamps are being placed upon the 
American market by Felix Hamberger of New York 
city, who demonstrated the lamps at the Show. 

Mr: Hamberger also showed, for the first time 
in this country, the Siemens Liliput lamp. This 
lamp is of the direct-current type, with a restricted 
supply of air, and is made with a single globe. 
A reliable clamping arrangement instead of a clock- 
work mechanism regulates the carbons, which are 
of the cored type, only one-fifth inch in diam- 




MARGES AT 



running through them, and both carbons are fed 
from the top instead of the top ind bottom, as 
the ordinary type of lamp feeds. The Sarco light 
burns two lamps in series and takes eight amperes 
on a no-volt circuit and the two lights in series are 
said to give 7,800 candlepower by actual test. On 
account of its great brilliancy, the light is pecu- 
liarly adapted for advertising purposes, to illumi- 
nate store fronts, outsides of restaurants, theaters, 
etc., and a number of contracts have been taken 
for illuminating pleasure parks and outside amuse- 
ment resorts. 

The Electrical Show was opened to visitors early 
each morning and continued open until about n 
p. m. Naturally there were not many present in 
the forenoon, but after one o'clock the people be- 
gan to arrive and in the evening the place was 
well filled. On Friday, the 19th, the day of the 
funeral of Marshall Field, everything was shut 
down and current turned off for a brief interval 
between noon and .one o'clock in respect to his 
memory. 

Electrical people took advantage of the oppor- 
tunity to visit the Show and study the many things 
offered for inspection. Members of the Northwest- 
ern Electrical Association were prominent ; also 
those of the Electrical Salesmen's Association. 
Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday of this week 



i— ^ 




Iff 1 * 


r*. 1 



January 27, 1906 

formed at his booth under the north gallery, and 
Professor Clarke continued his popular demonstra- 
tions and lectures throughout the duration of the " 
show. During the course of his lectures Professor 
Clarke passed high-frequency currents of 200,000 
volts through his body. 

Dynamos, Motors and General Electrical 
Machinery. 

The General Electric Company occupied a large 
space near the main entrance to the show and 
seized the opportunity offered to arrange an at- 
tractive reception space, which, because of its loca- 
tion, made a convenient meeting place for visitors. 
This space was attractively illuminated by enclosed 
arc lamps with concentric diffusers and the new 
Gem lamps. This is the first public exhibition in 
Chicago of these new lamps, which consume only 
2^/2 watts per candlepower. One of the most strik- 
ing features of the General Electric Company's ex- 
hibit was the large space devoted to devices for 
heating and cooking by electricity. A description of 
the General Electric Company's exhibit would be 
incomplete without reference to the moving pictures 
shown. These showed, among other interesting 
views, the race between a steam train and the 
celebrated electric locomotive built by the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Company and the General Electric 
Company for the New York Central. 

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company had on exhibition its graphic recording 
voltmeter as well as a full and complete line of 
Westinghouse current-measuring portable and pre- 
cision instruments. There were also lines of watt- 
meters, circuit-breakers, transformers and also a 
five-kilowatt pipe-thawing transformer. Motors, fan 
motors for the season of 1906, and overhead rail- 



IEMENS FLAME 



I ELECTRICAL 



were "Independent telephone days" and Friday was 
"Thomas A. Edison day." 

The Western Electrician was at home to its 
friends in a well located booth just north of the 
main entrance. College Row was much frequented 
by the alumni of the various institutions there rep- 
resented, and presented a fine appearance, owing 
to the decorations with college colors. 

C. H. Thordarson continued to interest the pub- 
lic by the electrical experiments which he per- 




way line material were shown. The exhibit was 
lighted on one side by Cooper Hewitt mercury 
vapor lamps and on the other by Nernst lamps. 
The following Westinghouse representatives were 
in attendance : From the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company — T. P. Gaylord, man- 
ager of the Chicago office; W. R. Pinckard, Mal- 
colm MacNeil, J. W. Busch, Malcolm Carrington, 
C. A. Ross, Roy Schaulin, Charles Talbot, A. L. 
Millard, R. H. Moore, A. M. Miller, W. D. Mc- 
Donald, C. W. Regester, Stephen Gardner, E. M. 
Bischofr, Norman Stewart, H. H. Caughlan, S. G. 
Peticolas, R. L. Radcliff, S. J. Moran, James P. 
Gardiner, Ivar Hennings, W. M. 01een,B. J. Brown. 
George W. Canney; the Westinghouse Machine 
Company — J. B. Allen, western manager; Messrs. 
Wilkinson, Hinn, Simmons, Rosie.Johnson and Tripp ; 
the Nernst Lamp Company — Max Harris, general 
sales manager; A. C. Wales, district sales man- 
ager, Chicago ; Messrs. Griffith, Keene and Miller, 
and also Mr. G. C. Keech of the Cooper Hewitt 
Lamp Company, Chicago. J. C. McQuiston, super- 
intendent of the Westinghouse Companies' publish- 
ing department, and J. W. Lewis of the sales de- 
partment of the Westinghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company, were also in attendance. 

The exhibit of the Crocker- Wheeler Company 
was located on the main aisle in the north end of 
the building and was tastefully furnished with 
green and black decorations and Mission furniture, 
together with numerous framed pictures of motors 
and generators in machine-shop service. The ex- 
hibit comprised a complete line of the company's 
alternating-current and direct-current apparatus. 
There was shown a 75-kilowatt 2,300-voIt three- 
phase 60-cycIe belt-driven alternator, sold to the 
Geary Electric Light and Power Company of 
Geary, Oklahoma. In addition were exhibited a 
12-kilowatt form D generator, a five-horsepower 
3 to 1 variable-speed form I F motor, a five-horse- 
power standard form F motor and a two-horse- 
power standard form L. All of the above ap- 
paratus was shown in its standard shop finish. 
The company called attention to its name in a 
large electric sign, which was surmounted by an 
illumined trade-mark, operated by a flasher. The 
exhibit was arranged by and in charge of Mr. 
Julian Roe. western manager of the company. 

The Western Electric Company had a varied 



January 27, 1906 



exhibit. There were electric fans, 12 to 72 inches; 
a 50-kilowatt marine iel foi boats and n 

spaces, tight power tors, direct current and 

nating-current arc lamp which lighted thi 

brilliantly, a line ol bo tj pi - 1 an ; 

heavy duty, an emery grinder carefully d< 
[or proper height, an ai 1 light < gulato: in 

with the arc lamps, clectrii olde ■ iron, IhkIi 

tension insulators and battel ii 1 th< m 

interesting features "i thi 1 hibil tri tl tot 

operated 9ewing machine. I he motoi and 1 onl rol 
arrangement i^ made by the company. Sitting 

down at the mai him . ""' 1 ilj to pn down 

the treadle slightly to start thi motor; after thai 
increasing pressure speeds up il" 1 motor. Rcmo\ 

ing pressure from the treadle stops the 1 1 

Another feature "f interest was a small trans! 

wiili an attachment for thawing watei pipe 

\ ng tli^ attractions, il»' Stanley 1. I Electrii 

Manufacturing Company's booth was prominent 

1 in ihr wesl nl. ..1 ill.- booth ;i Challe ■ 1 rordon 

press from the A. I'' Wanner 1 unipam v.i belted 
to one of the new type 1. direct current motors and 
was operated by the linger Printing Company to 

turn nut calendar cards with a very e, ' ' '" "' 

the Stanley-G, I Works. Nearby an automatic 
slereuptiecni threw upnii a screen at regular inter 
vals reproductions of works of art interspersed 
with views of the company's factory and prom 
inert installations or apparatus of special note. I 111 
the south side of the booth were a number of alter- 
nating-current induction motors of various types; 
both single and polyphase were displayed, and 
beside them a series arc panel and an are lamp 
regulator, together with a type BO transformer. 
The latter has occasioned some discussion, it being 
the first shell type transformer of small size to be 
built on precisely the same lines as the company's 
large power transformers, which have proved to be 
so successful. In the rear of the booth various 
types of arc lamps were suspended from a test rack, 
prominent among them being the L 4 or midget 
lamp and the K 31, the new lamp of crosshead con- 
struction. Supplies of various kinds were ex- 
hibited and the booth was lighted by three arc 
lamps suspended from corner posts and bv an 
illuminated sign. Louis Friedmann, C. A. Cum- 
mings, C. A. Mann, Alexander Perry and A. A. 
Morton from the Chicago office, and W. M. Green 
were in attendance. 

The Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company 
of St. Louis was located in Section D, space 10. 
It showed among other things 60-cycle single-phase 
220-volt alternating-current motors in operation. 
There was also the new three-phase motor of 7 l / 2 - 
horsepower size, built with semi-enclosed field slots. 
Other apparatus making up this exhibit were the 
standard type M transformers and a complete line 
of switchboard and portable voltmeters, ammeters 
and wattmeters. The exhibit was in charge of Frank 
N. Jewett, C. C. Warner and C. B. Richardson. Mr. 
Jewett will represent the Wagner company as 



WKSTEkN ELECTRICIAN 



1 
reel 

• 

11. A 
hot epo 
hop -' I 

Jading. 



thown in that 

• ry way 

the fun..' 



73 







The Allis- Chalmers Company was one of the first 
of the exhibitors to have apparatus actually in 
operation, and it was represented by C. A. Tupper 
and S. R. Kerr. Direct current transmitted to a 
25-horsepower Bullock motor was used for driving 
a 60-kilowatt belted Bullock alternator, which, in 
turn, generated current for the operation of a line 
of Bullock induction motors, ranging in capacity 
from two to 30 horsepower. Each of the machines 
responded instantly to the turn of its switch, po- 



•y 


^d&7.ic£ 


• 


1 "it 

■ *■>*■ » 1 c * 




i 


• 5,, " S s*c mm i 


\v - *W 

_.!S» ' i*JA Ss 3?-- 


#«•,.,--» . f* A "lit; 

"' • ' "J 

' 






_ 


: -tut 




& J 





WESTINGHOUSE EXHIBIT AT 

district manager -of the Chicago office after Feb- 
ruary 1st. 

The Fort Wayne Electric Works' exhibit in C 13 
was attractive and interesting. Prepayment induction 
meters were the features attracting central-station 
men. In addition the Wood revolving fans and arc 
lights and type-A oil transformers, in operation, re- 
ceived favorable comments on all sides. The Shel- 
ton Electric Vibrator Company and the Neostyle 
Company (motors for which are made by the Ft. 
Wayne Electric Works) were operated in connec- 
tion with this exhibit. Connected with the exhibit 
were W. S. Goll (manager), J. H. Raymond, A. L. 



tential starters being used in connection with the 
induction motors. The booth was tastefully ar- 
ranged, and light was furnished by a resplendent 
red, white and blue electric sign, from which hung 
clusters of incandescent lamps. Altogether, the ex- 
hibit created a very favorable impression. 

Electricity for Domestic Purposes. 

Electricity for light, cooking and other domestic 
purposes was demonstrated at the booth of the 
Chicago Edison, Commonwealth Electric and North 
Shore electric companies. Last week a picture was 
shown of the north end of this booth, with the 



A. H. Burton of Marshall Field & Co. In the 

Edison booth was also a complete printing outfit, 
where a daily issue of the Electric City was printed, 
giving an example, incidently, of one of the im- 
portant uses to which central-station power may 
be put. Electric signs were also demonstrated. 
Cables by which current is distributed in the Edison 
system, and other features of the operating end of 
a central station were among the many interesting 
things to be seen at this booth. 

Practically all propositions for domestic and 
commercial use of electric heat were exemplified 
in the exhibit of the Simplex Electric Heating 
Company of Cambridgeport, Mass. There were 
shown three types of ovens, broilers, griddles, waf 
fle irons, frying kettles, etc. One of the most 
interesting parts of the exhibit was the demonstra- 
tion showing the use of the electric flatiron. The 
exhibit gave a very varied and interesting exposi- 
tion of the state of perfection to which the art 
of electric heating has been brought. 

In a booth adjoining the Edison dining room, 
the Brunswick Refrigerating Company of New 
Brunswick, N. J., exhibited a domestic refrigerator 
and ice machine which demonstrated the advantage 
of these small sets for household purposes. 

Telegraph axd Telephone Apparatus. 

City and long-distance telephone service was given 
by the Chicago Telephone Company, at whose booth 
a completely appointed telephone switchboard, with 
two operators, was maintained. Several representa- 
tives of the company were present to explain the 
apparatus. On the walls of the exhibit space was 
shown a complete set of photographs of the 
pany's exchange. 

The exhibit of the Automatic. Electric Company 
of Chicago was walled in at the back by mahog- 
any finished panelled walls seven feet six inches 
high, with square posts at the corners. Above the 
wall rose two electrically illuminated signs, those 
on each side reading "Automatic Electric Com- 
pany; Telephone Systems." these two being joined 
by a smaller panel with the familiar dial of the 
Automatic telephone cut out of wood and outlined 
by incandescent lamps. This dial was six feet 
high. Within the booth were located an Auto- 
matic switchboard, exhibit size, of the 10,000-type, 
to which were connected two straight-line wall tele- 
phones, two straight-line desk telephones and four 
party-line wall telephones. These were operated 
by the switchboard, and a ringing machine was 
mounted alongside of the board to furnish ringing 
power. Power for operating the Automatic tele- 
phone switches was furnished by a storage battery 
of 26 cells. The telephone department of the Illi- 
nois Tunnel Company had installed in the booth 
two Automatic desk telephones which were con 7 
nected with the downtown exchange. The Auto- 
matic company distributed at the show a new book- 
let with cover of Japanese vellum, on which is 
reproduced in the original tints the grand prize 



74 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 27, 1906 




Universal Electric Storac 
Safety- Armorite Conduit 
College Row. 
Roth Brothers. 
William P. Crockett Con- 



General Storage Battery Compai 
Rock Island Battery Company. 
American Electric Sign Compan 
Frank B. Cook. 
Peru Electric Manufacturing Co 



House of Economy and Flexduct (I 
Stanley-G. I. Electric Manufacturi 
Benjamin Electric Manufacturing 



8. Mark Manufacturing Company. 

(American Electrical Novelty and Manufac- 
12. \ turine Company. 

( Chicago Compound Battery Company. 
16. Manhattan Electrical Supply Company. 



CHARACTERISTIC EXHIBITS AT CHIC 



Januaiy 27, 1906 



WESTERN l-l-i ' 




I Acorn Shade and Re 
I Reynolds Electric Flasher Companv. 
" al Supply Compan 



Federal Electric 

McRoy Clay Works. 

H. Krantz Manu fact urine Company 



Standard Elec 



Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company. 
CeniraJ Electric Manufacturing Company. 
Bryan-Marsh Company. 
J American Electric Fuse Company. 
1 |. Lani: Electric Company. 
' H. B. Camp Company. 
G M. Gest. 



India Rubber and Gutta Perch a Ins> 



UTRICAL SHOW, JANUARY 15-27, 1906. 



7* 



disploma which was awarded to the company at 
the St. Louis World's Fair. The booklet contains 
a brief description of the working of the system 
with pictures and data of the larger exchanges 
built by the company. 

Interior telephones were shown in various de- 
signs by the Ackerman-Boland Telephone Company 
of Chicago, J. W. Liggett being in charge. 

The Swedish-American Telephone Company of 
Chicago occupied spaces ir and 12 in Section E. 
with a complete line of series exchange and bridg- 
ing telephones as well as central-office equipment. 
Its exhibit was neatly and cleverly arranged. 
Many telephone men were in attendance at the 
show and several good orders were secured by 
this company. A handsome souvenir postal card 
was distributed to visitors. One of the features of 
this exhibit was a fac simile of the new factory 
building. It was made of papier mache and was 
illuminated, giving the effect of being in actual 
operation. This exhibit was among the best in the 
show and had the stamp of originality and "inde- 
pendence" throughout. 

A unique booth was that of the Chicago and 
Milwaukee Telegraph Company. This booth was 
enclosed on two sides with a complete telegraph 
line — poles, guys, conductors, and all. 

In a spacious, booth a rack of guy anchors and 
boring tools were exhibited by the Miller Anchor 
Company. 

Visitors were always welcome at the De Forest 
booth, where commercial space-telegraph messages 
were taken and where the apparatus for sending 
and receiving was to be seen. 

Frank B. Cook's exhibit at the Electrical Show 
was not one to attract the general public. Were 
"Cook's" big double booth not directly in front of 
the band stand it is doubtful whether there would 
have been a crowd around it. But the exhibit in 
the booth to a telephone, electric-light or power 
man was a novelty and a treat. Of interest to the 
telephone man was a complete line of protective 
apparatus, from switchboard protectors to pole- 




cable terminals. One large main distributing frame 
had mounted on it the five different types of pro- 
tective apparatus that Mr. Cook has made, the 
earliest type being the No. 4 with tubular coil, and 
the latest being the No. 8 self-soldering protector. 
Mr. Cook also showed a decided novelty in the 
way of a land anchor which bores its own way into 
any depth of earth desired by simply turning it 
to the right. A single turn to the left throws 
out two blades into the earth, obtaining a hold on 
practically 18 inches of undisturbed earth by the 
use of an anchor with a six-inch blade. Cook's 
self-welding wire joints for connecting copper 
wires also attracted attention. 

Telephone men were attracted to the booth of 
the Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Manufacturing 
Company of Rochester by a full line of telephones 
and switchboard apparatus, the advantages of which 
were explained by a large corps of representatives 
from the company. The central feature was one 
section of a 12,500-line exchange switchboard. The 
multiple jacks on this board excited no little com- 
ment upon their small size, being only one-fourth 
inch in diameter. Another interesting part of the 
exhibit, about which little has been said hereto- 
fore, was the telephone for mine purposes. In 
mines the ordinary wooden telephone cabinet will 
decompose in a very short time, owing to the 
moisture in the atmosphere. The new set shown 
by the Stromberg-Carlson company is completely 
encased in an iron box, somewhat over a foot 
square, the door of which closes with a rubber 
gasket, making it entirely moisture-proof. The tele- 
phone set within the box is of special design, and 
the transmitter is supported between coil springs, 
so that the shock of blasting will not disarrange 
its delicate parts. The bell is in a compartment 
on top of the box, and a small opening into this 
compartment allows the sound to escape readily. 
Another interesting piece of apparatus was the 
company's intercommunicating telephone, which is 
constructed upon the same thorough principles as 
the regular exchange apparatus. 

De Veau telephones, Diamond H flush receptacles 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

by the William P. Crockett Company of Chicago, 
and Bossert specialties were attractively displayed. 

Batteries and Accumulators. 

What was shown principally by the Chicago 
Compound Battery Company was the compound 
primary battery, a new closed-circuit battery. 

The General Storage Battery Company of New 
York made an interesting exhibit in which it not 




only showed a full line of the Bijur high-duty 
storage batteries and plates but also gave working 
demonstrations of a booster regulator and com- 
plete yacht-lighting equipment. The booster used 
in conjunction with the regulator was of the con- 
stant-current type, being driven by a shunt-wound 
motor. This machine was used to charge a Bijur 
storage battery, consisting of 15 plates of standard 
size F having a capacity of 672 ampere-hours at an 
eight-hour rate of discharge. Discharges of over 
2,000 amperes, or three times the regulating rate, 
were taken from the cell by short-circuiting the 
cell through a low iron resistance. The charging 
current w r as maintained at approximately 100 am- 
peres, the variation due to the 2,000-ampere jerk 
only producing an instantaneous variation not ex- 
ceeding seven amperes in the current, after which 
it immediately returned to its former value, this 
giving regulation of less than one-half of one per 
cent, of the assumed load. The company was rep- 
resented by President Joseph Bijur, R. C. Shaal, 
sales department; F. E. Booss, engineering depart- 
ment, and F. L. Merrill, Chicago representative. 

In an artistically decorated booth the Chicago 
Battery Company exhibited the well-known Duro 
storage batteries and electrical lamps. 

Various types of storage batteries, both the 
Chloride accumulator and the Exide accumulator, 
were shown by the Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany of Philadelphia. The largest cell exhibited 
at the Electrical Show, a type R-71 element in a 
type R-83 lead-lined tank, was to be seen here and 
was a duplicate of one of the 2544 cells now being 
installed _ by the New York Central and Hudson 
River railroad on its lines between New York and 
Poughkeepsie. Each cell has a capacity to dis- 
charge 4.200 amperes for a period of one hour. 
Other cells shown were a G-9 in lead-lined tank, 
an_F-n in glass tank and an E-n in glass jar. A 
switchboard panel of blue Vermont marble had 
mounted upon it the standard instruments used in 
the operation of an electric-railway line battery. 




electrical 



Railroad car-lighting cells were shown. The Exide 
vehicle and sparking batteries occupied a prom- 
inent place. The exhibit was in charge of the 
company's Chicago office staff, consisting of G. H. 
Atkin, J. M. S. Waring, J. A. White, Irving Sea- 
man and H. B. Marshall. 

The Volta battery, an improved type of the 
Faure battery, was shown by the Volta Battery 
Company of Chicago. The smaller sizes are put 
up in metallic cells instead of the usual rubber 
boxes. This construction ensures durability and 
eliminates troubles, due to leakage of the electro- 
lyte. This booth was artistically set off with signs 
in the form of silken banners and was in charge 



January 27, 1906 

of Messrs. George Berger and Roderick Macrae. 
Over the desk in this exhibit was a large photo- 
graph of Lord Kelvin in his academic gown, un- 
derneath which were the words, "The Father of 
Electrical Engineers." On the side were shown 
autograph drawings in pencil and differential equa- 
tions expressing the inductance in a solenoid ring 
with and without a soft iron core. These equations 
now of such importance in dealing with alternat- 
ing-current problems are interesting from the fact 
that they were worked out before electricity was 
used, either for lighting or power, and before such 
things as voltmeters and ammeters were heard of, 
when inductance was known to a very few as 
"electromagnetic inertia" and when all measure- 
ments had to be taken with home-made galvano- 
meters. It was from these equations that Lord 
Kelvin was able to tell in advance of the retarda- 
tion of signals, due to electric capacity and induct- 
ance. 

Black Hawk dry batteries were exhibited by the 
Central Electric Manufacturing Company of Rock 
Island, 111. This battery is of a new type, and is 
said to be superior in regard to voltage and am- 
perage. 

The Universal Electric Storage Battery Company 
of Chicago showed as the main feature of its ex- 
hibit a 29-plate element of the type CX which was 
installed in one of the Chicago and Alton limited 
trains for electric lighting. This element weighs 
138 pounds and is rated at 800 ampere-hours. It 
had been in constant service for the last eight 
months.^ One positive plate was removed and 
shown in section to illustrate the peculiar sectional 
construction and also to show the absence of de- 
terioration and wear. 

The Vesta Accumulator Company showed a line 
of Vesta accumulators for headlights, etc. 

Many were interested in the Rock Island Battery 
Companys exhibit of dry batteries and Equipoise 
telephone arms. This company's factory in Cin- 
cinnati was recently burned down, but it now has 
a new factory in that city. 

Schoenmehl primary batteries, made by the 




Waterbury Battery Company of Waterbury, Conn., 
were displayed by the Bryant Zinc Company, which 
is the Chicago agent for this apparatus. 

Wires and Cables. 

The American Steel and Wire Company's ex- 
hibit was an allegory in wire. A tall Corinthian 
pillar rose at the corner. This pillar was wound 
with one mile of large-gauge burnished copper 
wire. From the upper portion 36 copper wires shot 
out over the exhibit, carried by six-arm telegraph 
poles. The exhibit covered a double space and 
embraced a display of panels upon which were 
shown the different stages of manufacture of 
electrical wires; first, a copper-stranded core, then 
the first, second and third windings of the differ- 
ent layers of insulating composition. The main 
exhibit represented the Crown, United States and 
multi-terminal rail bonds and soldered rail bonds 
in different varieties, both singly and applied in 
all the different forms to the rails. Also appli- 
ances for installing rail bonds were to be seen, 
such as gasoline-driven grinding machines, hand 
and lever-worked drills, including the new multi- 
ple-spindle drill for installing the quadruple-ter- 
minal bonds. This bond is applied to the ball of 
the rail. Half-inch holes are drilled half an inch 
deep into the outer side of the ball of rail, into 
which the corresponding copper studs are firmly 
driven and anchored. No cumbersome tools or 
highly skilled labor is required. A picture gallery 
was another feature, showing application of the 
company's cables to the underground railway in 
New York and of other large installations. A 
picture of a remarkable occurrence was most no- 
ticeable — a rare species of humpbacked whale with 
a submarine cable wrapped around his jaw. This 
cable was being laid in the Pacific Ocean when 
one day it was discovered that the cable was leak- 
ing. It was rewound back a ways and raised to 
the surface, when this whale was discovered. It 
had Ditten through the insulation in its struggles. 

The India Rubber and Gutta Percha Insulating 
Company of New York was quartered in a spa- 
cious booth. Here were shown panels of various 



January 27, rQo6 



WF.STF.h",' KIECTRICIAtf 



77 



types of insula!"! cable'., insulated wires, photo 

graphs of the company's various producl 1 

I- tions of standard cables, J B ( II on a 1 
teous i" visitors as he explained the merits of 
Habirshaw wires. 

Samples of weatherproof iron win-, galvanized 
strand, guy wire, rubber-covered wire, etc., b 
many specialties, wenl to make up the intcre ting 
1 liilm of the Monarch Electric and Wire Com- 
pany of Chicago. 

Magnet wires in all sizes it N<-. u double 

cotton-covered to No. 40 silk-covered; also braided 
and multiple conductors, were sbown by the Belden 
Manufacturing Company of Chicago, which also 
1I1 1 1 1 1 m ted its new catalogue on electrical wire 
and cords. A machine that attracted considerable 
attention at this exhibit was a magnet-winding 
machine. This machine is driven by a bell from 
a small motor or shafting. The winding spindle 



I which 
M. B tt a full 

in how 

I 
in 1 
the American Circulai I 
Mass., entertaim 
representative 11 !'• K ii 1 land 

■-. i , .i I I 

G. Griei I 

, onduil known ' I [id iron 

[111! known Elecl 

1 In- Marl Manufai 

hibiti '! .I'll'' luit pipi 

In ii| ],. a mduil with an 

clectrii ign ip d ov< ! 



fitted with two II trak- 

walU 

i much 
men. 

were well repi 




Allis-Chalmers Company. 



Storage Battery Compaoy. 






^f^^^tfJ Jr ft 


In' '^ : - 


m L 1 



Crocker-Wheeler Company. 



is fitted with a steel pulley, and is controlled by 

a rocker arm, having a friction driving pulley 

mounted on one end, and a brake on the other. 

Conduit and Insulating Materials. 

Immediately in front of the main entrance the 
visitor upon coming in was attracted by the display 
of Camp conduit of various sizes piled high in a 
manner to attract and hold attention. This was 
the exhibit of the H. B. Camp Company of New 
York. There was also displayed prominently the 
award ribbon given the H. B. Camp Company at 
the St. Louis Exposition. 

G. M. Gest of Cincinnati and New York, con- 
tractor, who installs a great deal of underground 
conduit, had an exhibit in connection with the 
H. B. Camp Company. He exhibited a large num- 
ber of interesting photographs showing under- 
ground construction work. The Gest cable rack 
was also prominently displayed. W. T. Jackson, 
manager of the Cincinnati office, was in charge. 

The McRoy Clay Works of Chicago enclosed 
their space on two sides by a wall of clay con- 
duit in large and small sizes. There were many 
handsome photographs on the wall of this booth 
showing conduit construction work. 

Examples of fiber conduit were the feature of 
the exhibit of the American Conduit Company. 



EXHIBITS AT CHICAGO ELEECTRICAL SHO' 

with a frame of conduit. D. L. Markle, manager 
of the conduit department, and C. E. Van Court 
were in charge. 

An excellent exhibit was that of the H. A. 
Peterson Manufacturing Company of Chicago. 
Harvey-duct is one of the staple products of this 
company, and was prominent in the exhibit. 

Near the entrance and on the main aisle of the 
Coliseum was a rather novel and at the same time 
artistic exhibit of Economy iron conduit and Flex- 
duct flexible conduit. The opportunities presented 
to attractively display iron conduit are few, but 
this exhibit was popularly voted as very attractive, 
which speaks well for its designer. This exhibit 
was built in the shape of a cabin with walls made 
of iron conduit varying in size from one-half inch 
to three inches in diameter, making it a novel en- 
closure, 10 feet high, with a peak roof composed 
of 4,000 feet of Flexduct flexible conduit made 
practically in one piece, being looped at the eaves 
without a break, and making a good exhibit of the 
flexibility of Flexduct. Air. I. A. Bennett, western 
manager, fitted the cabin with a complete office 
equipment in handsome Mission furniture, which 
is to be installed in the office of the company in 
Chicago. The exhibit was illuminated by several 
artistic fixtures, furnished by the Beardslee Chande- 
lier Manufacturing Company, the entrance being 



Western Electric Company, 
V. 

hibitors installed switchboards equipped with the 
latest types of these instruments.. 

Alpha H. Kling. sales manager of the Peru 
Electric Manufacturing Company of Peru. Ind„ 
presided over his company's booth with his usual 
enthusiasm, talking particularly upon standard 
porcelain and National Electrical Code standard 
specialties, of which there was a tasteful display 
arranged at the back of the booth in the form 
of a gre?t bullseye eight feet in diameter. 

Eight different lines of electrical specialties were 
exhibited in the booth of the Thos. G. Grier Com- 
pany of Chicago. Mr. Grier is the general sales 
manager for the Nungesser Electric Battery Com- 
pany, and a number of dry batteries, from a big 
cell 34 inches high to small pocket batteries four 
inches high, occupied one corner of the booth. Other 
apparatus exhibited was the well-known 1900 tele-, 
phone battery and the Acme ignition batten-. The 
Hubbel specialties were shown: also those of Mc- 
Leod. Ward & Co.. who have put out a new line 
of desk lamps, reading lamps and a novel array 
of double-jointed fixtures. The Wotton extension 
telephone gong was exhibited in a variety of woods 
and finishes. The Wirt Electric Company had a 
new line of rheostats. -The well-known line of 
tubes, knobs and cleats manufactured by the Brunt 



78 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 27, 1906 



Porcelain Works was in evidence, as was that of 
the Chase-Shawmut Company. 

The American Electric Fuse Company exhibited 
samples of its well-known specialties. 

Situated in one of the most prominent locations 
was the exhibit of the Manhattan Electrical Sup- 
ply Company of New York and Chicago. The 
exhibit was in charge of Mr. A. O. Einstein. One 
of the features of the Manhattan's exhibit was 
that every article, with the exception of the Saco 
light, which is a European product, was made in 
the factory in Jersey City. The Manhattan com- 
pany had a sign displayed in its exhibit offering 
the new catalogue free to those interested in the 
electrical business. 

At the exhibit of the American Electrical Sup- 
ply Company of Chicago were F. D. Phillips, E. J. 
Johnson and B. J. Mockenhaupt, who were glad 
to show and explain Colonial motors, De Veau 
telephones, Fostoria incandescent lamps and Inter- 
national meters. 

The H. Krantz Company of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
made a very creditable showing in its commodious 
quarters by its display of switches, panels, switch- 
board accessories, etc. 

Hylo lamps, switches, battery supplies and other 
accessories were shown by the Metropolitan Elec- 
trical Supply Company of Chicago. 

The Sangamo Electric Company of Springfield. 
111., exhibited, in conjunction with the Electric 
Appliance Company, which handles its product. 
A highly ornamental panel carried a number of 
the Sangamo meters and requisite connections. 
There was besides a large case containing sll the 
meter parts. 

The International direct-current instruments made 
by the International Electric Meter Company of 
Chicago were much in evidence at the show. Con- 
siderable attention was shown them and many 
orders are said to have been taken. An attractive 
souvenir was distributed by the International Elec- 
tric Meter Company in the shape of a small round 
pocket mirror having a cut of the instrument cov- 
ering the entire back, producing the appearance of 
a miniature instrument. The companies which dis- 
played their instruments were the American Elec- 
trical Supply Company of Chicago. Monarch Elec- 
tric and Wire Company of Chicago, and the J. 
Lang Electric Company of Chicago. International 
instruments were used for measuring purposes by 
the following exhibitors: Crane Company. B. F. 
Sturtevant Company and the American Electrical 
Novelty and Manufacturing Company. 

An extensive line of switchboard accessories and 



1 


0vi£53 




U :| 


L — ■ 


J35E^B33Ea_ 






- ^Fr^Mp**^"^' 




I 



panel boards was to be seen at the headquarters 
of the J. Lang Electric Company of Chicago. A 
handsome switchboard panel was also part of the 
exhibit, carrying International meters, which are 
handled by this company. 

Porter & Berg of Chicago exhibited a line of 
railway and mining supplies. Prominent also were 
the Locke insulators for high-tension work, some 
of those shown being for 50,000 and 6o,ooo-volt 
service. 

The Electric Appliance Company of Chicago was 
prominent near the main entrance to the Coliseum. 
Here were to be seen the varied lines of appliances 
and material which it handles. There was on ex- 
hibit insulated wire, fuses, pole-line accessories, 
lamps of all varieties, with frosted globes, clear 
globes and colored globes. Eaco series telephones 
were conspicuous; also batteries and other tele- 
phone appliances. 

The display made by the H. T. Paiste Company 
was noticeable, not only as an electrical center dur- 
ing the two weeks, but as one of social prominence 
as well. Western Manager James Wolff of the 
Paiste company was constantly on hand, and dur- 
ing the "busy time" the booth was particularly 
well patronized by buyers. Mr. Wolff made a hit 
with his souvenir gilt pin, representing a Paiste 
socket. During the last week of the exhibition a 
change in the souvenir was made, and the ex- 
position was literally flooded with a full-size repre- 
sentation in gold of a Paiste socket. This was at- 
tached to a red ribbon ; and, as one man put it, if 
everyone bought a socket that wore a Paiste sou- 
venir, Paiste sockets were flooding the country. 



Mr. Wolff, as one of the most prominent of the 
shows directors, certainly did his duty in the mat- 
ter of not only increasing the attendance, but of 
entertaining as well the host of friends of the 
Paiste company. Mr. H. T. Paiste was in attend- 
ance part of the time. 

Numerous new devices and specialties in the 
electrical line were a source of interest in the ex- 
hibit of the American Electrical Supply Company 
of Chicago, the booth being in conjunction with 
that of the Haller Machine Company, in the ex- 
treme southwest corner of the Coliseum. 

Arc bursts and clusters were the most notice- 
able features of the display made by the Benjamin 
Electric Manufacturing Company of Chicago. There 




was also on exhibit a cluster guard, which at- 
tracted much attention from its simplicity and the 
complete protection which it affords to cluster 
lights. 

Signs and Flashers. 

S. Newman was in charge of an interesting ex- 
hibit of fashion display signs manufactured by the 
Newman Manufacturing Company of Cincinnati. 

At the booth of the Federal Electric Company, 
Chicago, the honors were done bv James M. Gil- 
christ, R. B. Francis, G. C. Patterson and W. J. 
Devine. Samples of porcelain enameled steel panel 
and sectional-letter electric signs were in promi- 
nence at this booth; also Meridian and Federal 
clusters. A free word contest was instituted at 
the Federal exhibit, which took well, $25 in prizes 
being given away. Each person was given six 
cardboard boxes, each side of which contained a 
miniature Federal sign letter. Prizes were awarded 
for the best lists of words suitable for sign pur- 
poses which were formed out of the letters on the 
blocks. The company also had on exhibition sam- 
ples of an advertising campaign intended for cen- 
tral stations. 

Especially attractive on account of the life and 
motion given to the display by" the Reco and im- 
proved Reynolds flashers and the Reco whirler. 
was the booth of the Reynolds Electric Flasher 
Manufacturing Company of Chicago. Mr. C. F. 
Ziegler,-the president of the company, had personal 
charge of the display at night. 

Outside of its regular line, the Haller Machine 
Company showed some entirely new schemes in 
sign lighting, among them a large grooved letter 
"0" flashed in three different colors. A great at- 
traction, also, were the "jumping rabbits," designed 
for sign borders. Many other oddities in signs 
were on exhibit, and were explained by Carl Hal- 
ler. William Goltz and Harvey Feltzer. 

F. B. Badt & Co., with offices at 1503-04 Monad- 
nock Block, Chicago, exhibited in the extreme 
southwest corner of the Coliseum an innovation in 
sign flashers. This flasher, called the Monadnock, 
runs without a motor, and was connected up to 
a large sign reading, "American." This flasher 
handles up to 100 amperes on each side of a sign, 
the flasher being so designed as to operate first 
! one side of an illuminated sign and then the oppo- 
site side. The remarkable thing about this flasher 
is the low current consumption for its operation, 
the fact being that a Weston instrument placed in 
circuit with it indicates but two-tenths of an am- 
pere average at no volts, as being the actual con- 
sumption for the operation of the flasher. The 
actual break of the 100 amperes on this flasher 
is made between two three-fourths-inch carbons, 
and the break is so rapid that no arc is set up, 
and at the end of three months it is stated that 
■ there was no depreciable difference in the length 
of the carbon rods used. This would seem to indi- 
cate that the flasher would last for a very long 
time, as claimed by the inventor. This flasher was 
exhibited jointly with the Haller Machine Com- 
pany of Chicago, and was patented by Professor 
Badt, who also owns the basic patent on "ske- 
doodle" devices. F. B. Badt & Co., who are 
western agents for Weston instruments, will be 



glad to send their complete pocket catalogue atid 
also their new pocket telegraph code to any ad- 
dress. 

Electric signs of a highly ornamental nature 
made the booth of the American Electric Sign 
Company not only attractive, but at the same time 
advanced several new ideas in this line. 

Shades and Reflectors. 

An extensive line of reflectors were on exhibi- 
tion by Overbagh & Ayres, both of the glass and 
aluminum types. 

Shades, reflectors and portables of all kinds were 
exhibited by the Chicago Lamp and Reflector Com- 
pany of Chicago in one of the most artistic booths 
at the Show. 

Shades of a highly artistic order were exhibited 
in an artistic display made by the Acorn Shade and 
Reflector Company. The booth was one to attract 
more than passing attention on account of the 
beauty of the products shown and their arrange- 
ment. 

Delicate tints and handsome designs in orna- 
mental lighting glassware attracted many to the 
booth of the Phcenix Glass Company of New York. 
E. H. Fox, western manager, was in charge, as- 
sisted by C. C. Fricke. A. H. Patterson, vice- 
president of the company, was also in attendance 
part of the time, having come on from New York. 

Novelties. 

Electrical novelties and fixtures were displayed 
in an artistic booth by the Adams-Arthurs Com- 
pany. 

Holcomb & Co. of Chicago showed many new 
and interesting things in the line of electrical nov- 
elties, sockets, small batteries, etc. 

Vibrators, massage apparatus, etc., were demon- 
strated by Sam J. Gorman & Co. 

S. B. Geen and A. Anderson were in charge 
of the exhibits of the Geen Electric Novelty and 
Manufacturing Company, which showed a complete 
line of electrical novelties, decorative lamps and 
the Genco dry battery. 

Electrical novelties, heating and cooking devices, 
etc., were exhibited in the handsomely decorated 
booth of the McFell Electric Company of Chicago. 
Electric Gas Lighting Company of Boston, Bishop 
Gutta Percha Company of New York, Dayton Elec- 
trical Manufacturing Company of Dayton, Ohio. 




SCHOTT S EXHIBIT AT 



ELECTRICAL SHOW. 



American Electrical Heater Company of Detroit 
and the Schwarze Electric Company of Adrian, 
Mich. One of the interesting features in this ex- 
hibit was the McFell fire-alarm system ; also the 
Scwarze Universal bell, which is a radical de- 
parture from the old methods of gong and bell 
ringing. 

Novelties in the electrical line were displayed 
in a pleasing manner by the American Electric 
Novelty and Manufacturing Company of New York. 

MOTOR-CONTROL SYSTEMS. 

The Electro-Dynamic Company of Bayonne, N. J., 
gave an interesting exhibit, consisting of a series 
of tests made on an Inter-pole motor, demonstrat- 
ing that the claims made for this motor are well 
within its ability. Among the tests made were: 
Reversibility at any speed and at all loads, in- 
cluding 100 per cent, overload; constant speed from 
no load to full load at any set speed ; sparkless 
commutation at all speeds and at all loads, includ- 
ing 100 per cent, overload in either direction. The 
company was represented by Mr. F. L. Merrill, 
manager of the Chicago branch, and Mr. F. G. 
Bell of the home office. 

The J. L. Schureman Companj- exhibited a com- 
plete line of elevator controllers. Much interest 
was also excited by the remote-control magnet 
switches on exhibition. This type of switch elimi- 
nates the necessity of running heavy mains to 
the point of operation. 

The Lincoln variable-speed motor, made by the 
Lincoln Electric Manufacturing Company of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, attracted much attention. This motor 



Januarj 27, k/Xj 



WESTERN ELEI 'I I-!- 






is a recent invention of Mr. J. C. Lincoln and 
marks a dccidi 'I adv; in the building 1 

1 la toi 1 hi 1 

arc that the peed 1 an to I 

to i" 1, "i gri ater, 1 inl I powt r al all 

peed . I"' u c on ordinal y two 

iri uil No controllci i used I thi 

operate in eithi 1 d al full lo: ' 

Mr. II. Morlcy Hiti 1 1 ol Clcvi land 

Ill ( |i:ii yr mI lie . lillill 

Misr 11 1 EOI 

A model of a complete coal wa hci and al 
some fine photograph and pi operty plai 

at the exhibit of the Pcabody Coal Coni- 

j 1 . 1 1 1 v of Chicago. 

One of the booths around which then was al 

ways a croud, when den trations were going 

* was thi \V. Scheidcl & Co of I hn igo 

■ ■ r 1 1. interesting expei 1 1 ■■■ 11 med In 

daily, and the people h ere nevci tired ol 1 
g the X-ray and other apparatu 

The Standard Electrical Manufacturing C pan; 

and the Star Electric Company of Niles, Ohio, in 
Section C to,, were very much in cvideno with a 
display of their lamps and other products, and 
Mr. James P. Gilbert, secretary and treasurer of 

both companies, T. H Bullock of the Chic 

office, R. W. Lease, Robert Miller and 1 1 H 
\lhni were present in the interest of these con- 
cerns. 

An exhibit of historical interest was thai of 
Charles E. Gregory. Ii consisted of the first elec- 
tric -light plant in Illinois, installed in a Chicago 
'tore. The dynamo and some of the lamps were 
Shown, the latter charged with nitrogen, original 
voltage unknown. 

Simple bul original in design, the exhibit of the 
National Carbon Company of Cleveland attracted 
no little attention. Large cylinders of carbon, and 
also smaller pieces of the company's product were 
built up in a large cubical structure in the center 
of the booth. There were also ample facilities for 
those who wished to rest there. 

The B. F. Slurtevant Company had a working 
exhibit at the Show.' 

An armature for an electrical generator was 
constructed in the booth of the Guarantee Electric 
Company, an interesting process to visitors who 
were unacquainted with the method. There was 
also a line of small power motors shown at this 
booth. 

An interesting piece of apparatus was the small 
Curtis steam turbine exhibited by the General Elec- 
tric Company in a space apart from its regular 
booth. This machine was of the horizontal type, 
driving an alternator at 3,6co revolutions per min- 
ute. The turbine was of 33.53 horsepower. 

The Dearborn Paint Company was an exhibitor 
at the Show. 

A unique and interesting exhibit at the show 
was that of the American Bank Protector Com- 
pany. The system shown in operation is known 
as the automatic double electrical burglar-alarm 
system. 

Engineers and others interested in power-plant 
equipment found much of interest in the exhibit 
of the Crane Company, Chicago, in which were 
shown this company's latest designs and improve- 
ments in valves and steam specialties. 

A complete and interesting line of portable elec- 
tric drills, "holders-on" and storage batteries was 
shown by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company. 
A line of magnetic "old men" or "'holders-on," 
for use with the drills, was interesting. This piece 
of apparatus is used entirely without bolts, and 
will hold in any position, the magnetic force being 
sufficient to hold it to the work against the pres- 
sure of the feed screw of the drill. 

A device which will not only appeal to building 
contractors and decorators, but also to central- 
station men, as a user of current, was the elec- 
trically operated floor polisher, exhibited bv J. P. 
Sullivan & Co. 

The Fair Store of Chicago had a very artistic 
display of electrical novelties and fixtures at the 
show. 

W. H. Schott of Chicago entertained many 
friends at his handsome booth near the northeast 
corner of the hall. In this booth was also installed 
a small system of piping, arranged to show the 
working from boiler to consumer of the well-known 
Schott system of heating. 

A device not electrical but of interest to engi- 
neers in general was the Niagara tachometer, which 
indicates the speed of a machine connected to it 
by the rise of a liquid in a tube, centrifugal force 
being the actuating means. It was exhibited by 
the Niagara Tachometer and Instrument Companv 
of Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

The Bryan-Marsh Company, although it did not 
make an extensive display of its lamp products, 
had one of the most luxuriously arranged booths 
in the Coliseum, which was much frequented by 
the many friends of the company. 

Electrical headlights of various sizes dazzled the 
eyes of visitors at the hooth of the Edwards Elec- 
tric Headlight Company of Laporte, Ind. 

The Sandwich Pole-changer ComDany of Sand- 
wich, 111., had on exhibition the Sandwich ohm- 
meter, pole-changer and duplexer at the exhibits 
of the Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Manufacturing 
Company and the Electrical Appliance Company. 



Northwestern Electrical Association. 

,'h and 
iKlh, and the Ihoroughl 
.-.■ re di 

ined to let no ti them 

from di 1 
1 he opi ning 

1 
crn Electi 

irning 

Harold ' 
the asso 
E thi 

pai 1 hi ha I 'I from 

h I natun 

Mr. Almerl I 

■ •i the 
1 Light, Heal and Powei Companj 

Park, III ntine Hydraul 

p in-. -.I ch, He 

also ha ai ti d in • 1 on ulting several 

othei el light ind 

i.i F01 year, he was engineer I 

Chicago office of the Buckeye and Jandiu I 



Willian 

■ 

committi 

■ 

which the secretary's financial report 
milted. 

1 be 

■■t th** 
"Proper Handling 

II Barrett. In the si 




E. B. Kirk. Fie 



Company of Cleveland. Previous to that he was 
for four years superintendent of water and light 
for the Lincoln Park commissioners of Chicago. 
Nine years ago he was instructor for a short time 
at the Chicago School of Applied Electricity. Pre- 
vious to this, after finishing his schooling at the 
Chicago English High and Manual Training School 
and the Chicago Business Law School, Mr. Almert 
was for five years in the engineering department 
of the Chicago Telephone Company. Mr. Almert 
is only 30 years old', and for one of that age his 
experience has been remarkably broad and varied. 

Edward B. Kirk of Oshkosh, Wis., first vice- 
president of the association, is vice-president and 
general manager of the Winnebago Traction Com- 
pany of Oshkosh. Mr. Kirk graduated from Pur- 
due University with the class of 1807 in electrical 
engineering. For one year he was electrician in 
charge of the lighting plant at the Illinois Cen- 
tral Hospital. Jacksonville, 111. After this he was 
for six months shop foreman of the Jacksonville 
Railway Company at Jacksonville, 111. Four years 
were spent as superintendent of the Jacksonville 
Railway Company at the same place. For six 
months Mr. Kirk was engineer of tests for the 
Milwaukee Electric Company, Milwaukee, Wis., 
and for one year electrical engineer and master 
mechanic for the Grand Rapids, Grand Haven and 
Muskegon Railway Company, a high-speed, third- 
rail electric line. Since December, icoa, he has 
been with the Winnebago Traction Company as 
general manager and vice-president. 

Frank J. Baker, second vice-president, is the man- 
ager of the North Shore Electric Company, which 
furnishes current to towns in the vicinity of Chi- 
cago both along the north shore of Lake Michigan 
and in a belt surrounding Chicago. Mr. Baker is 
well-known to central-station men and his election 
was a well-deserved compliment to his ability. 

B. C. Adams of Madison. Wis., superintendent 
of distribution of the gas and electric departments 
of the Madison Gas and Electric Company, was 
elected secretary-treasurer of the association. Mr. 
Adams is a young man well liked by members of 
the association, which he but recently joined. In 
1903 he graduated from the electrical engineering 
department of the University of Wisconsin and 
for a time was emoloyed by the Colorado Tele- 
phone Company at Denver. The remainder of his 
experience has been with the Madison Gas and 
Electric Company, where he was successively con- 
nected with the operation of the steam plant, gas- 
engine plant, coal-gas works and water-gas plant, 
until finally he was appointed to the responsible 
position of superintendent of distribution. 

The new officers were installed on Thursday. 



the paper was read by Irving P. Lord of Waupaca 
and was well discussed. 

Wednesday afternoon there were three papers 
read. The first was by P. H. Korst of Janesville 
upon "Suggestions for Increasing the Power Output 
of Central Stations." The next was by W. D 
Buford of La Cross upon "Modern L'nderground 
Construction." Following suggestions made last 
year, written discussions were called for from a 
number of the members. One of these written re- 
ports was trom G. B. Springer of Chicago on Mr 
Buford's paper. The paper was discussed generally 
also by the members present. The last paper on 
Wednesday was by George Williams on the "Or- 
ganization and Development of N'ew-busis ■ 
partments." a written report on this paper being 
contributed by Mr. Almert. 

The remaining papers on the programme were 
rend on Thursday and were as follows: "Govern- 
ment Test on Fuels." by C. J. Davisson (report by 
A. W. Richter) : "Successful Applications of New 
Business Methods," by John S. Allen : "The Eco- 
nomics of Combined Railway and Power Plants." 
by Ernest Gonzenbach : "The Effect of Load Factor 
on Station Costs," by R. N. Kimball. 

Seven new members were elected to the associa- 
tion at the close of the session Thursday. The 
executive committee held a meeting on Friday 
morning, which closed the proceedings of the con- 
vention. 



National Electric-light Convention to Be 
Held at Atlantic City. 

Official announcement is made that the twenty- 
ninth convention of the National Electric Light As- 
sociation will be held at Atlantic City. X. J., on 
June 5. 6. 7 and 8. 1006. Owing to the many addi- 
tions to the membership of the association now 
being made, as well as other evidences of increased 
interest in the association work, it is confidently 
believed that all previous records of attendance will 
be broken. It is the intention to provide a suitable 
hall for such exhibits as may be made by the 
manufacturers and supply dealers who are members 
of the association. 



The Iron Trade Review of Cleveland believes the 
electrification of most of the steam railroads of 
the United States is as certain as any future great 
event can be. It believes that many hundreds of 
millions of dollars will be spent in this way during 
the next quarter century- The change will nat- 
urally follow much the same lines as did the in- 
troduction of the present high-power locomotive, 
the great trunk lines taking the lead and being 
r less closelv followed bv the smaller roads. 



So 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

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each number of the Western Electrician are copyrighted. 
This paper is entered at the Chicago postofflceas mail matter 
of the second class. 

STJBSCKIPTION, in advance, postage prepaid, $3.00 for a 
full year of 53 numbers; in clubs of four or more. $2.50, with free 
extra copy for eight subscriptions; foreign countries. 95.00a 
year: single copies, 10 cents. When change of address is re- 
quested, the old address as well as tbe new should be given. 

CORRESPONDENCE relating to electricity or any of its 
practical applicat ions is cordially incited, and the co-operation 
of all electrical thinkers and workers earnestly desired. Clear, 
concise, well written articles are especially welcome; and com- 
munications, views, news items, local newspaper clippings, or 
any information likely to interest electricians, wiAl be thank- 
fully received and cheerfully acknowledged. 

ADVERTISING-.— The Western Electrician— the only 
general electrical paper published in the West— thoroughly 
covers a territory exclusively its own. This is a cz-AIM which 

CAN BE MADE BT NO OTHER ELECTRICAL JOURNAL IN THE 

United States- Electrical merchants and manufacturers 
desiriinj went em trade -will appreciate the unequaled valttz 
of this journal as an advertising medium in its special field 
Advertising rates are moderate, and will be furnished en 
application. 

REMITTANCES.— All checks, drafts and other remit- 
tances should be made payable to the order of the publishers 
the Electrician Publishing Company, and addressed to th€ 
offices of publication. Suite 510, Marquette Building (2tW 
Dearborn Street), Chicago. Illinois, If. S. A. 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Steam-turbine Power Station in the Clyde Valley Near Glas- 
gow. By Frank C. Perkins. Illustrated 7L 72 

Tbe Chicago Electrical Show. Illustrated 

72, 73.74, 75. 76. 77.78. 79 

Northwestern Electrical Association. With portraits 79 

National Electric-light Convention to be Held in Atlantic City 79 

Editorial 80 

The Franklin Bicentenary. Illustrated 81. 82 

Proposed Power Development from the Glaciers on Mount 

Hood 82 

Municipal Ownership Measures of Mayor Dunne Passed by 

Chicago City Council 82 

Sleet Hampers Transportation and Communication Facilities 

in Chicago 82 

Electrical Salesmen's Association. Illustrated 83 

Proposed Power Transmission in Western New York S3 

Indiana Engineering Association 83 

Selling Electricity 84, 85 

The Sale of Electric Light and Power. By S. Morgan 

Bushnell 84 

Co-operation in Stimulating the Use of Current-consuming 

Devices. By J. Robert Crouse. (Communication.) 84. 85 

Central-station Advertising. Illustrated 85 

Suggestions for Increasing the Power Output of Central 

Stations. By P. H. Korst 85 

Allis-Chalmers Railway Motor. Illustrated . 86 

New Fuseless Rosettes. Illustrated 86 

New Holophane Reflector. Illustrated 86 

Municipal Street Railway in British Columbia Loses Money.. 86 

Electrically Operated Pulp Mill at Sauk Rapids, Minnesota... 86 
Independent Telephone Interests Win in Important Patent 

Litigation 87 

New Officers for Indianapolis Telephone Companies 87 

Indiana Telephone Items 87 

Telephone News from the Northwest 87 

Ohio Telephone Notes 87 

Michigan Telephone Matters 87, 88 

New Companies 88 

Extensions and Improvements 88 

General Telephone News 88 

Chicago Telephone Company's Report 88 

Bell Telephone Output for 1905 88 

DEPARTMENTS. 

Correspondence 88, 89, 90 

Great Britain 88, 89 

Dominion of Canada 89 

New York 89 

Ohio 89 

Michigan 89 

Indiana 90 

Pacific Slope 90 

Northwestern States 90 

Personal 90 

Electric Lighting 90 

Electric Railways 90 

Publications oo, 91 

Societies and Schools 91 

Miscellaneous 91 

Trade News 91 

Business 91 

Illustrated Electrical Patent Record 91, 92 



DATES AHEAD. 

Chicago Electrical Show (first annual exhibtion of Elec- 
trical Trades Exposition Company) , Coliseum, Chicago, Jan- 
uary 15th to 27th. 

National Electric Light Association (annual convention), 
Atlantic City, N. J., June 5th to 8th, inclusive. 



The success of the Chicago Electrical Show is 
a credit to the electrical industry. The show is 
honestly electrical, managed by electrical men, and 
containing genuine electrical exhibits, which are 
up-to-date, varied and instructive. It has ex- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

cited the interest of the press and public of Chi- 
cago, who have liberally supported it, and it has 
drawn a large out-of-town attendance of electrical 
men. The result has entirely justified the expecta- 
tions of the Chicago electrical men who organized 
the show and worked so hard for its success. No 
doubt the show will hereafter be an annual event, 
as it should be. 



January 27, 1906 

more particularly eligible for the office he now 
holds. He is well known and well liked by the 
electrical fraternity, and his clear-headed progres- 
siveness and popularity should do much for the 
success of the association during the coming year. 



Helpfulness in the matter of securing new busi- 
ness for the central station is one of the functions 
of the electrical journals, and the fact is grace- 
fully recognized by Mr. John S. Allen in his paoer 
on "The Proper Handling of the New Business 
Department," read before the Northwestern Elec- 
trical Association last week. The electric-light 
company, he truthfully says, should subscribe, for 
the benefit of the new-business department, for at 
least six magazines. Mr. Allen suggests two lists 
of helpful journals, the second given as supple- 
mentary. The Western Electrician, it is pleasing 
to observe, is on the first list. 



Automobile trucks of the electric variety have 
one certain advantage over their gasoline com- 
petitors ; they are safe. An illustration is afforded 
by the following news item from the Chicago Daily 
News of January nth: "An auto-truck, valued at 
$5,000, and owned by Lyon & Healy, caught fire 
at One-hundred-and-sixth Street and" Avenue L 
today from an explosion of gasoline. Three men 
who were on the truck at the time escaped un- 
hurt and, assisted by firemen, saved a piano which 
was in the truck." The incident discloses a prac- 
tical objection to the gasoline truck. Nobody ever 
heard of an electric vehicle catching fire from any 
internal cause. 



Telegraphy., in mimic representation, has for 
many years had a place on the stage, and play- 
goers can easily recall not a few dramatic climaxes 
in which the ticker or the operator's room or the 
cross-country construction played a conspicuous 
part. Some of these plays, like the well-known 
"Secret Service," with its readily remembered tele- 
graph scene, were meritorious productions and 
received the applause of theater frequenters of the 
better grade. But the newer "wireless," which has 
of late made its appearance on the stage, appears 
to be restricted to melodrama as yet. Billboards 
bear gaudy pictures of alleged space-telegraph sta- 
tions with aerials shaped like a pantograph spit- 
ting fire into the atmosphere in the most terrifying 
and absurd fashion. This is, we are told, "the 
famous wireless telegraphy scene — the first produc- 
tion on any stage." It is conceivable that "wire- 
less" episodes could be deftly woven into legitimate 
drama. Indeed, a story built around the war cor- 
respondents' use of space telegraphy from their 
dispatch boats during the Russo-Japanese war 
might be thrilling and true to the fact. But the 
melodramatic "wireless" of the forked-lightning 
variety is merely tiresome. The "first production" 
of such trash might well be the last. 



Holding an electrical convention during an ex- 
position has its drawbacks as well as its advan- 
tages, as was demonstrated during the World's Fairs 
of Chicago and St. Louis. The great outside at- 
traction may serve as a magnet to draw a greater 
attendance than would be otherwise the case, but 
yet the convention has in a measure to- compete 
with the big show, with the result that those who 
attend are strongly tempted to "play hookey" in- 
stead of discussing problems of management in the 
convention hall. Nevertheless, the Northwestern 
Electrical Association held a creditable convention 
in Chicago last week during the period of the 
Electrical Show. A good programme had been 
arranged, and it was carried out faithfully. The 
papers were up-to-date, including two on the "new- 
business" propaganda which is now attracting so 
much attention. One of these papers is given in 
this issue of the Western Electrician, and others, 
with discussion, will be given later. The associa- 
tion has chosen an entire new administration, after 
giving a unanimous vote of thanks to Mr. Mercein, 
who has been secretary and treasurer of the asso- 
ciation for so many years. Mr. Almert, the new 
president, is a resident of Chicago, although his 
central-station interests in Michigan make him 



In relation to the electrification of the Sim- 
plon Tunnel the Western Electrician is now ad- 
vised that the negotiations which have been in 
progress for some time between the Swiss and 
Italian governments relative to the subject have re- 
cently been concluded. The system to be adopted 
is that at present in use on the Valtellina railway 
in Northern Italy. We understand that various 
non-technical reasons have conduced to the choice 
of the three-phase system in this case, and we are 
furthermore informed that the merits of the single- 
phase system of traction have not been overlooked, 
for its adoption in the future has been provided for 
in the contract recently awarded the Brown-Boveri 
concern by the Swiss authorities. 

Both the Swiss and Italian governments were 
very desirous that the electric trains should be 
running at the inauguration of the tunnel early in 
June next, and the Italian government has agreed 
to lend the necessary locomotives from the Valtel- 
lina line in case the contractors are unable to de- 
liver the three-phase locomotives in time for this 
date. This solution has been accepted by the Swiss 
government. Two sub-stations will be established, 
one at each end of the tunnel, and current will be 
supplied gratis by the Swiss government up to 
these points of conversion. This current will be 
generated at one of the numerous hydraulic sta- 
tions in the district. The estimates have been based 
upon an assumed train weight of 300 tons for pas- 
senger trains and about 4CO tons for freieht trains, 
with approximate speeds of 89 and 35 kilometers 
an hour, respectively. 

The prices in the contract include that for the 
train haulage, which averages 60 centimes per train 
kilometer. The contract further provides for the 
substitution of single-phase traction for the three- 
phase to be provisionally installed. Apparently the 
Swiss government authorities took a large view 
of the question in this particular and were firm in 
their desire to have the contract modelled to in- 
clude the eventuality of the adoption of single- 
phase traction. 



By a complete and curious reversal in its policy 
the Chicago City Council has abandoned its sup- 
port of the principle of private ownership, as ex- 
pressed in the ordinances extending the franchises 
of the street-railway companies, and has given its 
adherence to the mayor's policy, or rather to one 
of his policies — and not the one he favored most, 
which was his "contract plan" — looking toward 
municipal ownership of Chicago street-railway 
lines. In other words, the council, on January 
18th, by a vote of 37 to 28, adopted a resolution 
providing for the issue and sale of $75,000,000 
worth of "Mueller-law certificates," the proceeds to 
be used for the purchase, construction and equip- 
ment of street railways "in and upon and along the 
streets upon which street-railway tracks are already 
located." This action, by an express provision of 
the Mueller law, is subject to ratification by vote 
of the people at the municipal election of next 
April. It is not certain at this writing whether the 
proposed extension ordinances will be submitted 
at that time. But it is to be hoped that they may 
be, so that a clear-cut issue may be presented to 
the voters, who should decide between two concrete 
policies. After the election the final solution of 
the almost interminable traction imbroglio should 
be appreciably nearer. That result, at least, will 
be some alleviation of a dismal situation. 

In the Chicago City Council there is one group 
of aldermen conscientiously favoring immediate 
municipal ownership. Another group, just as hon- 
est, considers municipal ownership at the present 
time inexpedient. But there is a third group which 
does not appear to be governed very much, in con- 
sidering this question, by principles of settled con- 
victions of any kind. The aldermen constituting this 
remnant of other days have now, for reasons best 
known to themselves, swayed the balance in favor 
of municipal ownershin. The victory is one of 
which the honest municipal-ownership aldermen are 
not particularly proud. 



January 27, 1906 

The Franklin Bicentenary. 
'I he two lirin«li«<]tli annivei ai j of thi bi 
Benjamin Franklin wai 1 eli bi ated «jrj generally 
on January 171b i» Boston, Philadelphia, New 
York, Chicago and other large citie . In Phila 
delphia, where Franklin Bpenl the greater pan ol 
his long and useful life, .-ill the public chool 
many churches, societies and institutions united in 
observances, and at nij:lit lie re wag a beautiful 
illumination of the greal municipal building. The 

e: is, however, were only preliminary to the 

celebration, which will be held Easter week in 
Philadelphia and in France, in Boston He- state 
of Massachusetts and the cily of Boston unit d m 
celebrating the two-hundredth anniversary of the 
liirlb of Benjamin Franklin. I'nUie exerri 
held in Symphony Hall in the presence of a large 
company. The programme included the singing 
of historical and patriotic selections by a chorus 
of pupils from the Boston public schools and ad- 
dresses by prominent men. There were also publii 
meetings, banquets and lectures in New York, 
Chicago and elsewhere, printers and publishers 
being especially conspicuous in paying these honors. 
An interesting feature in Chicago was the 
designation of January 171b at the Electrical Show 
as "Franklin Day." Well executed bronze medals 
were given free to all in attendance. The accom- 
panying illustration shows one side of the medal, 
with the head of the philosopher in bas-relief. 

The other illustration accompanying this article 
shows the statute of Franklin designed by John 
J. Boyle, the American sculptor. A replica of this 
statue is to be unveiled in Paris during the bicen- 
tenary celebration. 

It is interesting to review at this time what 
Franklin did for science. Why should scientific 
and electrical men pay tribute to bis memory? 
The Western Electrician can perhaps best answer 
this question by quoting from an article written 
by the late John B. O'Hara, at that time managing 
editor of this journal, on the occasion of the dedi- 
cation of the Franklin statue in Lincoln Park in 
1896. What follows, therefore, is from Mr. O'Hara's 
pen. 

Every schoolboy is familiar with the experiment 
that made Franklin's name immortal, but how few 
educated men are fully acquainted with the studies 
and experiments, the labor and trials, the disap- 
pointments and failures experienced by this emi- 
nent philosopher in solving the great problem of 
the age? There were many considerations that 
entered into the subject and they must now be 
recognized if proper credit is to be given for the 
successful accomplishment of Franklin's great un- 
dertaking. One has only to consider the preju- 
dices and superstitions of the people, the awe with 
which they regarded the "celestial fire" in those 
days, to realize the strength of mind and steadfast- 
ness of purpose which Franklin possessed. "From 
lightning and tempest, from plague, pestilence and 




famine," the Christian world prayed for delivery, 
and the full meaning and significance of this invo- 
cation of divine protection or interposition can best 
be understood after an examination of the literature 
of early days. It abounds in reference to this fire 
from heaven — the scourge which the human family 
most dreaded. Christian nations looked to the 
Almighty for protection from this terrible visita- 
tion of the wrath of Jehovah, and they refused to 
entertain the idea that divine will might be exer- 
cised through the instrumentality of man's de- 
vices. This sentiment- prevailed long after the 
announcement of Franklin's discovery, and it may 
be said to have many supporters at the present 
time. 

Abbe Nollet voiced the belief of the age when 
he declared it "was as impious to ward off God's 
lightnings as for a child to resist the chastening rod 
of the father." And yet the man who spoke thus 
was one of the foremost scientists of his day and 
generation. He had followed Franklin's experi- 
mental work in its development with no little inter- 
est, and he had himself devoted much thought to 
the identity of electricity and lightning. His treat- 
ise on physics, which appeared in 1748, contained 
an article which formed a valuable contribution 
to the literature of this subject. In this he says: 
"If anyone should take upon him to prove from 
well connected comparison of phenomena that thun- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 

thai frighten u , and thai ii . 
thai 1 cloud prepared 

it 1,, 
trized bod 

I, would 

.Hid in Support of it how 01 

pn 11 hi 1 hi 1 

■'. nli 1 I' ■ tricity." 

hu . . 1 

nti mporary; yet when 
innom of 




THE BOYLE STATUE OK FRANKLIN. 

ments reached Europe and the means to which the 
'discovery was to be applied. Abbe Nollet did not 
hesitate to condemn the plan as "an impious defi- 
ance of the power of the Almighty." He had 
many supporters, too, among the learned men of 
Europe and this country. 

Still Franklin determined to utilize his discovery 
for the benefit of mankind in spite of adverse 
criticism and condemnation of many who had for- 
merly admired and supported him. It was for this 
purpose that he had labored so unceasingly, that 
he had endured privations and hardship and had 
braved death itself in the pursuit of his investiga- 

Franklin was eminently practical; all of his 
work was directed toward the amelioration of the 
condition of his fellows. When he engaged in the 
study of electricity in ' 1746 he at once sought a 
way to secure some practical benefit from this sci- 
entific toy. It was in the experiments conducted at 
Philadelphia that it was first demonstrated that 
the electric motor could be utilized for imparting 
motion to other apparatus and doing useful mechan- 
ical work. It is true that the motor with which 
Franklin and his associates performed the experi- 
ment of ringing chimes was a very crude affair 
and not at all like the finished product of the 
present day; yet this early utilization of electrical 
energy is abundantly attested and is accepted by the 
authorities. 

That Franklin was actuated by philanthropic mo- 
tives in conducting these experiments and not by 
a desire for distinction or fortune is clearly shown 
by his personal correspondence with Peter Collin- 
son, the English merchant and trader, who was 
greatly interested ^in the work of the American 
colonist and through whom Franklin communi- 
cated his discoveries and conclusions to the Royal 
Society. 

Franklin frequently expressed regret in the 
early days that his experiments had not as yet de- 
veloped anything of practical value. "We have 
been hitherto able to produce nothing in this way 
of use to mankind," he says in one of his letters 
to Collinson, and this sentiment often finds ex- 
pression in his correspondence, but he continues 
hopeful of great results, and in another of his let- 
ters he outlines his plans for a meeting of his 
friends at the conclusion of his experiments, when 
"turkey is to be killed by the electrical shock and 
roasted by the electrical jack before a fire kindled 
by the electrical bottle; when the healths of all the 
famous electricians in England, Holland, France 
and German}' are to be drank in electrified bump- 
ers under the discharge of guns from the electrical 
battery." This fanciful description gave many the 
impression that the New World possessed a master 
in fiction, a dreamer, and the great philosopher was 
ridiculed for his boldness. 

The history of his preliminary work, if such it 



Hi 



advanl . 
ough I 

Ii : 

II upon the preliminai 
the many Intel 

,: d the 
that bad already been 
England becau e ■ I thi attentii n that had been 

olitary Amen. 
who had overturned many cherished ideas 
will explain thi f the mind in which 

d Society considered Franklin's laiei 
tributioi to whom these had 

intrusted for transmission to realized 

their importance, but be was unabli 
ih'' organization to ■-.''■ 1 

The rejected paper: comprised the r< 
Franklin's scientific lalw.rs. his final cone. 
reached after years of application, and .: 
ful explanation of the reasons that led him to 
believe that electricity and lightning were identical. 
ived methods; he had 
put aside bis 'electrical bottles" and his glass tubes, 
the face of nature for an 
explanation of the phenomena. He had utilized the 
knowledge gained in bis preliminary work in mak- 
ing his deductions. 

Following this line of reasoning to its logical 
conclusion the idea was forced upon him that light- 
ning could be drawn from the clouds by means 
of pointed steel rods the same as a charge of elec- 
tricity could be drawn from one body by a pointed 
conductor. "May not the knowledge of this power 
of points be of use to mankind in preserving 
bouses, churches, ships, etc."? is the query pro- 
pounded by Franklin. He believes it may, and 
proceeds to tell how the experiment may be made. 
There were' no buildings in Philadelphia sufficiently 
tall to afford facilities for this test, and therefore 
his conclusions were given to the world untried 
by actual experiment. How positive must have 
been the faith of the great philosopher in the ac- 
curacy of his conclusions. He accompanied his 
suggestions by detailed instructions of the manner 
in which the experiment should be carried out. 
He had reached the conclusion by a purely mental 
process, but so exact was he in all the details that 
one can scarcely believe that the system proposed 
was not developed by years of experience. 

This document is most convincing proof of the 
high order of the intellectual gifts of the great 
American. But the English society did not regard 
it in this light ; they looked upon it as the freak 
of a madman, and neither Collinson nor Dr. 
Fothergill could persuade their associates that it 
should be given a trial upon its merits. It was 
pronounced too absurd to be seriously considered 
by a society of English scientists. Franklin's 
friends persisted in getting his contribution before 
the world, and when the leading scientific journal 
of the English-speaking world refused to admit it to 
its columns they secured its publication in pamphlet 
form. Only a limited number of copies were 
printed, but they proved a drug on the market. A 
year passed and still there was no evidence that 
this wonderful discovery' had made any impression 
on the public mind. Then a copy found its way 
into the hands of a Frenchman: it appealed to him, 
and he gained the interest Of others. It was 
translated into the French language, placed on sale 
in Paris, and soon the French capital was in a 
fever of excitement over the quaint work. The 
experiments described by Franklin were performed 
before the scientific societies and repeated in the 
presence of the king. 

One experiment was reserved for future con- 
sideration. It was agreed that this was bv far the 
most important revelation of the entire work, the 
experiment with the pointed rods, which had been 
pronounced by the Royal Society of England too 
visionary for the serious consideration of English 
scientists. Elaborate preparations were made for 
this test at Marly la Ville. near Paris, and also in 
the gay French capital. It is unnecessary here to 
repeat the story of the successful experiment or to 
dwell upon the sensation produced throughout the 
entire civilized world by the announcement. The 
Royal Society was incredulous, but when the facts 
were communicated to the French Academy bv 
eminent scientists that body placed its official sanc- 
tion upon the so-called "fairy tale." 

When the news reached Philadelphia there was 
great commotion. Franklin was dissatisfied, how- 



82 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 27, 1906 



ever. In the French experiments the pointed rods 
were only 40 feet high in the first case and did 
not extend above go feet in the second test. This 
did not prove conclusively that the electrical charge 
from the clouds had been dissipated by the pointed 
rods. But how was he to conduct experiments 
upon a more extensive scale? There was no tall 
building in Philadelphia upon the top of which he 
could erect a rod that would pierce the clouds. 
Then came the idea of the kite — an idea that would 
have made the Frenchmen love Franklin even had 
his grand experiment failed. But it was one that 
would scarcely find favor in the eyes_ of his fel- 
low citizens, and therefore Franklin did not com- 
municate his plans to his associates. 

The details of this trial need not be enumerated 
here; all are familiar with the circumstances and 
the tale has been told to every generation and in 
every clime. The fame of America's first and 
greatest philosopher spread rapidly to all lands. 
He had braved death, be had invited destruction, 
and had he perished the world would have pro- 
nounced him a madman. But he lived; he tri- 
umphed; his theory was established beyond dis- 
pute ; science was enriched ; mankind was benefited, 
and that was the ultimate aim of the great philoso- 
pher's life. 

Proposed Power Development from the 
Glaciers on Mount Hood. 

The Mount Hood Electric Company, incorporated 
by G. W. Waterbury and C. W. Miller of Port- 
land, Ore., and Edwin D. Whitney of Chicago, pro- 
poses to develop the waterpowers from the Big 
Sandy and Zigzag glaciers near the summit of 
Mount Hood and hopes to generate 80,000 horse- 
power to be carried on three independent transmis- 
sion lines to Portland for power and lighting in 
competition with the Portland General Electric 
Company, which at the present time controls the 
production and distribution of electricity in the 
Willamette Valley bv possession of the water- 
rights at the Oregon City falls of the Willamette 
River. 

Bids are being invited for equipment of the first 
of three plants to be constructed by the Mount 
Hood company on the Sandy River, which has its 
source in the Mount Hood glaciers, and drains a 
watershed embracing 500 square miles. Within 
these limits the annual precipitation, according to 
government records, is 84 inches, or . double the 
precipitation at the city of Portland, 50 miles dis- 
tant from the glaciers. The aggregate effective 
head at the three plants is 850 feet and is secured 
by using the water at different points for 14 
miles along the upper reaches of the stream. 

Work is being pushed on construction of a five- 
mile canal for plant No. 1, located 30 miles from 
Portland. The available water supply at this point 
is about 600 second-feet, and a head of 300 feet 
will be obtained by taking it in a canal to a reser- 
voir about 100 acres in extent and dropping it 
into the wheels. A minimum of 17,000 horsepower, 
it is said, will be secured. 

After the water is discharged from the wheels 
of plant No. 1 it is carried in a canal six miles 
to a 2C0-acre basin near the town of Bull Run, 320 
feet above the original Sandy River, for plant 
No. 2. 

At this point the waters of the Little Sandy 
River also are discharged into the basin through 
a flume three miles in length. The available water 
supply is 800 second-feet, having a generating ca- 
pacity continuously of 24,000 horsepower. This 
plant is located 22 miles from Portland. The 
equipment now being purchased for its construction 
will consist of six hydraulic units having a devel- 
opment of 5,coo horsepower each, with a speed of 
450 revolutions per minute, direct connected, the 
alternators generating three-phase 60-cycle current 
at 2,200 volts, each having a normal capacity of 
2,500 kilowatts. The transformers will be in 
banks of three, having a normal capacity of 
5,000 kilowatts per bank ; each bank thus providing 
for two generators. Bids have been asked for six 
5,oco-horsepower 43-inch high-pressure Victor tur- 
bines, 450 revolutions per minute, Francis type, con- 
structed to operate in a spiral cast-iron flume dis- 
charging through a cast-iron quarter turn through 
the draft tube into the tail race. 

About one mile below the No. 2 plant the water 
is taken from the stream by canal and woodstave 
pipe and carried five miles along the mountain 
side to the site of plant No. 3. Here the available 
water supply is 1,000 second-feet, and the mean 
effective head under which it is to be discharged 
into the wheels is 220 feet, giving about 20,000 
horsepower at the generators. The development 
will consist of four 5,coo-horsepower units. This 
plant's location is 16 miles from Portland. 

The company has been organized with a di- 
rectory including S. B. Cobb, Samuel Connel], C. W. 



Nottingham and eight other prominent Portland 
business men. The project has been financed by 
a $1,000,000 bond issue to the Bank of America 
of San Francisco. 

It is pointed out that peculiarly favorable condi- 
tions are proved by government records to exist 
on the mountain. The elevations along the 
stream within the limits of the development vary 
from 2,000 feet at the lower plant to 6,000 feet 
at the site of the uppermost plant near the timber 
line. The glaciers, lying at an elevation of 9,000 
feet, will furnish the bulk of the water supply from 
July 15th to October 15th, when the Oregon rains 
begin. Government Camp at Bull Run, at an ele- 
vation of 9,000 feet, records an annual precipita- 
tion of 90 inches, while the precipitation at Port- 
land is only 43 inches. At Government Camp the 
average maximum temperature is 84 and the mini- 
mum 33. When the rains on the lower levels of 
the mountain cease in the late spring the melting 
snows in the timber belt on the higher elevations 
continue to furnish a steady supply of water until 
late in July, and after the snow below timber line 
disappears the water comes from the glaciers. 
Mount Hood is 11,500 feet above sea level. H. 



and upon the streets of the city of Chicago hereinafter described, 
so as to provide for a first-class street-railway system, the city of 
Chicago may issue and dispose of its interest-bearing "street-rail- 
way certificates" in the manner provided by law, not to exceed the 
sum of S75.ooo.ooo. 
Sec. 2. That said street-railway certificates or the proceeds 
sale thereof shall be used by the 
: of acquiring either by purchase, 



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othe: 



Municipal Ownership Measures of Mayor 

Dunne Passed by Chicago City 

Council. 

By a complete reversal in its attitude the Chicago 
City Council last week rejected the franchise-exten- 
sion ordinances drawn by the local transportation 
committee when the aldermen met in committee of 
the whole. Instead the council adopted, by a vote 
of 37 to 28, the mayor's $75,000,000 Mueller-certifi- 
cate ordinance, allowing the city to purchase, build 
and maintain street-railway lines, the action being 
subject to a referendum vote of the people at the 
April election. Following this, the council, by the 
same vote, passed the mayor's ordinance providing 
for municipal operation of the lines, also subject 
to a vote of the people. 

As the traction situation now stands, the voters 
will have to decide clearly whether they want to 
place $75,000,000 in the hands of the aldermen to 
go into the street-railway business. Of course 
should the people ratify the council's action, it 
would then have to be determined in court whether 
the provisions of the Mueller law are valid, and 
then, if declared valid, it would be necessary to 
find people willing to put their money into the 
Mueller certificates. 

The action of the council came as a great sur- 
prise. All along a good majority voted against the 
mayor's municipal-ownership ideas and stood with 
the local transportation committee, which was by 
a safe majority in favor of renewing the com- 
panies' franchises under proper restrictions. This 
committee worked for months with the representa- 
tives of the traction companies and finally com- 
pleted what it considered a fair agreement with 
the companies. The ordinance so drawn provided 
compensation to the city, required reconstruction 
into first-class systems with ample service, and 
contained a clause under which the city could buy 
the lines at certain defined periods during the 20- 
year term. 

This ordinance, the principal features of which 
have appeared in the Western Electrician, was de- 
clared by the committee to be the best available 
solution of the tangled situation which is responsi- 
ble for fhe city's inadequate transportation facilities. 
The companies, also, declared that in agreeing to 
the terms of the ordinance they had made many 
concessions and would not accept it if essentially 
changed by the council. 

This ordinance was reported to the council by 
the committee, to be considered in committee of 
the whole. So many amendments were in sight 
that the ordinance was at once referred back to the 
committee, which undertook to pass upon them and 
later report back to the council. It at once became 
apparent to the committee that the amendments 
offered were considered so burdensome by the com- 
panies that the traction officials would reject the 
ordinances if so amended. . 

When the council met last week to consider the 
committee's report about a dozen aldermen who 
-have always been against the municipal ownership 
ordinances concluded from speeches which had been 
made that it would be useless to try to pass the 
extension ordinance, and when someone made the 
motion to substitute the mayor's $75,000,000 or- 
dinance for the extension ordinance, these alder- 
men, following the lead of Alderman Cullerton, 
voted with the mayor's supporters with the result 
stated. The franchise-extension advocates then re- 
fused to have their ordinance placed on the baliot 
fnr the spring election with the mayor's proposition. 

The Mueller certificate ordinance is entitled: "An 
ordinance authorizing the city of Chicago to con- 
struct, acquire, purchase, own and maintain street 
railways within its corporate limits and providing 
the means therefore," and the two important sec- 
tions read : 

Be it ordained by the city council of the city of Chicago: 
Section 1. That for the purpose of acquiring street railways 
either by purchase, construction, condemnation, or otherwise as 
provided by law, and for the equipment of such street railways in 



thereof, in and upon and along the 
ilway tracks are already located. 

There are a number of following sections which 
are drawn to comply with the intent of the Mueller 
law. They provide for the form of the certificate 
to be issued and the formation of a sinking fund 
to care for their retirement, this fund to be in- 
vested at compound interest, if the city treasurer 
does not object. They provide further that the 
street-railway properties to be acquired be mort- 
gaged to secure the payment of these certificates, 
and none of the money received from their ooera- 
tion, except interest on these certificates and cost 
of operation and expenses, be used for any other 
purpose than a sinking fund until the certificates 
are wiped out. 

If, however, there is a surplus after the sinking 
fund has been provided for them it can be spent 
on extensions, which, however, shall not in any one 
year exceed five per cent, of the total mileage of 
the city's roads. 

Provision is made for a trustee or trustees to 
whom the certificates shall be issued under the 
mortgage which is to secure them. 

The second ordinance — the one which puts up 
to the people the question whether they want to 
authorize the city to operate street cars, as well 
as to borrow money to buy them with — quotes the 
section of the Mueller law which reads: "But no 
city shall proceed to operate street railways unless 
the proposition to operate shall first have been sub- 
mitted to the electors of such city as a separate 
proposition and approved by three-fifths of those 
voting thereon." 



Sleet Hampers Transportation and Com- 
munication Facilities in Chicago. 

Chicago and the .territory for 200 miles west, 
northwest and southwest was almost cut off from 
telegraphic and telephonic communication with other 
parts of the country by an unusually heavy blanket 
of sleet which fell late Sunday night. Steam 
trains and electric interurban cars entering the city 
were delayed on Monday morning. In the city, 
service on the elevated roads was badly delayed, 
and the interruption continued throughout the day 
and following night, during which time an alter- 
nating storm of rain, sleet and snow kept up. The 
sleet on the third rail was the worst since the ele- 
vated roads were constructed. 

Telegraph lines and poles became strained be- 
yond endurance by the load of ice which formed, 
and broke down. The city was cut off from the 
east practically all day on Monday, but hundreds 
of linemen from Chicago and other cities were able 
to repair the damage sufficiently so that by night 
messages were coming in slowly. 

Communication by telephone from the east and 
south was even more difficult. The long-distance 
company made this statement of conditions: "Ex- 
traordinary roundabout methods of electrical com- 
munication were attempted on a scale seldom if 
ever before known. New York endeavored to 
reach Chicago by way of the Canadian Pacific to 
Duluth, and thence south. This proved unsuccess- 
ful, but a trunk line finally was established on a 
long-distance telephone wire from Minneapolis to 
Cleveland, via St. Louis. Before this was accom- 
plished, the only possible route from the east was 
through St. Louis and Kansas City to Salt Lake, 
L T tah and Helena, Mont. From Helena there was 
a loophole back east to St. Paul, but of such an 
uncertain character as to be available for only the 
most important brief news bulletins." 

Sunday evening the lines of the Postal Telegraph- 
cable Company to St. Louis began to break. From 
then on the progress of the storm could be traced 
as it came from the southwest by the successive 
breaks that occurred. Monday evening messages to 
and from Chicago either were mailed to some point 
from where they could be sent or they were car- 
ried there by the operators who took them on the 
trains to and from South Bend and other cities 
where the wires were in working order. 

The Western Union company suffered no less 
severely, and the few lines that remained intact 
gave but poor service. Its difficulty also lay toward 
the east, principally. 

Many of the wires of the municipal light plant 
in Chicago were down Sunday night. After mid- 
night the current failed in many West Side streets. 
In Madison Street the lights were out at two 
o'clock. At Forty-third Street several telegraph and 
telephone poles fell down, carrying the heavy ca- 
bles with them, on the elevated tracks of the Rock 
Island and Wabash roads. 



A bill has been introduced at Albany, N. Y., em- 
powering the governor to appoint an examining 
board of three members in each county to license 
master electricians. The boards shall be composed 
of employing or master electricians. A fee of $25 
is provided for all applicants who have been for 
five years previous to the passage of the act master 
electricians, and an gnpua] registration fee of $2 
rnay be charged, 



January 27, 1006 



WESTERN ELECTR] 



Electrloal Salesmen's Association. 

The American Electrical Sal 

organized liy the salesmen p t at th 

of the Illinois State Elci trie As ;o< iation in 1 ' 

la 1 I li tobcr, held il 1 in 1 .1 1 d mi 1 ■ 

1, rami Pacific Hotel in Chicago on January 20th. 
The meeting was well attended and the membei 

were enthusiastic over thi pros] h 

association, whose influence ha already been fell 

for mutual benefit and tor the general advance nl 

of electrical interests. Electrical salesmen, the 
president ventured, arc thi I" si on the road. I [1 
pointed out that « hile the objeel of the a isoi iation 
is primarily for the general bi ttei mi nl ol its own 
members, il will, nevertheless, stimulate the bn in 
of those making or dealing in electrical device 
and must also benefit those in thai branch ol thi 
industry interested in the broad ubjeel of selling 

The meeting was called to order in the forei 

by President Vincent Cray of St. Loui I hi for 
n meeting was a business session for membei 



! i autho 

and 

i hi accoi 

I 
the oi' ml ■ 
tin pii 

it '.ii- : bUl 

tp Reading left to right, P 

nd Secretary 1 th, rc- 

pectivelj in 
\\ hili 

towi ' ■ who have already come in 

will no 'I- ' ' I mul larfi 

il in \il '.- ho 

of electrical macl 

1 1 1 1 nature, and thosi 1 ctcd 




only. The association already has a membership 
of 250, with excellent prospects for a large increase 
during the present year. At the meeting the name 
was changed to simply "Electrical Salesmen's As- 
sociation," dropping the word American. Emblems 
bearing the new initials will soon be distributed to 
take the place of the old ones. 

The permanent headquarters of the association 
will be in the city of Chicago. One of the purposes 
of the organization is to educate its members along 
the line of distributing circulars and written ad- 
dresses from such speakers as appear before the 
association in the various cities at various times 
during the year. This will give each and every 
member of the association an opportunity to read 
the address and become familiar with the general 
line of work intended to be carried out bv the 
association. Members and prospective members are 
invited to call upon the secretary for any informa- 
tion they may desire, or when in the city of Chi- 
cago they are at liberty to make their headquarters 
at the association rooms — Room 51, 88 Washington 
Street. 

The new by-laws will be distributed within the 
course of the next two weeks, so that members may 
study them to become familiar with the object and 
purpose of the association. A clause has been in- 
serted in the revised by-laws stipulating annual 
dues, which will be $2. In addition to this, $1 
initiation fee will be charged. 

At the afternoon session guests were admitted. 
President Gray opened the meeting and introduced 
Mr. Howard S. Taylor, city prosecuting attorney, 
who, as the personal representative of Mayor 
Dunne, heartily welcomed the salesmen to the city. 
Mr. Gray then made a short and pleasing address. 

Mr. J. Robert Crouse of Cleveland gave an illus- 
trated address in which he outlined a proposed co- 
operative new-business-getting campaign for stimu- 
lating the use of current-consuming devices. His 
plan proposes co-operation among manufacturers, 
publishers, jobbers, dealers, contractors, societies, 
associations, salesmen, central stations, etc. Among 
these, Mr. Crouse said, there exists a community 
of interests for the promotion of the increased use 
of electrical appliances and devices by the public 
for light, heat and power. The details of Mr. 
Crouse's proposed business-getting campaign are 
given in another column of this issue. He has 
been interested in the incandescent-lamp business 
for some time, as well as in the manufacture of 
carbons and electrical glassware. 

"Modern American Meter Practice" was the sub- 



JLECTRICAL SALESMEN S CONVENTION. 

with the advertising departments of electrical jour- 
nals are eligible to membership. 

The officers and committees of the association are 
as follows : 

President, Vincent Gray. 2119 Locust Street, St. 
Louis; vice-president. Cecil R. Wood, Moline, 111.; 
secretary-treasurer. George H. Erick, 88 Washing- 
ton Street, Chicago. 

Executive committee, Vincent Gray, Cecil R 
Wood, George H. Erick. 

Finance committee, Arthur Jones, Thomas G. 
Grier, Vincent Gray. 

Membership committee. J. B. McCarthy, .-v. A. 
Morton, E. P. Magoon. 

General advancement committee. Frank L. Pern', 
J. T. McNaier, James R. Cravath. W. W. Moore. 
C. A. S. Howlett. 

Co-operative committee, J. S. Corby, Francis Ray- 
mond. James S. Campbell. 

Auditing committee, E. W. Kearns, H. N. Rem- 
ington, Darwin Ukle. 



Proposed Power Transmission in West- 
ern New York. 

The New York State Gas and Electricity Com- 
mission has given a hearing on the application of 
the Niagara Electrical Transmission Company to 
increase its capital stock from $100,000 to $5,000,- 
000, and also for permission to purchase the obliga- 
tions of the Albion Power Company and the stock 
and obligations of the Niagara Falls Gas and Elec- 
tric Light Company. The Niagara Falls Transmis- 
sion Company is an international company, and it 
was organized to act as the transmitting agent for 
the Electrical Development Company of Ontario, 
Limited, which company is developing power in 
Victoria Park on the Canadian side at Niagara 
Falls. It expects to begin work very soon on the 
construction of its transmission line from the Ni- 
agara Falls to Rochester and other points. While 
the line will not parallel that of the Niagara, Lock- 
pert and Ontario Power Company, the Niagara 
Electrical Transmission Company will be the great- 
est competitor of this company, especially eastward 
from Niagara Fails toward Rochester. The presi- 
dent of the Niagara Electrical Transmission Com- 
pany is Frederic Nichols of Toronto. Hon. Frank 
A. Dudley of Niagara Falls is vice-president. 



Indiana Engineering Association. 

annual 

mond, '■ 

nd including 1' 

the on. 

lUntry. II'- planned and 

-in'! Milwaukee system, wl 

in July. be put 

d 10 run from a rr,,rral allcr- 

iransmi 

for almost any length 

ommon, ami tin- potential van.-- irom 0/300 
10 50,000 volts. The introd nethod 

ment of 
long lines Up t n/35 the three-phase alternating 
current had been the only form of hi^k I 
alternating current 1: Al- 

though been working on the sin- 

e method for probably 

say that the first commercial su* 
ibis line was the installation of the Indi 11 
and Cincinnati traction line between Indianapoli* 
and Rushville, a distance of 40 miles, which was 
in July, 1905. Thirty-seven miles in 40 
minutes have been made on tin 

Prof. J. I> Hoffman of Purdue University in a 
committee report said that in the product 
electric power from walerpower tv 
reported in Indiana — one at West Muncie and the 
other near Monticello on the Tippecanoe Ki 
the Litter it is proposed, by the construct! 
short dam, t., form a reservoir into which will 
How the rainfall from the surrounding territory. 
A waterpower plant is then to be installed with 
the necessary water turbines and - 
orm a complete electric generating plant. This 
plant is now in the process of designing. Through- 
out the state a number of pi for elec- 
tric lighting are being built. Some of these are 
municipal and some private; some are in connec- 
tion with water-supply service and some are in 
connection with central heating plants. It is inter- 
esting to note, he said, where such plants are 
installed, that economy of operation is taken into 
account. This is exhibited by the fact that first- 
class machinery, such as engines, boilers, coal-con- 
veying systems, mechanical stokers and the like 
are being demanded. Central-station heating and 
lighting plants are being talked of for Fort Wayne. 
Auburn and Oakdale. The new plant of the In- 
dianapolis Light and Heat Company has just 
opened up for service, with 1,500-kiIowatt Curtis 
turbines and boilers equipped with superheaters. 

The increased activity in interurban engineering 
work, said Mr. Hoffman, is more pronounced than 
in any other line. The experience of the past 
few years has shown that there is a big demand 
for the electric road for local service. The single- 
phase alternating-current system is giving good sat- 
isfaction, and he did not doubt would lead to a 
more extended use of this system within the state 
in the near future. Of the existing power stations 
in the state those of esoecial interest are the 
Anderson station and the Rushville station. These 
represent the two classes of electric power gen- 
erators and are considered first-class in the quality 
of the equipment. The steam turbine is being 
installed instead of the steam engine in some of 
the large electrical plants. Economy of operation 
and economy of floor space are both controlling 
factors in their selection. High-pressure steam for 
engines and turbine work is responsible for better 
grades of material and workmanship in boiler con- 
struction. 

Other papers were presented bv Hugo Diemer 
of Indianapolis on "Graft in Large Industrial Es- 
tablishments" and on a "Combined Water Supplv 
and Electric-light Plant for Towns." by Prof. R. L. 
Sackett of Earlham College. Richmond. Mr. Diemer 
said that the greatest difficulty that confronts fac- 
tory owners is the scarcity of capable men to fill the 
head and staff positions. "America needs experts in 
distribution as well as experts in production if she 
expects to assume her natural leadership in trade. 
The all-round machinist is almost extinct. Ma- 
chine-shop foremen who have advanced from the 
ranks are men who are proficient as a rule on but 
one tool, and are not competent judges of the best 
way to do work on all the different machines." 

The meeting concluded with a trip to Rushville 
over the single-phase traction line and a banquet 
at night. Robert P. Woods was re-elected presi- 
dent, E. E. Walls vice-president and Charles C. 
Brown secretary. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN 



January 27, ic 



SELLING ELECTRICITY. 



Under this headinc will appear, from time to time, articles, suggestion 
to increase the existing demand for electri 

The Sale of Electric Light and Power. 

By S. Morgan Bushnell. 

The two most important elements in the art of 
selling are price and personality. Both are equally 
important, as no salesman, however pleasing his 
personality, can hold his customers very long if 
his prices are very far out of line. On the other 
hand, a poor salesman with a disagreeable manner 
will repel the prospective purchaser, even if he is 
presenting a good proposition. 

While the above two elements are needed in 
every form of business, they are especially re- 
quired in the exploitation and sale of electric light 
and power. 

Someone has said that the time to commence 
training a child is ioo years before it is born. 
In like manner, in order to have a successful 
central station, it will be necessary to start right 
with the first investment and have a station so 
designed as to be capable of producing a kilowatt- 
hour of electricity at a minimum of cost. 

Combination, co-operation, consolidation, the de- 
velopment of large enterprises — such are the char- 
acteristics of the business evolution of the twen- 
tieth century. The reason why the large depart- 
ment store is supplanting the smaller store and 
supply house lies in the fact that it can supply a 
better assortment of goods and at- more attractive 
prices than the small retail dealer. The essential 
economic reason why the central-station company 
should be a success is the fact that it can produce 
electric power and light and sell it with profit at a 
lower price than the cost of producing power and 
light from the small isolated plant. The central 
station that sells current at a high price may appear 
to be successful for a short time, but any enduring 
success must be based upon economic conditions. 

A few years ago one of the large electric-light 
and power companies had a net income of over 
20 per cent, on its capital stock in one year. From 
one viewpoint the year was very successful, but 
the fact remained that during that year smaller 
competitive plants were springing up all over the 
city. A new management took hold of the prop- 
erty ; prices were reduced, large sums of money 
were spent in improving the character of the serv- 
ice, and profits dropped from 20 per cent, to scarcely 
eight per cent. A superficial observer might ex- 
pect that the value of the company's stock would 
be cut in two. As a matter of fact, the market 
value of the stock, after a slight dip, began to 
improve instead of decline. The reason for this 
lay in the fact that the investing public approved 
of the far-sighted policy of the new management 
in putting the company in a position successfully 
to meet competition and also cover the territory 
which naturally belonged to it. A great many cen- 
tral-station companies and a great many other en- 
terprises fail on account of lack of judgment in 
the matter of price. 

A new street railway started up in a western 
town. The fare was 10 cents for a single ride ; the 
road did not pay expenses. The fare was then 
raised to 15 cents, and the road went into the 
hands of a receiver. The receiver was a wise man 
in his day; he reduced the fare to five cents, and 
the road became a paying proposition. 

The company that makes a success of selling 
electricity will make its price as attractive as pos- 
sible, will place as few restrictions as possible 
around the use of the current, and thereby give to 
its agents a proposition which will naturally invite 
business in and of itself. In establishing a scale 
of prices, there is always a golden mean. If prices 
are too high, the business of the company is cur- 
tailed, and, on the other hand, if prices are too 
low, a large increase of business may mean only 
disaster to the enterprise. It is therefore necessary 
that every central station maintain a strict record 
and analysis of its costs, so that it may have a 
clear idea of where to draw the dividing line 
between the loss of business and the loss of money 
through unprofitable business. 

The second requisite — personality